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  • 1.
    Anderholm, Sofia
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Waldeck, Peter
    University of Gothenburg.
    van der Jeugd, Henk P
    Netherlands Institute for Ecology (NIOO-KNAW), The Netherlands.
    Marshall, Rupert C
    University of Gothenburg ; Aberystwyth University, UK.
    Larsson, Kjell
    Gotland University.
    Andersson, Malte
    University of Gothenburg.
    Colony kin structure and host-parasite relatedness in the barnacle goose2009In: Molecular Ecology, ISSN 0962-1083, E-ISSN 1365-294X, Vol. 18, no 23, p. 4955-4963Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conspecific brood parasitism (CBP), females laying eggs in the nest of other 'host' females of the same species, is a common alternative reproductive tactic among birds. For hosts there are likely costs of incubating and rearing foreign offspring, but costs may be low in species with precocial chicks such as waterfowl, among which CBP is common. Waterfowl show strong female natal philopatry, and spatial relatedness among females may influence the evolution of CBP. Here we investigate fine-scale kin structure in a Baltic colony of barnacle geese, Branta leucopsis, estimating female spatial relatedness using protein fingerprints of egg albumen, and testing the performance of this estimator in known mother-daughter pairs. Relatedness was significantly higher between neighbour females (nesting ≤ 40 metres from each other) than between females nesting farther apart, but there was no further distance trend in relatedness. This pattern may be explained by earlier observations of females nesting close to their mother or brood sisters, even when far from the birth nest. Hosts and parasites were on average not more closely related than neighbour females. In 25 of 35 sampled parasitized nests, parasitic eggs were laid after the host female finished laying, too late to develop and hatch. Timely parasites, laying eggs in the host's laying sequence, had similar relatedness to hosts as that between neighbours. Females laying late parasitic eggs tended to be less related to the host, but not significantly so. Our results suggest that CBP in barnacle geese might represent different tactical life-history responses.

  • 2.
    Forsman, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Is colour polymorphism advantageous to populations and species?2016In: Molecular Ecology, ISSN 0962-1083, E-ISSN 1365-294X, Vol. 25, no 12, p. 2693-2698Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    I am writing in response to an article by Bolton, Rollinsand Griffith (2015) entitled ‘The danger within: the roleof genetic, behavioural and ecological factors in populationpersistence of colour polymorphic species’ that wasrecently published as an Opinion under the NEWS ANDVIEWS section in Molecular Ecology. Bolton et al.(Molecular Ecology, 2015, 24, 2907) argue that colour polymorphismmay reduce population fitness and increaseextinction risk and emphasize that this is contrary to predictionsput forward by Forsman et al. (Ecology, 89, 2008,34) and Wennersten & Forsman (Biological Reviews 87,2012, 756) that the existence of multiple colour morphswith co-adapted gene complexes and associated trait valuesmay increase the ecological and evolutionary successof polymorphic populations and species. Bolton et al.(Molecular Ecology, 2015, 24, 2907) further state that thereis no clear evidence from studies of ‘true polymorphicspecies’ that polymorphism promotes population persistence.In response, I (i) challenge their classifications ofpolymorphisms and revisit the traditional definitions recognizingthe dynamic nature of polymorphisms, (ii)review empirical studies that have examined whetherand how polymorphism is associated with extinction risk,(iii) discuss the roles of trait correlations between colourpattern and other phenotypic dimensions for populationfitness and (iv) highlight that the causes and mechanismsthat influence the composition and maintenance of polymorphismsare different from the consequences of thepolymorphic condition and how it may impact on aspectsof ecological success and long-term persistence of populationsand species.

  • 3.
    Griekspoor, Petra
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Colles, Frances M.
    Mccarthy, Noel D.
    Hansbro, Philip M.
    Ashhurst-Smith, Chris
    Olsen, Björn
    Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University.
    Hasselquist, Dennis
    Maiden, Martin C. J.
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Marked host specificity and lack of phylogeographic population structure of Campylobacter jejuni in wild birds2013In: Molecular Ecology, ISSN 0962-1083, E-ISSN 1365-294X, Vol. 22, no 5, p. 1463-1472Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Zoonotic pathogens often infect several animal species, and gene flow among populations infecting different host species may affect the biological traits of the pathogen including host specificity, transmissibility and virulence. The bacterium Campylobacter jejuni is a widespread zoonotic multihost pathogen, which frequently causes gastroenteritis in humans. Poultry products are important transmission vehicles to humans, but the bacterium is common in other domestic and wild animals, particularly birds, which are a potential infection source. Population genetic studies of C. jejuni have mainly investigated isolates from humans and domestic animals, so to assess C. jejuni population structure more broadly and investigate host adaptation, 928 wild bird isolates from Europe and Australia were genotyped by multilocus sequencing and compared to the genotypes recovered from 1366 domestic animal and human isolates. Campylobacter jejuni populations from different wild bird species were distinct from each other and from those from domestic animals and humans, and the host species of wild bird was the major determinant of C. jejuni genotype, while geographic origin was of little importance. By comparison, C. jejuni differentiation was restricted between more phylogenetically diverse farm animals, indicating that domesticated animals may represent a novel niche for C. jejuni and thereby driving the evolution of those bacteria as they exploit this niche. Human disease is dominated by isolates from this novel domesticated animal niche.

  • 4. Hellgren, Olof
    et al.
    Waldenström, Jonas
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Peréz Tris, Javier
    Szöllösi, Eszter
    Hasselquist, Dennis
    Krizanauskiene, Asta
    Ottosson, Ulf
    Bensch, Staffan
    Detecting shifts of transmission areas in avian blood parasites - a pylogenetic approach2007In: Molecular Ecology, ISSN 0962-1083, E-ISSN 1365-294X, Vol. 16, p. 1281-1290Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5. Jonker, R.M.
    et al.
    Kraus, R.H.S.
    Zhang, Q.
    Van Hooft, P.
    Larsson, Kjell
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Van der Jeugd, H.P.
    Kurvers, R.H.J.M.
    Van Wieren, S.E.
    Loonen, M.J.J.E.
    Crooijmans, R.P.M.A.
    Ydenberg, R.C.
    Groenen, M.A.M.
    Prins, H.H.T.
    Genetic consequences of breaking migratory traditions in barnacle geese Branta leucopsis2013In: Molecular Ecology, ISSN 0962-1083, E-ISSN 1365-294X, Vol. 22, no 23, p. 5835-5847Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cultural transmission of migratory traditions enables species to deal with their environment based on experiences from earlier generations. Also, it allows a more adequate and rapid response to rapidly changing environments. When individuals break with their migratory traditions, new population structures can emerge that may affect gene flow. Recently, the migratory traditions of the Barnacle Goose Branta leucopsis changed, and new populations differing in migratory distance emerged. Here, we investigate the population genetic structure of the Barnacle Goose to evaluate the consequences of altered migratory traditions. We used a set of 358 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers to genotype 418 individuals from breeding populations in Greenland, Spitsbergen, Russia, Sweden and the Netherlands, the latter two being newly emerged populations. We used discriminant analysis of principal components, FST, linkage disequilibrium and a comparison of geneflow models using MIGRATE-N to show that there is significant population structure, but that relatively many pairs of SNPs are in linkage disequilibrium, suggesting recent admixture between these populations. Despite the assumed traditions of migration within populations, we also show that genetic exchange occurs between all populations. The newly established nonmigratory population in the Netherlands is characterized by high emigration into other populations, which suggests more exploratory behaviour, possibly as a result of shortened parental care. These results suggest that migratory traditions in populations are subject to change in geese and that such changes have population genetic consequences. We argue that the emergence of nonmigration probably resulted from developmental plasticity.

  • 6.
    Pommier, Thomas
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Canbäck, B
    Riemann, Lasse
    Boström, Kjärstin H.
    Simu, Karin
    Lundberg, Per
    Tunlid, Anders
    Hagström, Åke
    Global patterns of diversity and community structure in marine bacterioplankton2007In: Molecular Ecology, ISSN 0962-1083, E-ISSN 1365-294X, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 867-880Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Because of their small size, great abundance and easy dispersal, it is often assumed that marine planktonic microorganisms have a ubiquitous distribution that prevents any structured assembly into local communities. To challenge this view, marine bacterioplankton communities from coastal waters at nine locations distributed world-wide were examined through the use of comprehensive clone libraries of 16S ribosomal RNA genes, used as operational taxonomic units (OTU). Our survey and analyses show that there were marked differences in the composition and richness of OTUs between locations. Remarkably, the global marine bacterioplankton community showed a high degree of endemism, and conversely included few cosmopolitan OTUs. Our data were consistent with a latitudinal gradient of OTU richness. We observed a positive relationship between the relative OTU abundances and their range of occupation, i.e. cosmopolitans had the largest population sizes. Although OTU richness differed among locations, the distributions of the major taxonomic groups represented in the communities were analogous, and all local communities were similarly structured and dominated by a few OTUs showing variable taxonomic affiliations. The observed patterns of OTU richness indicate that similar evolutionary and ecological processes structured the communities. We conclude that marine bacterioplankton share many of the biogeographical and macroecological features of macroscopic organisms. The general processes behind those patterns are likely to be comparable across taxa and major global biomes.

  • 7.
    Wille, Michelle
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Uppsala University.
    Latorre-Margalef, Neus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. University of Georgia, USA.
    Tolf, Conny
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Stallknecht, D. E.
    University of Georgia, USA.
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    No evidence for homosubtypic immunity of influenza H3 in Mallards following vaccination in a natural experimental system2017In: Molecular Ecology, ISSN 0962-1083, E-ISSN 1365-294X, Vol. 26, no 5, p. 1420-1431Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) is an important reservoir species for influenza A viruses (IAV), and in this host, prevalence and virus diversity are high. Studies have demonstrated the presence of homosubtypic immunity, where individuals are unlikely to be reinfected with the same subtype within an autumn season. Further, evidence for heterosubtypic immunity exists, whereby immune responses specific for one subtype offer partial or complete protection against related HA subtypes. We utilized a natural experimental system to determine whether homo- or heterospecific immunity could be induced following experimental vaccination. Thirty Mallards were vaccinated with an inactivated H3, H6 or a sham vaccine and after seroconversion were exposed to naturally infected wild conspecifics. All ducks were infected within 2days and had both primary and secondary infections. Overall, there was no observable difference between groups; all individuals were infected with H3 and H10 IAV. At the cessation of the experiment, most individuals had anti-NP antibodies and neutralizing antibodies against H10. Not all individuals had H3 neutralizing antibodies. The isolated H3 IAVs revealed genetic dissimilarity to the H3 vaccine strain, specifically substitutions in the vicinity of the receptor-binding site. There was no evidence of vaccine-induced homosubtypic immunity to H3, a likely result of both a poor H3 immune response in the ducks and H3 immune escape. Likewise, there was no observed heterosubtypic protection related to H6 vaccination. This study highlights the need for experimental approaches to assess how exposure to pathogens and resulting immune processes translates to individual and population disease dynamics.

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