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  • 1.
    Albaugh, Timothy J
    et al.
    North Carolina State University, USA.
    Bergh, Johan
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Lundmark, Tomas
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Nilsson, Urban
    Stape, José Luiz
    North Carolina State University, USA.
    Allen, H Lee
    North Carolina State University, USA.
    Linder, Sune
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Do biological expansion factors adequately estimate stand-scale aboveground component biomass for Norway spruce?2009In: Forest Ecology and Management, ISSN 0378-1127, E-ISSN 1872-7042, Vol. 258, no 12, p. 2628-2637Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We developed site specific component (stem, branch, and foliage) biomass functions for two sites in Sweden (64° and 57° North latitude) where four treatments (control, irrigated, fertilized, irrigated plus fertilized) were applied in the existing Norway spruce stands (Picea abies L. Karst.) for 17 years. We tested for site effects in the component biomass equations and compared site specific biomass estimates to those generated using published functions ( Lehtonen et al., 2004 and Wirth et al., 2004). Site effects were significant for all components and indicated it would be unlikely to generate equations that well estimate biomass across the Norway spruce range as implicitly indicated in our efforts to generate species biomass expansion factors. We rejected our hypothesis that the published functions would well estimate component biomass for control plots. The published functions did not compare well with site specific component biomass estimates for the other treatments; both published functions well estimated stem mass up to stem mass of 25 Mg ha−1, beyond which stem mass was overestimated, and both functions over and under estimated foliage and branch mass. Nor did the published functions compare well with each other, with stem, foliage and branch mass estimate differences of 12, 55, −8% and 11, 77, and 59% for the southern and northern sites, respectively, when averaged over all treatments and years. Adding limiting resources through fertilization increased stem, foliage and branch mass 57, 11, 18% and 120, 37, and 69% at the southern and northern sites, respectively, which would increase carbon sequestration and available stemwood and bioenergy materials. We recommend that more effort is spent in process-based modeling to better predict mass at a given site and ultimately provide better estimates of carbon sequestration and bioenergy material production changes.

  • 2.
    Bergh, Johan
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Nilsson, Urban
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Allen, H Lee
    North Carolina State University, USA.
    Johansson, Ulf
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Fahlvik, Nils
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Long-term responses of Scots pine and Norway spruce stands in Sweden to repeated fertilization and thinning2014In: Forest Ecology and Management, ISSN 0378-1127, E-ISSN 1872-7042, Vol. 320, p. 118-128Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent investigations have shown that annual wood production in Sweden can be increased by 30 million m3 per year in a long-term perspective (>50 years) by using new forest management methods such as new tree species or seedling materials. However, to meet the increased demands during the next 20 years, Sweden will have to rely on silvicultural methods available today. Growth in boreal and cold temperate forest is with only few exceptions limited by nutrients availability, primarily nitrogen, and one way to satisfy the increased demands in a short-term perspective is nitrogen fertilization. A set of thinning and fertilization experiments were started in the 1960’s in Scots pine and Norway spruce stands over the whole of Sweden representing different soil, moisture and vegetation types. We used data from these experiments to examine the long-term effects of repeated fertilization in thinned stands on growth, stand development, and yield. The 34 Scots pine sites and 13 Norway spruce sites included in our analyses had at least four treatment plots (no thinning, repeated light thinnings, repeated light thinnings with repeated N fertilization, and repeated light thinnings with repeated N + P fertilization). In northern Sweden, 100 kg N ha−1 and 150 kg N ha−1 were applied at each fertilization event for Scots pine and Norway spruce stands, respectively. In southern Sweden, 150 kg ha−1 N was applied in Scots pine stands and 200 kg ha−1 N in Norway spruce stands. Phosphorus was applied at the rate of 100 kg ha−1. Several sites also included non-thinned fertilized plots. Pine stands but not spruce stands were responsive (up to 25% more growth depending of the attribute assessed) to repeated fertilization. Surprisingly, the non-thinned pine stands showed strong continuing response to fertilization throughout the 30+ year observation period resulting in higher cumulative volume response than the thinned stands. In thinned stands incremental volume response to fertilization continued but slowly diminished with time indicating that fertilization and thinning effects were less than additive. However, thinning and fertilization effects were additive for diameter growth. Fertilization accelerated stand development with significant shifts in diameter distributions to larger and potentially more valuable trees. Conclusively, repeated nitrogen fertilization is a silvicultural practice that will result in significant and sustained increases in Scots pine production.

  • 3.
    Berlin, Mats
    et al.
    Uppsala Science Park.
    Sonesson, Johan
    Uppsala Science Park.
    Bergh, Johan
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU).
    Jansson, Gunnar
    Uppsala Science Park.
    The effect of fertilization on genetic parameters in Picea abies clones in central Sweden and consequences for breeding and deployment2012In: Forest Ecology and Management, ISSN 0378-1127, E-ISSN 1872-7042, Vol. 270, p. 239-247Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of repeated fertilizer application on the genetic parameters of Norway spruce. Genetic and environmental variances of growth and phenological traits were estimated to find differences between fertilized and control treatments in broad sense heritability and accuracy of estimated genotypic value. Furthermore, genotype × environment interactions (GxE) between the two treatments were investigated. Two Norway spruce clonal field trials in central Sweden were subjected to both treatments and were measured at various points in time up to a field age of 15 years, to monitor the effects of fertilization. For growth traits, trees in the fertilized treatment exhibited lower environmental variance than those in the non-fertilized treatment; consequently, fertilization yielded higher heritability and greater accuracy of estimated genotypic value. Furthermore, the GxE increased as the effects of fertilization became more pronounced; the genetic correlation between treatments dropped to around 0.5 in the last measured growth period. For phenological traits, no GxE but a slight increase in heritability of prolepsis on the leader shoot was found. The results from this study show that, for the conditions encountered in central Sweden, Norway spruce clones should be tested and selected under the conditions in which they are to be deployed. If repeated fertilizer application is to be adopted under operational conditions, substantial losses in genetic gain for growth can be expected when using current selected clones due to the induced GxE. While the fertilized treatment yielded a higher heritability and accuracy of estimated genotypic value for growth traits than did the control, the Swedish Norway spruce breeding program will not benefit from fertilizing genetic field trials because the increased accuracy of estimated genotypic value is nullified by the GxE.

  • 4.
    Blennow, Kristina
    et al.
    Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet (SLU).
    Andersson, Mikael
    Sallnäs, Ola
    Olofsson, Erika
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Climate change and the probability of wind damage in two Swedish forests2010In: Forest Ecology and Management, ISSN 0378-1127, E-ISSN 1872-7042, Vol. 259, p. 818-830Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We simulated how possible changes in wind and ground-frost climate and state of the forest due to changes in the future climate may affect the probability of exceeding critical wind speeds expected to cause wind damage within one northern and one southern study area in Sweden, respectively. The topography of the study areas was relatively gentle and the forests were dominated by Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). Using estimated changes in the net primary production (NPP) due to climate change and assuming a relative change in the site productivity equal to a relative change in NPP, we simulated possible future states of the forest under gradual adjustment of the site index in response to climate change using the model The Forest Time Machine. Global climate change scenarios based on two emission scenarios and one general circulation model were downscaled to the regional level. The modified WINDA model was used to calculate the sensitivity of the forest to wind and the probability of wind damage for individual forest stands for the periods 2011–2041 and 2071–2100 and for a control period 1961–1990. This was done while taking into account effects on stability of the forest from expected changes in the occurrence of ground frost. Increasing sensitivity of the forest to wind was indicated for both study areas when adhering to recommended management rules of today. Adding also a changed wind climate further increased the probability of wind damage. Calculated probabilities of wind damage were generally higher in the southern study area than in the northern one and were explained by differences in wind climate and the state of the forests, for example with respect to tree species composition. The indicated increase in sensitivity of the forest to wind under the current management regime, and possibly increasing windiness, motivate further analysis of the effects of different management options on the probability of wind damage and what modifications of Swedish forest management are possibly warranted.

  • 5.
    Bodin, Per
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Wiman, Bo
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    The usefulness of stability concepts in forest management when coping with increasing climate uncertainties2007In: Forest Ecology and Management, ISSN 0378-1127, E-ISSN 1872-7042, Vol. 242, p. 541-552Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Cintas, Olivia
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Berndes, Göran
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Hansson, Julia
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden;IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Poudel, Bishnu Chandra
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Bergh, Johan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Börjesson, Pål
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Egnell, Gustaf
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Lundmark, Tomas
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Nordin, Annika
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    The potential role of forest management in Swedish scenarios towards climate neutrality by mid century2017In: Forest Ecology and Management, ISSN 0378-1127, E-ISSN 1872-7042, Vol. 383, no Special Issue, p. 73-84Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish climate policy targets net zero greenhouse gases (GHG) by mid-century, with road transport independent of fossil fuels by 2030, requiring far-reaching changes in the way energy is used. Forest management is expected to support carbon sequestration and provide biomass for various uses, including energy. In this paper, we combine two energy scenarios with four forest scenarios and quantify GHG balances associated with energy-use for heat, electricity, and road transport, and with forest management and production, use, and end-of-life management of various forest products, including products for export. The aggregated GHG balances are evaluated in relation to the 2-degree target and an allocated Swedish CO2 budget. The production of biofuels in the agriculture sector is considered but not analyzed in detail.

    The results suggest that Swedish forestry can make an important contribution by supplying forest fuels and other products while maintaining or enhancing carbon storage in vegetation, soils, and forest products. The GHG neutrality goal is not met in any of the scenarios without factoring in carbon sequestration. Measures to enhance forest productivity can increase output of forest products (including biofuels for export) and also enhance carbon sequestration. The Swedish forest sector can let Sweden reach net negative emissions, and avoid “using up” its allocated CO2 budget, thereby increasing the associated emissions space for the rest of the world.

  • 7.
    Edenius, Lars
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Mikusiński, Grzegorz
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Witzell, Johanna
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Bergh, Johan
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU).
    Effects of repeated fertilization of young Norway spruce on foliar phenolics and arthropods: implications for insectivorous birds’ food resources2012In: Forest Ecology and Management, ISSN 0378-1127, E-ISSN 1872-7042, Vol. 277, p. 38-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Repeated fertilization of young forests is a promising concept to increase the production of wood fiber, but the consequences of intense fertilization regimes on forest birds and their food resources, mediated through changes in the foliar chemistry are inadequately known. We assessed the effects of repeated fertilization in stands of young Norway spruce (Picea abies) on foliar phenolics and arthropods in an intensively managed forest area in southern Sweden in relation to the abundance of arboreal feeding birds breeding in the same stands. We anticipated leaf-sucking arthropods (viz. Hemiptera (aphids)) to react more strongly to changes in foliar phenolics than other invertebrate groups. Overall, we found small effects of fertilization on abundance and composition of different groups of foliar arthropods. However, the abundance of Hemiptera was much higher in early spring in fertilized stands than in unfertilized stands, whereas mites (Anactinotrichida and Actinotrichida) were more abundant in late spring in the fertilized stands. On the contrary, springtails (Collembola) were more abundant in unfertilized stands than in fertilized stands the late spring. The concentrations of two of the most abundant phenolics (hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives) as well as the sum concentration of HPLC-phenolics, were consistently lower in the fertilized stands. Positive effects on arthropod abundance mediated trough changes in the foliar chemistry following fertilization could help to explain why resident Goldcrest (Regulus regulus), which feeds on folivorous arthropods (i.e. aphids) during winter, was found to be more common in the fertilized stands ( Edenius et al., 2011). Our results suggest that in intensively managed forest areas repeated fertilization of young spruce has the potential to enhance the suitability of these stands as winter feeding habitat for coniferous foliage-gleaning insectivorous birds compared to unfertilized stands in the same developmental stage. However, intensification of forest management further impedes habitat quality for more specialized species and generally reduces the diversity of forest birds by simplifying structure and composition of forest stands and shortening the rotation period. Therefore, careful planning of spatial arrangement of treatment units with different management, retention of natural forest and/or structures and legacies such as dead wood and deciduous trees are necessary to promote avian diversity in intensified forest management schemes.

  • 8.
    Hedwall, Per-Ola
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Nordin, Annika
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Brunet, Jörg
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Bergh, Johan
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU).
    Compositional changes of forest-floor vegetation in young stands of Norway spruce as an effect of repeated fertilisation2010In: Forest Ecology and Management, ISSN 0378-1127, E-ISSN 1872-7042, Vol. 259, no 12, p. 2418-2425Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Forestry practices that aim to increase biomass production may mitigate climate change through increased carbon sequestration and the potential of substituting fossil fuels with renewable biofuels. Fertilising young stands of Norway spruce in Sweden have shown to increase tree growth by more than 200%. Fertilisation, however, also has other effects on forest ecosystems. Here, we studied the response of the species composition of forest-floor vegetation to three different frequencies of fertilisation in young stands of Norway spruce. Fertiliser was applied every year, every second year or every third year. The total amount of N ranged from 425 kg ha−1 to 625 kg ha−1, in combination with P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Mn, Zi, B and Cu. The largest effects of the fertilisation were found among bryophytes and lichens, which lost substantial cover. Unexpectedly, Deschampsia flexuosa, commonly known to be favoured by fertilisation, was negatively affected. Species that increased in frequency were Oxalis acetosellaBrachythecium sp. andPlagiothecium sp. Decreased availability of light, as an indirect effect of fertilisation through increased tree canopy cover, was found to be the most important factor behind the change in species composition of vascular plants. The total cover of bryophytes, however, did not show any significant response to the changes in canopy cover, indicating that the effects seen in this group may be a result of more direct effects of the fertiliser. Few significant differences were found between the two most intensive fertilisation frequencies, although fertilisation every third year was often distinguished from both the control and the other fertilised treatments. Even though the effects at the stand level were substantial, the effects on biodiversity and function of ecosystems on a landscape or regional level need further investigation.

  • 9.
    Jensen, Anna M.
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Götmark, Frank
    University of Gothenburg.
    Löf, Magnus
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Shrubs protect oak seedlings against ungulate browsing in temperate broadleaved forests of conservation interest: a field experiment2012In: Forest Ecology and Management, ISSN 0378-1127, E-ISSN 1872-7042, Vol. 266, p. 187-193Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In many oak-rich temperate broadleaved forests of conservation value, high ungulate browsing pressure restricts oak regeneration. We examined the protection of oak (Quercus sp.) seedlings from browsing provided by naturally occurring shrubs in 10 forests across southern Sweden over 3 years. We planted oak seedlings in four plots in each forest; two with naturally regenerated shrubs and two with no shrubs. Ungulate browsers were excluded from two plots at each site, one with and one without shrubs. Fencing provided the best protection against ungulate browsers for the seedlings. The probability of a seedling being browsed (browsing frequency) was approximately 20% units lower for individuals growing among shrubs than for individuals growing in the absence of shrubs. When browsing did occur, the intensity (measured as a reduction in height growth) was significantly lower for seedlings in shrubs. Regression analyses showed that browsing frequency increased on seedlings in tall shrubs, and decreased on seedlings that had been browsed previously. Browsing intensity decreased if the seedling grew in tall and dense shrubs. Browsing frequency and intensity increased on oak seedlings that over topped the shrub canopy. Increased abundance of the prickled Rubusidaeus and Rubusfruticosus coll. in plots with shrubs did not affect browsing frequency and intensity. Two and a half years after planting, oak seedling mortality increased by the presence of shrubs. Although shrubs restricted oak seedling growth, we conclude that shrubs initially facilitated oak regeneration by concealment, and subsequently by numeric dilution. Shrubs may be used to reduce browsing damages if long-term evaluation indicates a net positive outcome for oak survival and growth.

  • 10.
    Jensen, Anna M.
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Löf, Magnus
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Effects of interspecific competition from surrounding vegetation on mortality, growth and stem development in young oaks (Quercus robur)2017In: Forest Ecology and Management, ISSN 0378-1127, E-ISSN 1872-7042, Vol. 392, p. 176-183Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Facilitation by a neighboring woody understory has been suggested as a cost-effective and sustainable way to regenerate oaks. However, concerns about reduced plant growth and quality due to competing neighboring vegetation have hindered implementation. Here we studied competitive effects from herbaceous and woody vegetation on survival, growth, canopy development and stem quality in pedunculate oak (Quercus robur) in an open-field experiment in southern Sweden. Oaks were grown for eight years in four different competition treatments: no competing vegetation, with herbaceous vegetation (mainly grasses), with woody vegetation, and with both herbaceous and woody vegetation. During the first four years, competition had little effect on oak survival. However, after eight growing seasons, survival rates decreased to about 20% for oaks surrounded by woody vegetation, in contrast to oaks grown with only herbaceous vegetation that had a survival rate of near 100%. Competition from herbaceous and woody vegetation both reduced oak stem diameter and height growth, but they affected height growth differently. During the first growing seasons, oaks in the treatment with woody vegetation were able to keep up with the height growth of the surrounding vegetation. Thereafter, height growth stagnated, and after eight growing seasons heights of oaks in the treatment with woody competitors were only 30–39% that of oaks in the treatment without competing vegetation. In contrast, competition from herbaceous vegetation only restricted oak height development marginally. Interspecific competition not only restricted growth and survival but also shifted shoot architecture, resulting in a greater frequency of oaks with straight monopodial stems. Although competition from both herbaceous- and woody vegetation positively affected stem straightness, plots with woody vegetation had a greater proportion (0.42) of oaks with a single straight monopodial stem. Our results demonstrate that the facilitative competitive effects from herbaceous and woody vegetation could be used to control allocation patterns in young oaks, promoting development of tall straight monopodial stems. Considering the observed trade-off between high stem quality and survival, we recommend long-term assessment of this trade-off prior to application in practical forestry.

  • 11.
    Olofsson, Erika
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Blennow, Kristina
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Decision support for identifying spruce forest stand edges with high probability of wind damage2005In: Forest Ecology and Management, ISSN 0378-1127, E-ISSN 1872-7042, Vol. 207, no 1-2, p. 87-98Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In multiple-purpose forestry, windstorms affect both the ecological and economic values that forest stands represent. Silvicultural treatments and forest planning can reduce the probability of wind damage. A tool for the identification of spruce stands with a high probability of wind damage, aimed at helping forestry practitioners target such measures, is presented. Initial assessments of the annual probability of wind damage of exposed stand edges were made for a landscape of about 1200 ha in southern Sweden, using the WINDA system of models. In the calculations, each edge was classified as having either a high or a low annual probability of wind damage. Decision tree methodology using easily accessible variables was employed for identifying the edges classified as having a high probability of wind damage. Since in a multiple-use situation, the risk preferences of decision makers differ, one decision tree was constructed for each of three threshold probabilities of wind damage: 5, 10, and 20%. This corresponds to disturbance intervals of 20, 10, and 5 years or less in each case. The decision trees were found to correctly classify 64–71% of the high-probability stand edges, the misclassification rate for the low-probability stand edges being 12–26%. Alternative cost-matrices were used to take account of user-preferences regarding misclassification rates in the model output. Among the most important predictor variables used in the decision trees were stem taper, gap size in front of the stand edge, and the direction of wind exposure. In an evaluation landscape located 250 km from the parameterization landscape, the decision trees were found to correctly classify 44–50% and 0–83% of the high-probability stand edges with and without use of cost-matrices, respectively. For the evaluation landscape, a statistically significant difference between classifications produced by the decision tree approach and a set of randomly classified stand edges was obtained just for four of the decision trees. This result was explained in terms of the high degree of complexity of the underlying processes, limitations in the parameterization data set, and differences between the landscapes involved. Decision trees of the type described can thus provide help in practical forestry within and nearby the landscape used for constructing the decision trees. In general, the presented methodology appears to be suitable for developing management decision support tools.

  • 12.
    Wallander, Håkan
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Ekblad, Alf
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Bergh, Johan
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU).
    Growth and carbon sequestration by ectomycorrhizal fungi in intensively fertilized Norway spruce forests2011In: Forest Ecology and Management, ISSN 0378-1127, E-ISSN 1872-7042, Vol. 262, no 6, p. 999-1007Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A substantial portion of the carbon (C) fixed by the trees is allocated belowground to ectomycorrhizal (EM) symbionts, but this fraction usually declines after fertilization. The aim of the present study was to estimate the effect of optimal fertilization (including all the necessary nutrients) on the growth of EM fungi in young Norway spruce forests over a three year period. In addition, the amount of carbon sequestered by EM mycelia was estimated using a method based on the difference in δ13C between C3 and C4 plants. Sand-filled ingrowth mesh bags were used to estimate EM growth, and similar bags amended with compost made from maize leaves (a C4 plant) were used to estimate C sequestration. Fertilizers had been applied either every year or every second year since 2002 and the estimates of EM growth started in 2007. The application of fertilizer reduced EM growth to between 0% and 40% of the growth in the control plots at one site (Ebbegärde), while no significant effect was found at the other three sites studied. The effect of the fertilizer was similar in sand-filled and maize-compost-amended mesh bags, but the total production of EM fungi was 3–4 times higher in maize-compost-amended mesh bags. The fertilizer tended to reduce EM growth more when applied every year than when applied every second year. The amount of C sequestered in maize-compost-amended mesh bags collected from unfertilized treatments was estimated to be between 0.2 and 0.7 mg C g sand−1 at Ebbegärde and between 0.2 and 0.5 mg C g sand−1 at Grängshammar. This corresponds to between 300 and 1100 kg C per ha, assuming a similar production in the soil as in the mesh bags. Fertilization at the Ebbegärde site reduced carbon sequestration, which confirmed the results based on estimates of fungal growth (ergosterol levels). A correlation was found between fungal biomass and δ13C in mesh bags amended with maize compost. Based on this, it was estimated that a fungal production of 1 μg ergosterol corresponded to 0.33 mg of sequestered carbon. In conclusion, the effect of the fertilizer on EM growth seemed to be dependent on the effect of the fertilizer on tree growth. Thus, at Ebbegärde, were tree growth was less stimulated by the fertilizer, EM growth was reduced upon fertilization. At other sites, where tree growth was more stimulated, the fertilizer did not influence EM growth. The large amounts of carbon sequestered during the experiment may be a result of fungal residues remaining in the soil after the death of the hyphae.

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