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  • 1.
    Kåhre, Peter
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Cultural Sciences.
    Bibliotekariernas roll i skolan2015In: Nordic Journal of Information Literacy in Higher Education, ISSN 1890-5900, E-ISSN 1890-5900, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 48-62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study is to critically discuss the role of librarians and libraries in educational processes. The study is done as a theoretical discussion that is built up from two different angles. And none of them have earlier been discussed in connection with the concept of information literacy. 

    The first is about how the library as a tool has been functioning. This angle is worked out by using semiotic theories, sociological theories and learning theories. It is proposed that cultural and social processes involved in creating meaning and mediated by libraries, are dependent on structural qualities built up by the bibliographic system. Learning processes are dependent on situations and this means that library users have easier to get to the knowledge they need if they are able to use these structural capacities in libraries on their own. 

    The second angle comes from a cognitive science discussion about how modern computer technology extends the human minds capacity to learn. It is pointed out that this technology means that it gets even easier to use the information searching tools. It is also pointed out that the critical stance towards this Extended Mind theory is about to what extend cognitive processes need to be done in the human mind. If these processes need to be done in the mind, it is also an argument that can be directed against intermediation activities from librarians. If this it is not true and the thesis main claim is true, this means that these computer tools functions better than help from mediators because they can at least be used without the need of interfering with another person. The knowledge seeker then does not need to translate their information question to another person. When possibilities to observe knowledge is mediated through situations this also means that trial and error are better pedagogical methods than instructions. 

    The conclusion is that the most important strategy is to develop a good library structure and effective library tools as part of an electronic library. Librarians are needed to build and develop these libraries but it is the library and the tools in themselves that are of importance in the mediating process. These electronic libraries can be managed on a centralized level, which means small educational units can do without hiring librarians as personal mediators.

  • 2.
    Kåhre, Peter
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Cultural Sciences.
    Distributed artificial intelligence, diversity and information literacy2011In: Nordic Journal of Information Literacy in Higher Education, ISSN 1890-5900, E-ISSN 1890-5900, Vol. 3, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    My proposal is based on my doctoral dissertation On the Shoulders of AI-technology : Sociology of Knowledge and Strong Artificial Intelligence which I succesfully defended on May 29th 2009. E-published http://www.lu.se/o.o.i.s?id=12588&postid=1389611

    The dissertation is concerned with Sociology’s stance in the debate on Strong Artificial Intelligence,.i.e. AI-systems that is able to shape knowledge on their own. There is a need for sociologists to realize the difference between two approaches to constructing AI systems: Symbolic AI (or Classic AI) and Connectionistic AI in a distributed model – DAI. Sociological literature shows a largely critical attitude towards Symbolic AI, an attitude that is justified. The main theme of the dissertation is that DAI is not only compatible with Sociology’s approach to what is social, but also constitutes an apt model of how a social system functions. This is consolidated with help from german sociologist Niklas Luhmann’s social systems theory.

    A lot of sociologists criticize AI because they think that diversity is important and can only be comprehended in informal circumstances that only humans interacting together can handle. They mean that social intelligence is needed to make something out of diversity and informalism. Luhmann´s systems theory gives the opposite perspective. It tells us that it is social systems that communicate and produce new knowledge structures out of contincency. Psychological systems, i.e. humans, can only think within the circumstances the social system offer. In that way human thoughts are bound by formalism. Diversity is constructed when the social systems interact with complexity in their environments. They reduce the complexity and try to present it as meaningful diversity.

    Today when most of academic literature is electronically stored and is accessible through the Internet from al over the world, DAI can help social systems to observe and reduce complexity in this global dimension. It is pointed out that human consciousness is limited in handling this global dimension. Therefore is it reasonable to argue that DAI in at least this dimension has a stronger intelligence than humans have.

    I will argue that Luhmann´s social theory and DAI give a god model to analyze the conditions for diversity in the Internet society. Further, the discussion about strong AI gives a lot of opportunities to discuss what sort of information literacy is needed and it also gives some perspective to discuss the concept of IL I have observed that the concept has evolved from something that coined some formal capacities, to something that has to do with a capacity to observe informal relations. That discussion can easily be compared to a parallel discussion within the debate about strong AI.

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