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  • 1.
    Anxo, Dominique
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics (NS).
    The Swedish welfare state in times of crisis: resilience and success2014In: Economia & Lavoro, ISSN 0012-978X, E-ISSN 1827-8949, Vol. XLVIII, no 2, p. 9-30Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective of this article is twofold: Firstly, to identify the major transformations of the Swedish Welfare State focusing principally on the structural reforms initiated during the last two decades and their impact on economic development, the distribution of social welfare and on income inequalities. Secondly, to explore the role of the Swedish Welfare State in mitigating the negative impact of the 2008 Great Recession. The early fiscal consolidation measures and the structural reforms undertaken since the second half of the 1990s have without doubt contributed to securing the long-term sustainability of the Swedish social protection system and fostering more healthy public finances.  However, the  “Swedish success story” during the last recession cannot only be reduced to early fiscal consolidation measures and structural reforms. It is clear that the automatic stabilisers embedded in the Swedish Welfare State, the counter-cyclical macroeconomic policy conducted by the Swedish government and a developed social dialogue have all contributed to alleviating the negative impacts of the 2008-crisis on employment, welfare and social exclusion. The Swedish experience illustrates above all the resilience, the long-term viability and the success of a societal model based on an universal and generous social protection system, egalitarianism, pro-active policies for promoting gender equality and fighting against social exclusion, and a strong public and political involvement in the provision of a wide range of services.

  • 2.
    Anxo, Dominique
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics (NS).
    Upskilling to avoid jobs’ polarisation and growing income inequalities: the Swedish experience2016In: Economia & Lavoro, ISSN 0012-978X, E-ISSN 1827-8949, Vol. 50, no 2, p. 13-24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Taking a broad historical perspective, this article analyses the development of the Swedish class structure. During the last decades, Sweden experienced a relative decrease in its middle class and a stronger polarisation of its class structure. Three potential factors can explain this development: changes in labour market behaviour, a reduction of the extent of decommodification of the Swedish welfare state and large structural changes in employment and occupational structure. We show that the long-term tendency towards an upgrading of occupational structure in Sweden has benefitted the upper middle class and the top-income group. Indeed, the large investment in research and development, the expansion of education and the increase in the demand of high-skilled jobs have limited the tendency towards job polarisation found in liberal market-orientated welfare states. Weakly linked to the modifications in the skill structure, the decrease of the middle class appears to be better explained by the postponement of entry into the labour market related to the expansion of education and by social protection reforms that negatively affected the disposable income of vulnerable groups. 

  • 3.
    Anxo, Dominique
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics (NS).
    Franz, Christine
    Duisburg-Essen University.
    Kümmerling, Angelika
    Duisburg-Essen University.
    Working time distribution and preferences across the life course: a European Perspective2013In: Economia & Lavoro, ISSN 0012-978X, E-ISSN 1827-8949, Vol. XLVII, no 2, p. 77-106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective of this paper is to identify and explain cross-country gender disparities in working time distribution and working time preferences in seven eu-member states (France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland and the UK). The selection ofhese countries has been essentially guided by the fact that they differ considerably in terms of welfare state regime, employment and industrial relation systems, family policies, and gender contract. Our selected European countries still display a high gender polarization of working time and the current gendered working time distribution reflects the resilience of a traditional gender contract. Regarding working time preferences a majority of wage earners seem to be satisfied with their current working time. However, around 45 per cent of dependent employees indicate that they would like to change their current working time, and most of them express a preference for a reduction of working time. Our results also show that male and female employees in our selected countries aspire to some convergence of working time, female employees expressing on average a wish of increasing their working time and men a wish of decreasing working time. Beyond measures favouring a more balanced gender division of labour, our study tends also to show the need of implementing family-friendly, flexible and reversible working time options across the life course. Finally, our results show that the current eu working time directive is not always successful in limiting excessive working time.

  • 4.
    Scarpa, Simone
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    The Emergence of a Swedish Underclass? Welfare State Restructuring, Income Inequality and Residential Segregation in Malmö, 1991-20082013In: Economia & Lavoro, ISSN 0012-978X, E-ISSN 1827-8949, Vol. XLVII, no 2, p. 121-138Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent political and academic debates in Sweden have been dominated by a view of urban problems as endogenously generated by the spatial concentration of individuals with similar ethnic and socioeconomic characteristics within the same neighbourhoods. The impact of welfare state retrenchment on income inequality and residential segregation instead remained an under-investigated and somehow neglected issue in recent research. This paper aims at filling this gap by analyzing income inequality dynamics in Malmö in the period 1991-2008. This city offers an interesting case of analysis, given the high rates of social problems compared to other Swedish cities. The results reveal that the increase in income inequality in Malmö has been especially due to the reduced redistributive impact of the Swedish welfare state. Furthermore, the increase in residential segregation by income can be attributed to the parallel increase in city-wide income inequality rather than to an alleged increase in neighbourhood sorting.

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