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  • 1.
    Betzholtz, Per-Eric
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Forsman, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Franzén, Markus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Inter-individual variation in colour patterns in noctuid moths characterizes long-distance dispersers and agricultural pests2019In: Journal of applied entomology, ISSN 0931-2048, E-ISSN 1439-0418, Vol. 143, no 9, p. 992-999Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A high capacity for long‐distance dispersal is a key to success for species confronted with environmental heterogeneity, habitat modification, fragmentation and loss. However, dispersal capacity is difficult to quantify and therefore poorly known in most taxa. Here, we report on a test for an association of variation in dispersal capacity with variable colouration of noctuid moths. First, using data from 12 experienced lepidopterologists, we showed that despite variation among experts in average assessments, different species are consistently classified as having non‐variable, variable or highly variable colour patterns when assessed by different experts. We then compared the incidence of non‐resident species with high inter‐individual variation in colour patterns recorded on the isolated island Utklippan (n = 47), with that in a species pool of potential long‐distance dispersers from the nearest mainland (n = 295). Species with high inter‐individual colour pattern variation were over‐represented on the island compared with species having non‐variable colouration. This finding constitutes rare evidence from the wild of long‐distance dispersal, measured on a spatial scale relevant for moths when tracking habitats in fragmented and changing landscapes or when keeping pace with environmental challenges associated with climate change. Finally, we showed that Swedish noctuid moths classified as agricultural pests (n = 28) had more variable colour patterns compared with non‐pests (n = 368). The majority of agricultural pests were also recorded on the isolated island, an outcome that is indicative of pest species having high dispersal capacity. Data on colour pattern variation may thus offer a simple and cost‐effective proxy to estimate dispersal capacity and can also help identify potential pest species. Our findings are potentially useful when modelling and predicting population and range dynamics of species in spatiotemporally heterogeneous environments, with direct implications for conservation biology and pest management.

  • 2.
    Schiebe, Christian
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Blaženec, M.
    Jakuš, R.
    Unelius, C. Rikard
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Schlyter, Fredrik
    Semiochemical diversity diverts bark beetle attacks from Norway spruce edges2011In: Journal of applied entomology, ISSN 0931-2048, E-ISSN 1439-0418, Vol. 135, no 10, p. 726-737Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The semiochemical diversity hypothesis (SDH) states that interference with host-selection from non-host volatiles (NHV) is an important mechanism for associational resistance. Inhibition of bark beetle attraction to point sources by non-host volatiles (NHV) is well established and might be a signal serving in host-selection also at the habitat scale. In forests dominated by Norway spruce in middle and northern Europe (N Slovakia 2006 & 2007, SE Sweden 2007), we applied a blend of NHV and verbenone, released from dispensers fixed at 2 and 6 m height at forest edges with high Ips typographus populations. In Slovakia, three different doses (0.2–0.7 dispensers/m forest edge) were tested in 20-tree zones of spruce stand edges. The Swedish experiments used only the middle dose. In Slovakia, there was high tree mortality but dispensers with the anti-attractants reduced killed trees in a dose-dependent manner. The reduction in tree killing ranged from 35 to 76% compared to untreated zones. Regression analysis of relative tree kill on log dispenser density was highly significant (R2ADJ= 0.34, corresponding effect size d≈ 0.98). In Sweden, with lower beetle populations, most attacks (99%) were found outside the experimental areas, with high attack rates (15 trees/ha) in a range of 15–30 m from treated groups, indicating an active inhibitory radius exceeding the previous estimates. The SDH as a functional aspect of biodiversity was tested by converting spruce monocultures into an artificial semiochemically mixed forests. The use of NHV provides the only non-insecticidal method of direct protection of conifer forests. The demonstrated principle of protection is still too expensive for area-wide use, but viable for high-value areas (nature reserves). Further development of push–pull strategies or area-wide applications may prove more cost efficient. In the long-term, the only sustainable approach is a forest landscape of mixed habitats.

  • 3.
    Unelius, C. Rikard
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. New Zealand Inst Plant & Food Res, Lincoln, New Zealand.
    El-Sayed, A. M.
    New Zealand Inst Plant & Food Res, Lincoln, New Zealand.
    Twidle, A. M.
    New Zealand Inst Plant & Food Res, Lincoln, New Zealand.
    Stringer, L. D.
    New Zealand Inst Plant & Food Res, Lincoln, New Zealand.
    Manning, L. M.
    New Zealand Inst Plant & Food Res, Lincoln, New Zealand.
    Sullivan, T. E. S.
    New Zealand Inst Plant & Food Res, Lincoln, New Zealand.
    Brown, R. L.
    New Zealand Inst Plant & Food Res, Lincoln, New Zealand.
    Noble, A. D. L.
    New Zealand Inst Plant & Food Res, Lincoln, New Zealand.
    Volatiles from green-lipped mussel as a lead to vespid wasp attractants2014In: Journal of applied entomology, ISSN 0931-2048, E-ISSN 1439-0418, Vol. 138, no 1-2, p. 87-95Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vespid wasps (Vespula vulgaris L. and V.germanica Fab. Hymenoptera; Vespidae) are highly abundant in 1 million ha of New Zealand's indigenous beech forests (Nothofagus spp.) and have had detrimental effects on the New Zealand native fauna. This hyperabundance is due in part to the vast supply of carbohydrate-rich honeydew produced by scale insects Ultracoelostoma spp. native to New Zealand. Current control methods include the use of wet cat food as a protein source with insecticide as a lure-and-kill-based system, but there are problems with fresh baits degrading rapidly, and a more durable formulation would enable the expansion and longevity of wasp control. Four crude protein baits were tested for vespid attraction. Green-lipped mussels had the highest vespid catch of the crude baits tested, and aged and fresh mussels were equally attractive. From headspace analysis of the green-lipped mussel volatiles, a series of butanoate esters, 3-octanone and 1-octen-3-ol were identified as possible attractants. These compounds were tested individually and in various blend combinations for the attraction of Vespula wasps in matagouri vegetation at the edge of beech forests. We found synergistic effects between single attractive compounds when tested in various combinations, and the multicomponent lures were more attractive to these wasps than heptyl and octyl butanoate, previously identified attractants for vespid species. The new multicomponent lures could form the basis for a new generation of attractants for social wasps that can provide sustained control methods for invasive vespid wasps.

  • 4.
    Witzgall, P.
    et al.
    SLU, Sweden.
    Bäckman, A. C.
    SLU, Sweden.
    Svensson, M.
    SLU, Sweden.
    Bengtsson, M.
    SLU, Sweden.
    Unelius, C. Rikard
    KTH, Sweden.
    Vrkoc, J.
    Kirsch, P. A.
    Ioriatti, C.
    Lofqvist, J.
    SLU, Sweden.
    Potential of a blend of E8,E10-120H and E8,E10-12Ac for mating disruption of codling moth, Cydia pomonella L (Lep, Tortricidae)1996In: Journal of applied entomology, ISSN 0931-2048, E-ISSN 1439-0418, Vol. 120, no 10, p. 611-614Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dispensers of E8,E10-12OH (codlemone), E8,E10-12Ac (codlemone acetate), or both dispenser types were placed on the corners of 100 m(2) and 300 m(2) plots within apple orchards. Communication disruption of male codling moths, Cydia pomonella, was monitored with pheromone traps in the centres of these plots. In the 300 m(2) plots, trap catch was reduced only by codlemone. In the 100 m(2) plots, trap catch was reduced in all three treatments, fewest males were caught in plots treated with both codlemone and codlemone acetate. Males were attracted to codlemone dispensers, they were also flying actively around the tree crowns, well above the dispensers. This behaviour was not observed in treatments with codlemone acetate, where male orientation flights were directed only towards the trap in the plot centre. The antagonistic effect of each of the four geometric isomers of codlemone acetate was shown by another trap test. Addition of 20% E,E-; E,Z-; Z,E- or Z8,Z10-12Ac decreased male attraction to traps baited with E8, E10-12OH.

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