lnu.sePublications
Change search
Refine search result
1 - 26 of 26
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 1.
    Brutemark, Andreas
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Granéli, Edna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Role of mixotrophy and light for growth and survival of the toxic haptophyte Prymnesium parvum2011In: Harmful Algae, ISSN 1568-9883, E-ISSN 1878-1470, Vol. 10, p. 388-394Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mixotrophy in Prymnesium parvum was investigated using carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) stable isotopes. The experiment was performed in light and dark. In the dark treatment we expected that the mixotrophic P. parvum would rely solely on its prey and therefore reflect the prey isotopic signatures. In the light treatment P. parvum can perform photosynthesis as well as utilize its prey, thus we expect the isotopic signatures to be between the dark mixed cultures and the monocultures, depending on how much prey was utilized. In the light treatment, addition of the ciliate Myrionecta rubra resulted in higher P. parvum cell numbers compared to monocultures. During the experiment, cell numbers in the dark monocultures and the mixed dark cultures did not increase. P. parvum had 2.5-3 times higher cellular phosphorus and nitrogen content in the dark compared to the cultures in the light whereas no difference in carbon content between treatments could be observed. This suggests that P. parvum can utilize nitrogen and phosphorus but not carbon in the dark. It thus seems as if P. parvum relies on photosynthesis to meet the carbon and energy demand required for growth. The expected isotopic signatures “become what you eat…plus a few per mil” were not observed. In the dark treatment, the δ13C did not differ between monocultures and mixed cultures. In the light treatments P. parvum δ13C became less negative then the corresponding dark treatments indicating that P. parvum used CO2 rather than carbon from the added prey. No difference in δ15N between monocultures and mixed cultures could be observed during the experiment. We argue that light is necessary for P. parvum growth and that the ability to utilize nutrients originating from their prey may be important in bloom formation.

  • 2.
    Carvalho, Wanderson
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Minnhagen, Susanna
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Granéli, Edna
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Dinophysis norvegica (Dinophyceae), more a predator than a producer?2008In: Harmful Algae, ISSN 1568-9883, E-ISSN 1878-1470, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 174-183Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several studies have proved that some Dinophysis species are capable of ingesting particulate organic matter besides of being photosynthetic, a form of nutrition termed mixotrophy. Phagotrophy may be an important aspect of the life history of the genus Dinophysis and the key to understand its ecology. We used modern techniques coupling flow cytometry and acidotropic probes to detect and score food vacuolated Dinophysis norvegica cells in natural samples. In addition, feeding experiments were conduced under controlled conditions to observe if D. norvegica would grow feeding on the cryptophyte Teleaulax amphioxeia. The results of the field observations showed a frequency of phagotrophy between 25 and 71% in a natural D. norvegica population from the Baltic Sea, which is higher than previous reports (1–20%). Although molecular methods have proved that the kleptoplastids of the D. norvegica from the Baltic Sea are from T. amphioxeia, the laboratory experiments showed that the presence of T. amphioxeia in the cultures did not enhance the survival rate of D. norvegica neither in phototrophic nor in heterotrophic conditions. We suggest that the D. norvegica Kleptoplats are obtained through a heterotrophic or mixotrophic protist, which have been feeding on cryptophytes, as it has recently been shown for Dinophysis acuminata. Our main conclusion is that D. norvegica, and probably all other species from the genus Dinophysis, is mainly phagotrophic and feeds on a larger prey than T. amphioxeia. Autotrophy through kleptoplastidy would be a secondary feature used as a complementary or short-term survival strategy. 

  • 3.
    F de Carvalho, Wanderson
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Granéli, Edna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Contribution of phagotrophy versus autotrophy to Prymnesium parvum growth under nitrogen and phosphorus sufficiency and deficiency2010In: Harmful Algae, ISSN 1568-9883, E-ISSN 1878-1470, Vol. 9, p. 105-115Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to test the effects of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) sufficiency and deficiency on mixotrophy in Prymnesium parvum (Haptophyta). A parvum was grown with and without algal prey (Rhodomonas salina) and observed for 120 h. Detection and enumeration of cells containing food vacuoles with prey (i.e. phagotrophy) was based on flow cytometric detection of fluorescence of an acidotropic probe. Overall, the presence of R. salina increased phagotrophy in P. parvum suggesting that, at least in this strain of P. parvum, the presence of suitable prey can stimulate phagotrophic behavior in P. parvum. Feeding frequency (the percentage of A parvum cells containing food vacuoles in a given time) was significantly higher under N and P deficiency than in the nutrient-sufficient treatments. A nutrient budget constructed from the data indicated that ingestion of organic matter (OM) supplied with 78 +/- 7% of the N (3.9 +/- 0.3 mu M) incorporated by P. parvum in the N-deficient treatment, and 45 +/- 9% of the P (0.3 +/- 0 mu M) acquired in the P-deficient cultures. Even under nutrient sufficiency, ingestion of OM was estimated to have supplied 43 +/- 16% of the N and 48 +/- 16% of the P incorporated into P. parvum cells. Phagotrophy was observed even in the NP-sufficient cultures (non-axenic mixed and monocultures), although P. parvum cells did not lose their photosynthetic capability, suggesting that phagotrophy is probably a permanent nutritional adaptation to this species. The ingestion of organic nutrients played an important role in P. parvum growth, being a reliable source of nutrition for P. parvum inorganic nutrient limitation, and could explain its capabilities to form persistent blooms. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 4. Glibert, PM
    et al.
    Burkholder, JM
    Granéli, Edna
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Anderson, DM
    Advances and insights in the complex relationships between eutrophication and HABs: Preface to the special issue.2008In: Harmful Algae, ISSN 1568-9883, E-ISSN 1878-1470, Vol. 8, p. 1-2Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Granéli, Edna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Edvardsen, Bente
    University of Oslo, Dept. of Biology.
    Roelke, Daniel L
    Texas A&M University, Departments of Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences and Oceanography.
    Hagström, Johannes
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    The ecophysiology and bloom dynamics of Prymnesium spp.2012In: Harmful Algae, ISSN 1568-9883, E-ISSN 1878-1470, Vol. 14, no SI, p. 260-270Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Members of Prymnesium belong to the division Haptophyta, class Prymnesiophyceae, order Prymnesialesand family Prymnesiaceae. As most haptophytes, members of the genus Prymnesium are unicellular andplanktonic. The most known of these species is the ichthyotoxic P. parvum, which may form nearlymonospecific dense blooms in coastal and inland waters. This species possesses extraordinary plasticityconcerning life survival strategies, and is specifically addressed in this review.Toxins produced by P. parvum have hemolytic properties, that not only kill fish but also co-existingplankton. These substances are allelopathic (when other algae are killed) and grazer deterrent (whengrazers are killed). Allelopathy enables P. parvum to utilize inorganic nutrients present in the surroundingwater without competition from other algal species; and by eliminating its grazers P. parvum reduces celllosses. The paralized microalgae and/or zooplankton, are therefter ingested by the P. parvum cells, aprocess called phagotrophy. P. parvum is also able of osmotrophy, i.e. utilization of dissolved organicmatter. In this review, the cellular characteristics, life cycles, bloom formation, and factors affectingtoxicity, allelopathy, phagotrophy, and osmotrophy of P. parvum are discussed.

  • 6.
    Granéli, Edna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Vidyarathna, Nayani K.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Funari, Enzo
    Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome, Italy.
    Cumaranatunga, PRT
    University of Ruhuna, Sri Lanka.
    Scenati, Raffaele
    National Institute of Health, Rome Italy.
    Can increases in temperature stimulate blooms of the toxic benthic dinoflagellate Ostreopsis ovata?2011In: Harmful Algae, ISSN 1568-9883, E-ISSN 1878-1470, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 165-172Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ostreopsis ovata Fukuyo is an epiphytic, toxic dinoflagellate, inhabiting tropical and sub-tropical waters worldwide and also in certain temperate waters such as the Mediterranean Sea. Toxic blooms of O. ovata have been reported in SE Brazil in 1998/99 and 2001/02 and the French-Italian Riviera in 2005 and 2006. These blooms had negative effects on human health and aquatic life. Chemical analyses have indicated that O. ovata cells produce palytoxin, a very strong toxin, only second in toxicity to botulism. Increase in water temperature by several degrees has been suggested as the reason for triggering these blooms. Four laboratory experiments were performed with O. ovata isolated from Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy to determine the effects of water temperature and co-occurring algae on the cell growth and/or the toxicity of O. ovata. The cells were grown under different temperatures ranging from 16 °C to 30 °C, and cell densities, growth rates and the cell toxicities were studied. Results indicated high water temperatures (26-30 °C) increased the growth rate and biomass accumulation of O. ovata. In mixed cultures of O. ovata with other co-occurring algae, biomass decreased due to grazing by ciliates. Cell toxicity on the other hand was highest at lower temperatures, i.e., between 20 and 22 °C. The present study suggests that sea surface temperature increases resulted by global warming could play a crucial role inducing the geographical expansion and biomass accumulation by blooms of O. ovata.

  • 7.
    Granéli, Edna
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Weberg, Martin
    Salomon, Paulo
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Harmful algal blooms of allelopathic species: the role of eutrophication2008In: Harmful Algae, ISSN 1568-9883, E-ISSN 1878-1470, Vol. 8, p. 94-102Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Hagström, Johannes
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Granéli, Edna
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Maneiro, I
    Barreiro, A
    Petermann, A
    Svensen, Camilla
    Release and degradation of amnesic shellfish poison from decaying Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries in presence of bacteria and organic matter2007In: Harmful Algae, ISSN 1568-9883, E-ISSN 1878-1470, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 175-188Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Lindehoff, Elin
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Granéli, Edna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Glibert, Patricia M
    University of Maryland, Horn Point Laboratory, Cambridge, USA.
    Nitrogen uptake kinetics of Prymnesium parvum (Haptophyte)2011In: Harmful Algae, ISSN 1568-9883, E-ISSN 1878-1470, Vol. 12, p. 70-76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The uptake rates of different nitrogen (N) forms (NO3-, urea, and the amino acids glycine and glutamicacid) by N-deficient, laboratory-grown cells of the mixotrophic haptophyte, Prymnesium parvum, weremeasured and the preference by the cells for the different forms determined. Cellular N uptake rates(rcell, fmol N cell-1 h-1) were measured using 15N-labeled N substrates. P. parvum showed highpreference for the tested amino acids, in particular glutamic acid, over urea and NO3 under the culturenutrient conditions. However, extrapolating these rates to Baltic Seawater summer conditions, P. parvumwould be expected to show higher uptake rates of NO3- and the amino acids relative to urea because ofthe difference in average concentrations of these substrates. A high uptake rate of glutamic acid at lowsubstrate concentrations suggests that this substrate is likely used through extracellular enzymes.Nitrate, urea and glycine, on the other hand, showed a non-saturating uptake over the tested substrateconcentration (1–40 mM-N for NO3- and urea, 0.5–10 mM-N for glycine), indicating slower membranetransportrates for these substrates

  • 10.
    Lindehoff, Elin
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Granéli, Edna
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Graneli, Wilhelm
    Effect of tertiary sewage effluent additions on Prymnesium parvum cell toxicity and stable isotope ratios2009In: Harmful Algae, ISSN 1568-9883, E-ISSN 1878-1470, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 247-253Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated the ability of the ichthyotoxic haptophyte Prymnesium parvum to use sewage-originated nutrients applying stable carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) isotope techniques. P. parvum was cultured under N and phosphorus (P) sufficient and deficient conditions in either sewage effluent-based medium or in a nitrate- and phosphate-based control. Cell densities and toxicities were monitored and stable carbon N isotopes signatures (delta(13)C and delta(15)N) of P. parvum and the sewage effluent analysed. Nitrogen and P sufficient cultures achieved the highest biomass followed by P and N deficient cultures, regardless of sewage effluent additions. The P deficient cultures with sewage effluent had higher toxicity, estimated as haemolytic activity (9.4 +/- 0 x 10(-5) mg Saponin equiv. cell(-1)) compared to the P deficient control and to all N deficient and NP sufficient cultures. Nutrient deficient conditions had no effect on the cell delta(15)N, but a decreasing effect on delta(13)C in the inorganic N deficient treatment. Growth in sewage-based media was followed by a substantial increase in the cell delta(15)N (10.4-16.1 parts per thousand) compared to the control treatments (2.4-4.9 parts per thousand), showing that P. parvum is capable of direct use of sewage-originated N, inorganic as well as organic. Uptake of terrestrial derived C in the sewage treatments was confirmed by a decrease in cell delta(13)C, implying that P. parvum is able to utilize organic nutrients in sewage effluent.

  • 11.
    Lundgren, Veronica
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Glibert, Patricia M.
    University of Maryland, USA.
    Granéli, Edna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Lund University;Florida Gulf Coast University, USA.
    Vidyarathna, Nayani K.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Fiori, Emanuela
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. University of Bologna, Italy.
    Ou, Linjian
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Jinan University, China .
    Flynn, Kevin J.
    Swansea University, UK.
    Mitra, Aditee
    Swansea University, UK.
    Stoecker, Diane K.
    University of Maryland, USA.
    Hansen, Per J.
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Metabolic and physiological changes in Prymnesium parvum when grown under, and grazing on prey of, variable nitrogen:phosphorus stoichiometry2016In: Harmful Algae, ISSN 1568-9883, E-ISSN 1878-1470, Vol. 55, p. 1-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mixotrophy is found in almost all classes of phytoplankton in a wide range of aquatic habitats ranging from oligotrophic to eutrophic marine and freshwater systems. Few studies have addressed how the nutritional status of the predator and/or the prey affects mixotrophic metabolism despite the realization that mixotrophy is important ecologically. Laboratory experiments were conducted to examine changes in growth rates and physiological states of the toxic haptophyte Prymnesium parvum when fed Rhodomonas sauna of varying nutritional status. Haemolytic activity of P. parvum and prey mortality of R. sauna were also measured. P. parvum cultures grown to be comparatively low in nitrogen (low-N), phosphorus (low-P) or low in both nutrients (low-NP) were mixed with low-NP, low-N, and low-P R. saline in all possible combinations, i.e., a 3 x 3 factorial design. N deficiency was obtained in the low-N cultures, while true P deficiency may not have been obtained in the low-P cultures. Mortality rates of R. salina (both due to ingestion and/or cell rupture as a function of grazing or toxic effects) were higher when R. sauna cells were low-P, N-rich, regardless of the nutritional state of P. parvum. Mortality rates were, however, directly related to the initial prey:predator cell ratios. On the other hand, growth of the predator was a function of nutritional status and a significant positive correlation was observed between growth rates of P. parvum and cell-specific depletion rates of N, whereas no such relationship was found between P. parvum growth rates and depletion rates of P. In addition, the greatest changes in chlorophyll content and stoichiometric ratios of P. parvum were observed in high N:P conditions. Therefore, P. parvum may show enhanced success under conditions of higher inorganic N:P, which are likely favored in the future due to increases in eutrophication and altered nutrient stoichiometry driven by anthropogenic nutrient loads that are increasingly enriched in N relative to P. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 12.
    Lundgren, Veronica
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Granéli, Edna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Pflugmacher, Stephan
    Berlin Institute of Technology (BIT), Germany.
    Influence of Acartia cf. bifilosa (Copepoda) on morphology and toxicity of Nodularia spumigena (Cyanophyceae)2012In: Harmful Algae, ISSN 1568-9883, E-ISSN 1878-1470, Vol. 18, p. 35-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nodularia spumigena was exposed directly and indirectly (grazer cages) to increasing densities of Acartiacf. bifilosa to investigate if the presence of copepods influenced the morphology and/or the toxicity of thecyanobacterium. Monocultures with only N. spumigena and mixed cultures, containing N. spumigena andthe non-toxic Dunaliella tertiolecta, were included in each experiment. Following 6 days of incubation,the morphology and toxicity in grazer treatments were compared with grazer-free controls. Weobserved no effects of A. cf. bifilosa on either morphology or toxicity of N. spumigena. The lack of grazerinduced nodularin production and morphological alterations suggest that these two potential defensestrategies either has evolved as constitutive defenses or never evolved as grazer defenses. The mortalityof copepods was higher in the monoculture than in the mixed culture treatments. Gut contentobservations indicated a low level of grazing in monoculture treatments and a higher level of grazing inmixed culture treatments. This higher level of grazing most likely occurred on the alternative food D.tertiolecta. Given the indications of low grazing and the concentrations of dissolved nodularin observed,we postulate that the higher mortality was not related to toxic effects, but to starvation. This in turn mayhave resulted from bad taste, production of unknown grazer deterrents or morphological constraints;although the size of the filaments would not have imposed an absolute limit for ingestion by A. cf. bifilosa.The higher copepod mortality observed on monocultures of N. spumigena may contribute to the successand maintenance of N. spumigena blooms.

  • 13.
    Lundgren, Veronica
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Texas A&M Univ, USA.
    Roelke, Daniel L.
    Texas A&M Univ, USA.
    Brooks, Bryan W.
    Baylor Univ, USA.
    Granéli, Edna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Florida Gulf Coast Univ, USA.
    Davis, Stephen L.
    Texas A&M Univ, USA.
    Baty, Tomas
    Texas A&M Univ, USA.
    Scott, W. Casan
    Baylor Univ, USA.
    Prymnesium parvum invasion success into coastal bays of the Gulf of Mexico: Galveston Bay case study2015In: Harmful Algae, ISSN 1568-9883, E-ISSN 1878-1470, Vol. 43, p. 31-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The toxic haptophyte Prymnesium parvum regularly forms fish-killing blooms in inland brackish water bodies in the south-central USA. Along the Texas coast smaller blooms have occurred in isolated areas. There appears to be an increasing risk that harmful P. parvum blooms will propagate into open coastal waters with implementation of future water plans. These plans will include increased interbasin water transfers from the Brazos River, regularly impacted by P. parvum blooms, to the San Jacinto-Brazos Coastal Basin, which ultimately flows into Galveston Bay (GB). Persisting source populations of P. parvum in inland waters elevates this risk. Thus, there is a need for an increased understanding of how P. parvum might perform in coastal waters, such as those found in GB. Here, two in-field experiments were conducted to investigate the influence of various plankton size-fractions of GB water on inoculated P. parvum during fall and winter, periods when blooms are typically initiating and developing inland. Stationary- and log-growth phase P. parvum were used to represent high and low toxicity initial conditions. Results revealed that P. parvum could grow in GB waters and cause acute mortality to silverside minnows (Menidia beryllina). Depending on season and growth phase, however, P. parvum growth and toxicity varied in different size fractions. During the fall, P. parvum inoculated from stationary-, but not log-growth phase culture, was negatively affected by bacteria-sized particles. During the winter, bacteria and nanoplankton together had a negative effect on P. parvum inoculated from stationary- and, to a lesser degree, log-growth phase cultures. Intermediate- and large-sized grazers when combined with bacteria and nanoplankton had complex relationships with inoculated P. parvum, sometimes stimulating and sometimes suppressing population growth. Toxicity to fish occurred in almost all plankton size fractions. The inclusion of progressively larger sized plankton fractions resulted in trends of decreased toxicity in treatments inoculated with stationary-, but not log-growth phase P. parvum in the fall. In the winter, however, inclusion of larger sized plankton fractions resulted in trends of increased toxicity to fish in treatments inoculated with both stationary- and log-growth phase P. parvum. This study indicates that understanding P. parvum population dynamics in open waters of estuaries and bays will be challenging, as there appears to be complex relationships with naturally occurring components of the plankton. The observations that P. parvum is able to grow to high population density and produce fish-killing levels of toxins underscores the need for advanced risk assessment studies, especially in light of water use plans that will result in P. parvum invasions of greater size. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 14.
    McNamee, Sara E.
    et al.
    Queen's University, UK.
    Medlin, Linda K.
    Marine Biological Association of UK, UK.
    Kegel, Jessica
    Marine Biological Association of UK, UK.
    McCoy, Gary R.
    National University of Ireland, Ireland.
    Raine, Robin
    National University of Ireland, Ireland.
    Barra, Lucia
    Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, Italy.
    Ruggiero, Maria Valeria
    Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, Italy.
    Kooistra, Wiebe H. C. F.
    Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, Italy.
    Montresor, Marina
    Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, Italy.
    Hagström, Johannes
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Pérez Blanco, Eva
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Granéli, Edna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Rodriguez, Francisco
    Inst Espanol Oceanog, Spain.
    Escalera, Laura
    Inst Espanol Oceanog, Spain.
    Reguera, Beatriz
    Inst Espanol Oceanog, Spain.
    Dittami, Simon
    Univ Oslo, Norway.
    Edvardsen, Bente
    Univ Oslo, Norway.
    Taylor, Joe
    Univ Westminster, UK.
    Lewis, Jane M.
    Univ Westminster, UK.
    Pazos, Yolanda
    INTECMAR, Spain.
    Elliott, Christopher T.
    Queens Univ Belfast, UK.
    Campbell, Katrina
    Queens Univ Belfast, UK.
    Distribution, occurrence and biotoxin composition of the main shellfish toxin producing microalgae within European waters: A comparison of methods of analysis2016In: Harmful Algae, ISSN 1568-9883, E-ISSN 1878-1470, Vol. 55, p. 112-120Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are a natural global phenomena emerging in severity and extent. Incidents have many economic, ecological and human health impacts. Monitoring and providing early warning of toxic HABs are critical for protecting public health. Current monitoring programmes include measuring the number of toxic phytoplankton cells in the water and biotoxin levels in shellfish tissue. As these efforts are demanding and labour intensive, methods which improve the efficiency are essential. This study compares the utilisation of a multitoxin surface plasmon resonance (multitoxin SPR) biosensor with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and analytical methods such as high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for toxic HAB monitoring efforts in Europe. Seawater samples (n = 256) from European waters, collected 2009-2011, were analysed for biotoxins: saxitoxin and analogues, okadaic acid and dinophysistoxins 1/2 (VDU /DTX2) and domoic acid responsible for paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), diarrheic shellfish poisoning (DSP) and amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP), respectively. Biotoxins were detected mainly in samples from Spain and Ireland. France and Norway appeared to have the lowest number of toxic samples. Both the multitoxin SPR biosensor and the RNA microarray were more sensitive at detecting toxic HABs than standard light microscopy phytoplankton monitoring. Correlations between each of the detection methods were performed with the overall agreement, based on statistical 2 x 2 comparison tables, between each testing platform ranging between 32% and 74% for all three toxin families illustrating that one individual testing method may not be an ideal solution. An efficient early warning monitoring system for the detection of toxic HABs could therefore be achieved by combining both the multitoxin SPR biosensor and RNA microarray. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 15.
    Persson, Karl-Johan
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Legrand, Catherine
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Olsson, Thomas
    Toxicon, Sweden.
    Detection of nodularin in European flounder (Platichthys flesus) in the west coast of Sweden: evidence of nodularin mediated oxidative stress2009In: Harmful Algae, ISSN 1568-9883, E-ISSN 1878-1470, Vol. 8, no 6, p. 832-838Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The brackish, bloom-forming cyanobacterium Nodularia spumigena produces a peptide called nodularin, which may induce liver damage in fish. In the summer of 2007, nodularin was detected in liver tissue of European flounder caught in Swedish waters of Öresund, within the upper salinity limit for N. spumigena. Nodularinconcentrations ranging between 22 and 557 μg kg−1 liver (d.w.) were detected in fish liver. Nodularin was not detected in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis). Although N. spumigena blooms can occur in the area, the cyanobacteria were only present in very small amounts in 2007. Results suggested that nodularin accumulated inflounder livers during the summer of 2006, when vast N. spumigena blooms were observed in Öresund, and persisted over several months. Nodularin has previously been shown to induce oxidative stress in mice, crustaceans and mollusks but work on the potential negative effects of nodularin on fish is still scarce. To examine the dynamics of nodularin induced oxidative stress in liver tissue of flounder, the differential responses of the antioxidant enzymes glutathione-S-transferase catalase(CAT) and the formation of malondialdehyde (MDA) were monitored during 14 days in flounder exposed to an intraperitoneal injection of nodularin (0, 2, 10 and 50 μg nodularin kg−1 body weight). The activities of GST and CAT in the liver decreased significantly in the 50 μg nodularin kg−1 exposure after 7 days, but were restored to control levels after an additional 10 days of recovery. The results suggested that nodularin induced oxidative stress in terms of decreased GST and CATactivity, which can result in increased vulnerability of the cell to reactive oxygen species (ROS). No significant changes could be found in MDA levels between the treatments. Thus, the antioxidant defense system presumably managed to prevent oxygen mediated toxicity as seen by the unchanged levels of MDA. Alteration of the enzymatic defense system may increase energetic costs, thus reducing fish growth and survival. The present study also suggests that oxidative stress biomarkers can be used in fish to detect early responses to nodularin.

  • 16.
    Pérez Blanco, Eva
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Hagström, Johannes
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Salomon, Paulo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Granéli, Edna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Detection of Heterosigma akashiwo (Hada) using specific RNA probes: Variability of RNA content with environmental conditions2013In: Harmful Algae, ISSN 1568-9883, E-ISSN 1878-1470, Vol. 24, p. 80-88Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The raphidophyte Heterosigma akashiwo, which forms toxic blooms, causes major economical losses to the fish industry because of the fish kills involved. It is therefore important to be able to detect not only H. akashiwo but other toxic phytoplankton species as well, rapidly and accurately to reduce losses by fish kills. With this purpose, DNA sequences from H. akashiwo 18S and 28S rRNA gene regions were studied in silico to design species-specific probes to be used in a microarray format. Three strains of H. akashiwo (AC 265, AC 266 and GUMACC 120) were grown at optimal conditions and transferred into new environmental conditions changing either the light intensity, salinity, temperature or nutrient concentrations, to check if any of these environmental conditions induced changes in the cellular RNA concentration. The aim of this experiment was the calibration of several species-specific probes for the quantification of H. akashiwo. Differences on RNA content were not significant (p < 0.05) in any of the treatments, therefore the calibration curves were validated. The designed probes are reliable for the detection and quantification of H. akashiwo cells in natural waters. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 17. Reizopoulou, Sofia
    et al.
    Strogyloudi, Evangelia
    Giannakourou, Antonia
    Pagou, Kalliopi
    Hatzianestis, Ioannis
    Pyrgaki, Christina
    Granéli, Edna
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Okadaic acid accumulation in macrofilter-feeders subjected to natural blooms of Dinophysis acuminata2008In: Harmful Algae, ISSN 1568-9883, E-ISSN 1878-1470, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 228-234Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Savela, Henna
    et al.
    Univ Turku, Finland.
    Harju, Kirsi
    Univ Helsinki, Finland.
    Spoof, Lisa
    Åbo Akad Univ, Finland.
    Lindehoff, Elin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Meriluoto, Jussi
    Åbo Akad Univ, Finland.
    Vehniainen, Markus
    Univ Turku, Finland.
    Kremp, Anke
    Finnish Environm Inst, Finland.
    Quantity of the dinoflagellate sxtA4 gene and cell density correlates with paralytic shellfish toxin production in Alexandrium ostenfeldii blooms2016In: Harmful Algae, ISSN 1568-9883, E-ISSN 1878-1470, Vol. 52, p. 1-10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many marine dinofiagellates, including several species of the genus Alexandrium, Gymnodinium catenatum, and Pyrodinium bahamense are known for their capability to produce paralytic shellfish toxins (PST), which can cause severe, most often food-related poisoning. The recent discovery of the first PST biosynthesis genes has laid the foundation for the development of molecular detection methods for monitoring and study of PST-producing dinofiagellates. In this study, a probe-based qPCR method for the detection and quantification of the sxtA4 gene present in Alexandrium spp. and Gymnodinium catenatum was designed. The focus was on Alexandrium ostenfeldii, a species which recurrently forms dense toxic blooms in areas within the Baltic Sea. A consistent, positive correlation between the presence of sxtA4 and PST biosynthesis was observed, and the species was found to maintain PST production with an average of 6 genomic copies of sxtA4. In August 2014, A. ostenfeldii populations were studied for cell densities, PST production, as well as sxtA4 and species-specific LSU copy numbers in Foglo, Aland, Finland, where an exceptionally dense bloom, consisting of 6.3 x 10(6) cells L-1, was observed. Cell concentrations, and copy numbers of both of the target genes were positively correlated with total STX, GTX2, and GTX3 concentrations in the environment, the cell density predicting toxin concentrations with the best accuracy (Spearman's p = 0.93, p < 0.01). The results indicated that all A. ostenfeldii cells in the blooms harbored the genetic capability of PST production, making the detection of sxtA4 a good indicator of toxicity. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 19.
    Sulcius, Sigitas
    et al.
    Nat Res Ctr, Lithuania.
    Mazur-Marzec, Hanna
    Univ Gdansk, Poland;Polish Acad Sci, Poland.
    Vitonyte, Irma
    Nat Res Ctr, Lithuania.
    Kvederaviciute, Kotryna
    MAP Kinase Resource, Switzerland;Vilnius Univ, Lithuania.
    Kuznecova, Jolita
    Nat Res Ctr, Lithuania.
    Simoliunas, Eugenijus
    Vilnius Univ, Lithuania.
    Holmfeldt, Karin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Insights into cyanophage-mediated dynamics of nodularin and other non-ribosomal peptides in Nodularia spumigena2018In: Harmful Algae, ISSN 1568-9883, E-ISSN 1878-1470, Vol. 78, p. 69-74Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of cyanophage infection and lysis on the dynamics of the hepatotoxin nodularin (NOD) and other nonribosomal peptides (NRPs) produced by cyanobacteria is poorly understood. In this study, changes in concentration of NOD and other NRPs during cyanophage infection of the filamentous cyanobacteria Nodularia spumigena were assessed using incubation experiments. Viral infection and lysis were associated with a significant reduction (93% at the 96 h post infection) of N. spumigena cell density. While no correlation between N. spumigena abundance and total concentration of NOD (ng mL(-1)) within the infected cells was observed, cellular NOD quota (ng cell(-1)) gradually increased in the remaining cyanophage resistant N. spumigena subpopulation. Lysis of N. spurnigena cells resulted in a substantial increase (>57 times) of dissolved NOD concentration in the culture medium. The relative concentration of other cyclic (anabaenopeptins) and linear (aeruginosins, spumigins) NRPs produced by N. spumigena also increased in response to cyanophage addition. This study highlights the importance of cyanophage infection on the population toxicity of filamentous cyanobacteria and demonstrates a significant contribution of virus-mediated cell lysis on the conversion of NOD from the particulate to dissolved phase.

  • 20. Svensen, Camilla
    et al.
    Strogyloudi, Evangeli
    Wexels- Riser, Christian
    Dahlmann, Jens
    Legrand, Catherine
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Wassmann, Paul
    Granéli, Edna
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Pagou, Kalliopi
    Reduction of cyanobacterial toxins through coprophagy in Mytilus edulis2005In: Harmful Algae, ISSN 1568-9883, E-ISSN 1878-1470, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 329-336Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An experiment was conducted to follow the fate of the cyanobacterial toxin, nodularin, produced by Nodularia spumigena through ingestion by Mytilus edulis and re-ingestion of faecal material (coprophagy). Mussels were fed with cultures of N. spumigena, and the faeces that were produced were fed to other mussels not previously exposed to N. spumigena. Concentrations of nodularin were measured in the food (N. spumigena), the mussels and in the faeces in order to make a toxin budget. High concentrations of nodularin were found in the mussels and their faeces after 48 h incubation with N. spumigena. When the toxic faeces were fed to new mussels, the toxin content of faeces was reduced from 95 mug nod g(-1) dry weight (DW) to 1 mug nod g(-1) DW through the process of coprophagy. Hence, when toxic faeces were fed to mussels, the nodularin concentration of the resulting faecal material was reduced by 99%. Pseudofaeces were produced when the mussels were grazing on N. spumigena, but not when grazing on faeces. The pseudofaeces contained high concentrations of nodularin and apparently intact N. spumigena cells. However, these cells were growth-inhibited and their potential contribution to seeding a bloom is probably limited. Our data indicate that a large fraction of ingested nodularin in M. edulis is egested with the faeces, and that the concentration of nodularin in the faeces is reduced when faeces are re-ingested.

  • 21. Varkitzi, Ioanna
    et al.
    Pagou, Kalliopi
    Granéli, Edna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Hatzianestis, Ioannis
    Pyrgaki, Christina
    Pavlidou, Alexandra
    Montesanto, Barbara
    Economou-Amilli, Athena
    Unbalanced N:P ratios and nutrient stress controlling growth and toxin production of the harmful dinoflagellate Prorocentrum lima (Ehrenberg) Dodge2010In: Harmful Algae, ISSN 1568-9883, E-ISSN 1878-1470, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 304-311Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The responses of the benthic marine dinoflagellate Prorocentrum lima to nutrient stress induced by unbalanced N:P ratios were the subject of this study. Batch cultures of P. lima cells were grown under NP sufficient (N as nitrate and ammonium) and deficient conditions, and the cell growth and toxicity were followed for eight weeks. P. lima grew slowly in all nutrient conditions and net growth rates ranged from 0.11 to 0.22 divisions day(-1). Phosphorus (P) was taken up with high uptake rates in all treatments until the end of exponential phase and reached limitation in the P deficient cultures. Nitrogen (N) did not reach limitation in any treatment. In the cultures with nitrate as exclusive N source, uptake rates of nitrate remained high after the exponential phase, suggesting that P. lima cells continued to accumulate N under surplus N availability. Nitrate was slowly consumed and therefore maintained cell growth, as documented by a prolonged exponential phase and an algal biomass increasing at low rates still after seven weeks of incubation. In the cultures with ammonium as exclusive N source, ammonium was taken up with the highest N uptake rates until the end of exponential phase. However, high initial concentrations of ammonium proved to be toxic to P. lima cells, demonstrating growth inhibition with the lowest algal biomass and okadaic acid (OA) production among treatments. The OA production increased after the exponential phase in all nutrient conditions when cell growth slowed down, suggesting that OA production was regulated by growth limitation. The highest OA cellular content (11.27 +/- 3.30 pg OA cell(-1)) was found in the P deficient cultures, where P decreased to limitation after the exponential phase (P < 0.1 mu M). We argue that the severely low P concentrations slowed down the growth rate so as to allow for a higher accumulation of OA in the P. lima cells that continued to produce OA at the same rate. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 22.
    Vidyarathna, Nayani K.
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Fiori, Emanuela
    University of Bologna, Ravenna, Italy.
    Lundgren, Veronica
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Granéli, Edna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    The effects of aeration on growth and toxicity of Prymnesium parvum grown with and without algal prey.2014In: Harmful Algae, ISSN 1568-9883, E-ISSN 1878-1470, Vol. 39, p. 55-63Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated the effects of aeration on growth and toxicity of the haptophyte Prymnesium parvum in the presence and absence of the algal prey Rhodomonas salina. Batch monocultures of P-limited P. parvum and N and P sufficient R. salina and mixed cultures of the two microalgae were grown with no, low (20) and high (100) ml min1 aeration for 18 days. Cell growth of P. parvum and R. salina and cell toxicity of P.parvum were studied over the experimental period. The highest specific growth rates of P. parvum were found at low aeration rates. R. salina in monocultures showed typical growth patterns, while R. salina numbers declined rapidly in the mixed cultures. Of the initial cell densities, 98–100% of the R. salina cells were lysed or ingested within 24 h of mixing with P. parvum cells. The maxima P. parvum biomasses were significantly higher in the mixed cultures than in the monocultures. Cell toxicity of P. parvum increased significantly in response to aeration rates and the highest levels were found in the high aeration condition. Availability of prey and resupply of inorganic nutrients decreased P. parvum cell toxicity. Our study suggests that P. parvum is tolerant and is able to grow over a broad range of aeration and associated turbulence effects though low aeration represents an optimal condition for growth. As P. parvum toxicity was higher in the high aeration treatment we suggest that the higher concentrations of oxygen cause more toxins to be produced, as these are oxygen rich compounds. We suggest that oxygenation and turbulence of surface waters caused by mixing may be involved in promoting high toxic P. parvum blooms in shallow lakes and coastal waters.

  • 23.
    Vidyarathna, Nayani K.
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Granéli, Edna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Physiological responses of Ostreopsis ovata to changesin N and P availability and temperature increase2013In: Harmful Algae, ISSN 1568-9883, E-ISSN 1878-1470, Vol. 21-22, p. 54-63Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ostreopsis ovata is a benthic dinoflagellate that produces palytoxin and ovatoxins. Blooms of O. ovata causing human health problems and mortality of benthic fauna have been reported from many tropical and temperate marine waters. In the present study we examined the combined effects of temperature and different nutrient conditions on the biochemical composition, growth, toxicity and carbohydrate production of an O. ovata strain originating from the Tyrrhenian Sea. O. ovata cultures with N:P ratios of 1.6, 16 and 160 (N deficient, NP sufficient and P deficient, respectively) were grown at 20 °C and 30 °C. Biomass accumulation, growth rates, cell volumes, biochemical composition, cell toxicity and carbohydrate production in each treatment were studied. Results indicated that under nutrient sufficiency O. ovata biomass accumulation increased significantly compared to N and P deficiency and also that N limitation severely affected growth. The highest growth rates were recorded at 30 °C. Cellular contents and the atomic ratios of C, N and P were higher in the cells grown at 20 °C than in those grown at 30 °C. O. ovata cell volumes increased at 20 °C. N deficiency significantly increased cell toxicity. Toxicity per cell was higher at 20 °C, but per carbon was highest at 30 °C. The highest carbohydrate production was found in conditions of N deficiency and at the lower temperature.

    Our study suggests that temperature increases due to global warming and nutrient enrichment of coastal waters stimulate the proliferation of O. ovata, particularly for the strains that have become adapted to warm temperate waters.

  • 24.
    Weissbach, Astrid
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Bechemin, Christian
    French research Institute for the exploitation of the sea (Ifremer), L`Houmeau, France.
    Genauzeau, Sylvie
    French research Institute for the exploitation of the sea (Ifremer), L`Houmeau, France.
    Rudström, Maria
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Legrand, Catherine
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences. Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Germany.
    Impact of Alexandrium tamarense allelochemicals on DOM dynamics in an estuarine microbial community2012In: Harmful Algae, ISSN 1568-9883, E-ISSN 1878-1470, Vol. 13, p. 58-64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Plankton and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) dynamics in fractionated estuarine microbial communities (<150 μm, <60 μm and <20 μm), incubated with allelopathic (lytic) or non allelopathic (non-lytic) Alexandrium tamarense filtrates were investigated over a period of 48 h. Additionally, the amount of dissolved organic matter (DOM) available for bacterial growth in the treatments was measured via bacterial seawater culture experiments immediately and 6 h after addition of A. tamarense filtrates. The lack of effect on DOC concentrations and plankton community composition in lytic treatments indicated that allelochemicals did not inhibit the growth of the microbial community. Nevertheless, bacterial seawater culture experiments provided evidence that lytic filtrate addition provoked the release of bioavailable DOM from the microbial community. Since DOM was only released from the largest seawater fraction, microorganisms >60 μm were probably most sensitive towards allelochemicals.

  • 25.
    Weissbach, Astrid
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Tillmann, Urban
    Legrand, Catherine
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Allelopathic potential of the dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense on marine microbial communities2010In: Harmful Algae, ISSN 1568-9883, E-ISSN 1878-1470, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 9-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The impacts of two strains of the dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense, differing in lytic activity, on the abundance and the composition of microbial communities (<150 μm) were studied in North Sea water during spring with Phaeocystis globosa as a dominant species. Cell-free suspensions (supernatant) of exponentially growing lytic and non-lytic Alexandrium culture were added at different concentrations to natural microbial communities under nutrient rich conditions. The non-lytic strain had a positive impact on diatoms whereas the lytic strain suppressed phytoplankton growth in comparison to the control. P. globosa, present as single cells in the initial community, increased in abundance and formed colonies in all treatments. However, total abundance and number of colonies was low with lytic Alexandriumadditions, whereas shape of the colonies, but not abundance of cells, was affected by non-lytic Alexandrium additions. During the 4-day experiment, bacterial abundance was constantly higher with high lytic additions (highest concentration equivalent to 1000 cells ml−1) whereas nanoflagellate abundance in the same treatments was found to be lower at the end of the experiment. Initial bacterial community composition differed significantly among lytic Alexandrium, non-lyticAlexandrium and North Sea water. However, neither bacterial activity nor composition was significantly affected by the supernatants after 96 h. Our results indicated that Alexandrium allelochemicals do not inhibit growth and production of bacteria in seawater collected during spring in the North Sea.

  • 26.
    Wells, Mark L.
    et al.
    Univ Maine, USA;Minist Nat Resources, China.
    Karlson, Bengt
    Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, Sweden, Sweden.
    Wulff, Angela
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Kudela, Raphael
    Univ Calif Santa Cruz, USA.
    Trick, Charles
    Western Univ, Canada;Schulich Sch Med & Dent, Canada.
    Asnaghi, Valentina
    Univ Genova DiSTAV, Italy.
    Berdalet, Elisa
    CSIC, Spain.
    Cochlan, William
    San Francisco State Univ, USA.
    Davidson, Keith
    Scottish Assoc Marine Sci, UK.
    De Rijcke, Maarten
    Flanders Marine Inst VLIZ, Belgium.
    Dutkiewicz, Stephanie
    MIT, USA.
    Hallegraeff, Gustaaf
    Univ Tasmania, Australia.
    Flynn, Kevin J.
    Swansea Univ, UK.
    Legrand, Catherine
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Paerl, Hans
    Univ North Carolina Chapel Hill, USA.
    Silke, Joe
    Marine Inst, Ireland.
    Suikkanen, Sanna
    Marine Res Ctr, Finland.
    Thompson, Peter
    CSIRO, Australia.
    Trainer, Vera L.
    NOAA, USA.
    Future HAB science: Directions and challenges in a changing climate2020In: Harmful Algae, ISSN 1568-9883, E-ISSN 1878-1470, Vol. 91, p. 1-18, article id 101632Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is increasing concern that accelerating environmental change attributed to human-induced warming of the planet may substantially alter the patterns, distribution and intensity of Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs). Changes in temperature, ocean acidification, precipitation, nutrient stress or availability, and the physical structure of the water column all influence the productivity, composition, and global range of phytoplankton assemblages, but large uncertainty remains about how integration of these climate drivers might shape future HABs. Presented here are the collective deliberations from a symposium on HABs and climate change where the research challenges to understanding potential linkages between HABs and climate were considered, along with new research directions to better define these linkages. In addition to the likely effects of physical (temperature, salinity, stratification, light, changing storm intensity), chemical (nutrients, ocean acidification), and biological (grazer) drivers on microalgae (senso lato), symposium participants explored more broadly the subjects of cyanobacterial HABs, benthic HABs, HAB effects on fisheries, HAB modelling challenges, and the contributions that molecular approaches can bring to HAB studies. There was consensus that alongside traditional research, HAB scientists must set new courses of research and practices to deliver the conceptual and quantitative advances required to forecast future HAB trends. These different practices encompass laboratory and field studies, long-term observational programs, retrospectives, as well as the study of socioeconomic drivers and linkages with aqua culture and fisheries. In anticipation of growing HAB problems, research on potential mitigation strategies should be a priority. It is recommended that a substantial portion of HAB research among laboratories be directed collectively at a small sub-set of HAB species and questions in order to fast-track advances in our understanding. Climate-driven changes in coastal oceanographic and ecological systems are becoming substantial, in some cases exacerbated by localized human activities. That, combined with the slow pace of decreasing global carbon emissions, signals the urgency for HAB scientists to accelerate efforts across disciplines to provide society with the necessary insights regarding future HAB trends.

1 - 26 of 26
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf