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  • 1.
    Blomqvist, Lars
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Johansson, Jimmy
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Landscheidt, Steffen
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Nilson, Henrietta
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Resource utilization in a production cell for laminated veneer products2017In: Pro Ligno, ISSN 1841-4737, E-ISSN 2069-7430, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 142-147Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of productivity is often used to determine how well resources are used in an operation, and it is usually determined as the ratio of what is consumed in the production. Laminated veneer products are considered complicated products often taking complex shapes, using a raw material with high variation, and requiring machining processes that create scrap material that needs to be handled. Therefore, maintaining high productivity in industries producing such products may become challenging. This study reports on productivity measurements in a production cell consisting of an adhesive, pressing and a processing station. The study seeks to increase the understanding of production-related problems in this industry. This research has been based on productivity measurement as well as on interactive discussions between researchers and workers. Measurement of cycle times indicated bottlenecks in the processing cell. The discussion led via cycle times, processing residues and chatter marks to an examination of the foundation and rigidity of the CNC-machine in the processing cell. The study indicated that the performance of the CNC machine did not correspond to expectations. The machine was too weak to handle the required output in an efficient manner. Thus, there is a need to determine the performance expected before a machine or machine group is purchased. An update of the existing purchasing literature and its dissemination will support the crystallization of the purchasing process as a way forward to support the industry.

  • 2.
    Blomqvist, Lars
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Johansson, Jimmy
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Basic knowledge of wood properties for improved performance of laminated Veneer products2013In: Pro Ligno, ISSN 1841-4737, E-ISSN 2069-7430, Vol. 9, no 4, p. 549-556Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To ensure success in the production of laminated veneer products, it is necessary to acquire a sound basic understanding of the behaviour of the wood, and to understand the inherent reactions of wood to adhesive, heat, moisture, strain and stress. This can ensure an efficient wood utilization and promote the development of new processes and products that take advantage of the visco-elastic nature of wood.

     

    A shortcoming of the laminated bending process is that the products may become distorted after moulding and during use. In this study, we have examined how the performance of laminated veneer products can be improved through the implementation of basic knowledge of wood in the design and production process.

     

    The results show that the material and process parameters and storage in a changing relative humidity have a clear impact on distortion. Fibre orientation of the veneers in the moulded assembly was the most critical parameter to control. Fibre deviations mainly resulted in twist of the product. A moisture content in one veneer deviating from that of the rest of the veneers in the assembly before moulding resulted in distortion of the laminated veneer products both after moulding and during use. To decrease the negative effect of fibre orientation and moisture content on shape stability, the veneer should be straight-grained and well-conditioned to a moisture level adapted to the use of the final product. Special care should also be taken to orientate the veneers during assembly before moulding.

  • 3.
    Blomqvist, Lars
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Sterley, Magdalena
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Johansson, Jimmy
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    The effect of veneer modification on the bond-line strength in laminated veneer products2015In: Pro Ligno, ISSN 1841-4737, E-ISSN 2069-7430, Vol. 11, no 4, p. 43-49Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A major problem in the manufacture of three-dimensional laminated veneer products (LVP) isdamage due to stretching and/or buckling of the veneer. To reduce or eliminate this problem, veneerdensification or adding a strengthening layer to the veneer can be an alternative. To study how veneermodification influences the veneer-to-adhesive bond strength, three methods of modification werestudied in relation to an unmodified reference veneer: (1) densified veneer, (2) veneer pre-bonded withpaper and hot melt adhesive (HMA), (3) veneer pre-bonded with non-woven polypropylene (NW)fabric glued to the veneer (a) with a urea formaldehyde (UF) adhesive, (b) with a mixture of UF andpolyvinyl acetate (PVAc) adhesive, and (c) with a PVAc adhesive. Densification, pre-bonding withpaper, and NW with UF/PVAc adhesive mixture resulted in no or only a slight decrease in strength ofthe bond-line compared to the reference. NW glued with UF or PVAc adhesive showed a considerablereduction in the strength of the bond-line. The climatic cycling had no significant influence on the bondstrength.

  • 4.
    Hemmilä, Venla
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Trischler, Johann
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology. Luleå University of Technology.
    Bio-based adhesives for the wood industry: an opportunity for the future?2013In: Pro Ligno, ISSN 1841-4737, E-ISSN 2069-7430, Vol. 9, no 4, p. 118-125Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reviews the use of some of the new technologies that may be implemented in bio-based adhesives, e.g. carbohydrate polymers, proteins, tannins, lignins, and vegetable oils.

    In order to take a part of the market share, an adhesive should have low production costs, fulfil the environmental and health standards and give better properties than conventional synthetic adhesives. For large-volume wood products such as chipboard, it is essential to develop adhesives that enable the product to be cost competitive. Bio-based adhesives that are available and affordable for the wood industry suffer from three main problems: low moisture resistance, low reactivity and poor adhesive properties, and in several cases they are expensive compared to synthetic adhesives.

  • 5.
    Johansson, Jimmy
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology. Luleå University of Technology.
    Integrated use of product data for improved wood material utilization in the furniture and joinery production2013In: Pro Ligno, ISSN 1841-4737, E-ISSN 2069-7430, Vol. 9, no 4, p. 321-327Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Quality communication from customer to supplier is crucial for the effectiveness of a value chain. In the forest products industry, a mutual understanding of quality requirements between customer and supplier in relation to material characteristics and production conditions is important if the material is to be utilized effectively.

     

    In the mechanical wood industry, hardwood has normally been quality graded manually. This has been a work-intensive operation and a problematic working environment. Automatic grading equipment based mainly on camera and laser technology is therefore gradually replacing the manual grading operation which relies on the human eye. The cross-cutting of sawn wood into shorter components with well-defined quality parameters is a process which needs to be automated. This makes it possible for the sawmill to redefine the quality grading process with e.g. more complex grading rules. To gain full benefits from the new technology, however, the grading process must be redefined in cooperation with the customers. There is also an expressed need for tools to communicate the quality of products produced by sawmills.

     

    In this study, three case studies were therefore performed where the communication of requirements between sawmills and customers was studied with regard to three different components delivered from two sawmills. In one sawmill, two products were studied; one intended for a furniture producer and one for a joinery producer. In the other sawmill, the studied product was intended for a producer of solid wood panels. The idea has been to study the need for product information expressed by both the customer and supplier through the automatic grading process and to utilise this equipment for data collection and visualisation.

     

    The requirements for a communication and data exchange tool have been derived. There is often an expressed need to measure how different raw materials affect the volume yield in a process and how different quality requirements affect the volume yield. Sharing this information between customer and supplier has been shown to yield a mutual understanding of how and why deviations occur. Visualisation possibilities are a prerequisite for a mutual understanding of quality conceptions.

  • 6.
    Lindblad, Fredrik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Living quality in wooden multi-family houses2019In: Pro Ligno, ISSN 1841-4737, E-ISSN 2069-7430Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an increased demand for multi-family houses in Sweden, which makes it important to investigate what the residents consider to be building quality in relation to their living situation and what they prioritise when selecting an apartment. Having the ability to build good housing units is an essential part of society since it directly affects people's living standard and way of life. Consequently, understanding living quality creates possibilities to adjust the construction and design of housing units accordingly. Currently, more multi-family houses are being built with wooden frames than ever before, and it is therefore interesting to compare if there is a difference in how residents experience the quality of living in a multi-family house with wooden frames compared with concrete frames.The purpose is to show what residents consider to be living quality and if there is any quality difference in housing units using wood or concrete as construction material in the building frame. A survey has been sent out to a selected amount of multi-family houses in Sweden, Thereby, gain an understanding of the perceived quality of new building developments, which showed that the quality of living did not differ between the selected materials and the location in the city was the most important parameter when choosing accommodation for the residents.

  • 7.
    Lindblad, Fredrik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    The building process: a boundless multidisciplinary research project related to wooden multi-family houses in Sweden2019In: Pro Ligno, ISSN 1841-4737, E-ISSN 2069-7430Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The wood-building industry of multi-family houses is increasing its market share in Sweden, yet the research and education are not incorporating a total building process perspective. Typically, research is conducted in individual areas without having an overall coordinated perspective, which increases the risk of sub-optimisation. In a unique project in Sweden, several components in the building process have been studied within one project; “City development project Torparängen”. The purpose was to gain a broader understanding of what influence the development of wooden multi-family houses, combining the effect from technological and non-technological advancements, which intended to support the development of a new wood building strategy.By reviewing several areas within the building process provided information related to how market strategies, procurement methodologies, leadership and project management, equally influence the development as the more traditional fields in the industry, i.e. material handling, lean production, logistics and production improvement. Further, having the possibility to capture end-user preferences in this process provides opportunities to develop a more agile building process, adjusting market and production activities accordingly. The study was conducted during two years and involved approximately 250 respondents in different roles, and active in the building process within companies and governmental organisations across Sweden.

  • 8.
    Lindblad, Fredrik
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Flinkman, Matti
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Schauerte, Tobias
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Assessing corporate economic distress: a study of the wood construction industry2017In: Pro Ligno, ISSN 1841-4737, E-ISSN 2069-7430, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 594-601Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wood buildings are considered as a viable option to support the effort minimizing the current housing shortage in Sweden. Companies trying to develop into this industry are needed to increase the use of prefabricated wooden elements, volumes or modules in an industrialized way. Suitable companies to make this development could be found amongst firms producing wooden single-family houses. These companies currently act on a highly competitive market with many companies offering relatively homogeneous products or services. Therefore, differentiation towards the wooden multi-family house industry could be considered as a long-term strategy, minimizing the economic distress and improving the survival of the company.The study is aiming at describing the development of economic distress and market concentration ratio in the Swedish industry for wooden single-family houses, for an eleven-year period from 2005 to 2015. The companies could be helped to understand, if and how the market concentration ratio and the economic distress are connected, linking company size to economic stability and efficient resource utilization. This will be conducted by applying Altman’s Z’-score model, grouping firms into a risk, a grey or a safe zone, combined with calculating the industry structure by means of the concentration ratio model. The required data were collected from the annual reports of the 51 relevant firms in the industry.

  • 9.
    Lindblad, Fredrik
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Schauerte, Tobias
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Identifying drivers facilitating product development within the industry for wooden multi-family houses2017In: Pro Ligno, ISSN 1841-4737, E-ISSN 2069-7430, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 602-609Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden is forecasted to grow its population with 1.1 million people over the next eight-year period, increasing the demand on the construction phase of housing units throughout Sweden. However, at present, 240 of Sweden's 290 municipalities show an existing deficit of available housing units in their regions, resulting in inherent difficulties fulfilling this demand utilizing the current production structure. Therefore, further utilizing wood as a building material could contribute to minimize the gap, as well as fulfilling the EU’s goals towards the Europe 2020 strategy and the EU forest strategies, focusing on development towards innovation, bio-economy, sustainable sourcing and use of raw materials. This study is aiming to identify drivers supporting the Swedish industry of wooden multi-family houses to enable market growth through competitive and sustainable strategies. The representatives within the building process identify drivers, how they perceive their effect on the companies’ abilities to develop based on long-term and short-term strategic impact. Thus, the goal is to find ways in which wooden multi-family houses could compete as a building solution, compared to established solutions, thereby increasing the market share in Sweden. The methods used in this study is surveys distributed to representatives from municipalities, developers, contractors, architects and real estate companies.The result identifies three change drivers influencing the industry development for wooden multi-family houses in Sweden: technological-, knowledge- and environmental- drivers. These drivers have an effect on the companies’ ability for successful new product development and for development of sustainable strategies towards market growth for wooden multi-family houses.

  • 10.
    Schauerte, Tobias
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Identifying Product Attributes for Quality Function Deployment: Consumer Perceptions in the Case of Wooden Multi-Storey Houses2013In: Pro Ligno, ISSN 1841-4737, E-ISSN 2069-7430, Vol. 9, no 4, p. 773-779Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to bridge the gap between external consumer value and internal production quality, an understanding of consumers’ needs is vital. Consumers’ needs have to be translated through a firms’ internal value chain to improve production quality. The Means-End Chain approach elicits consumers’ needs in terms of product attributes, which further can be translated into engineering characteristics by using the House of Quality concept as the first step in Quality Function Deployment. Here, the relative importance of the attributes plays an important role for further processing. This paper’ aims at identifying product attributes and their relative importance, as an input into the House of Quality within Quality Function Deployment. This is done in the case of wooden multi-storey houses in Sweden, since there is a documented gap between the external consumer value and the internal production quality. Based on the Means-End Chain approach, the Extended Association Pattern Technique was used for a two stage study to elicit product attributes. Results from 34 interviews and 503 returned questionnaires revealed ten product attributes ranked by importance, to be further translated into engineering characteristics within Quality Function Deployment.

  • 11.
    Schauerte, Tobias
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Johansson, Jimmy
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Gustafsson, Åsa
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Management Accounting and Logistics.
    From Customer Values to Production Requirements: Improving the Quality of Wooden Housing2013In: Pro Ligno, ISSN 1841-4737, E-ISSN 2069-7430, Vol. 9, no 4, p. 780-787Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The industry of wooden single-family houses in Sweden faces several challenges; both with regards to production but also with regards to the market conditions. In order to avoid uncontrolled price increases of wooden single-family houses, an act regulating the cash contribution when purchasing a house has been introduced. This has led to an increased focus of the house price as well as on the individual producers to control its processes and thereby its costs. The purpose of this paper is to give an overview of existing research related to product and production developments related to the industry, identifying research gaps, and suggest research activities. This research has been carried out as a literature study focusing on these concepts. It concludes that existing research is fragmented and that the linkage between the consumer and the product is neglected as well as the holistic approach is missing in development activities. The authors propose that in order to study how the industry could come closer to their consumer markets and the aligned requirements as well as to facilitate product development, the Means-End Chain approach may be of use and that the approach could further be linked to Quality Function Deployment.

  • 12.
    Schauerte, Tobias
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Lindblad, Fredrik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Corporate Economic Distress in the Wood Construction Industry: Current State and Trend After the Economic Crisis2015In: Pro Ligno, ISSN 1841-4737, E-ISSN 2069-7430, Vol. 11, no 4, p. 389-396Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to obstruct housing shortage in Sweden, wood is considered as an alternative material for multi-family applications. Yet, more firms are needed to prefabricate wooden elements, volumes or modules in an industrialised way. These could be found amongst firms producing wooden single-family houses; however, they might suffer from economic distress, since their core market dropped by more than 60 % in the aftermath of the economic crisis. This study investigates corporate economic distress from 2010 to 2013 of 52 Swedish firms producing wooden single-family houses. This, by applying Altman’s Z’-score model, grouping firms into a risk, a grey or a safe zone. Results show that from 2010 to 2013, firms suffering from economic distress decreased from 11.1 % to 3.8 %. The two remaining firms in the risk zone most likely will face bankruptcy, if no radical action will be taken. Firms in the grey zone increased from 31.1 % to 36.5 %. The 19 firms in this zone are dependent on appropriate strategies to positively develop their business. Finally, firms in the safe zone increased from 57.8 % to 59.7 %. These firms are in good economic conditions and can be regarded as potential candidates for investing in a development towards multi-family applications. For the investigated time period, the average Z’-score improvement for the whole industry equals 38 %, with a major upturn from 2012 to 2013.

  • 13.
    Schauerte, Tobias
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Lindblad, Fredrik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Productivity Trend in the Off-Site Construction Sector of Wooden Houses2015In: Pro Ligno, ISSN 1841-4737, E-ISSN 2069-7430, Vol. 11, no 4, p. 432-439Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With rising production costs and an insufficient production development, firms in the Swedish industry for wooden single-family houses might face severe problems in productivity. This is gaining in importance, considering that this industry highly tends towards perfect competition, i.e. firms mainly have to compete by prices. This study investigates the productivity of Swedish firms producing wooden single-family houses off-site, by analysing the ratio between turnover and number of employees as factors affecting productivity. 48 firms were studied from 2010 to 2013 and the results show that the average firm productivity in the industry worsened by 6.56 %, with a slight improvement from 2012 to 2013. 23 firms increased and 25 firms decreased their productivity during the investigated time span, yet, from 2012 to 2013, 31 firms improved productivity. Almost half of the 23 firms with increased productivity achieved that betterment even though their turnover decreased and 12 firms improved productivity with declining turnover. Another 12 firms tried to compensate declining turnover with resigning employees, yet, could not keep their former productivity level.

  • 14.
    Trischler, Johann
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Nilsson, Jonaz
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Reed canary grass as light-weight core in particleboards2013In: Pro Ligno, ISSN 1841-4737, E-ISSN 2069-7430, Vol. 9, no 4, p. 469-476Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     Particle boards are an important material for furniture production. In this sector, two tasks have had priority during recent years: to reduce the weight of the panels and to reduce the formaldehyde emission. As the production methods have been more or less the same for decades, these tasks have to be tackled by reducing or replacing the raw material in the board production.

     

    In this study, the possibility of replacing wood with reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea L.) to obtain a light-weight particle board has been studied. The boards studied were three-layered with a core of wood/reed canary grass particles and a surface of 100 % wood particles. A protein-based adhesive was tested as an alternative to a UMF adhesive to reduce the formaldehyde emission. Different combinations of densities between 250 and 450 kg/m3 were included in the study and no additional treatments were made to the raw materials.

     

    The results showed poor mechanical and swelling properties of all the tested boards regardless of the design. The main explanation of the poor properties is the poor wetting of the reed canary grass surface by the adhesives. A pre-treatment of the reed canary grass particles with steam, lipase enzyme or alkali is suggested to increase the wettability.

  • 15.
    Trischler, Johann
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Wheat protein as adhesive for wood products for interior use2015In: Pro Ligno, ISSN 1841-4737, E-ISSN 2069-7430, Vol. 11, no 4, p. 246-252Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Protein is one of the most researched and widely used natural adhesives. Before the break through of synthetic adhesives in the wood industry, proteins were commonly used in furniture production. Today, proteins in the form of industrial by-products e.g. soy protein, blood and wheat protein are on the market, and these proteins can in general be used as a base for wood-products adhesives. Proteins are in general denatured by a change in pH, heat or organic solvents before they can be used as adhesives. In this study, a cold-dissolution of wheat protein (gluten) was tested with regard to its usability for the production of particleboards and laminated veneer products. The bonding was evaluated by testing the internal bond strength, thickness swelling, tensile strength and tensile shear strength. The results showed that the strength of the bond-line was in some cases as high as the strength of the wood material, but also that there were in some cases problems with the penetration of the adhesive into the wood and this lowered the bond-line strength considerably. The main conclusion is that cold-dissolved gluten adhesives are a good alternative to commercial synthetic adhesives for interior use, but that there are still challenges with the poor moisture resistance of the adhesive. 

  • 16.
    Trischler, Johann
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Nuszkowski, Kalle
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Design.
    The use of gluten adhesive and removable surface finishes in rebyblable furniture panels2015In: Pro Ligno, ISSN 1841-4737, E-ISSN 2069-7430, Vol. 11, no 4, p. 613-618Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A general problem in the recycling of furniture is that different materials and components are included within a single piece of furniture. Not only is the furniture built of components such as wood, leather, textiles, foams, steel and others but the wood component is also very often a composite made of wood, adhesives and functional additives such as water repellents or chemical substances as surface treatments. Sometimes these additives make cost-effective recycling of the composite wood difficult because of problems related to the separation of the components. The purpose of this study was to present an alternative product design for wood-based panels i.e. particleboards, which reduces or avoids many of the problems in the recycling of wood-based panels used in furniture. The results show that it is possible to produce wood-based panels in a way that facilitates the recycling of these panels although there are still some challenges which have to be dealt with. The concept as such seems to be promising. 

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