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  • 1.
    Melin, Anna K.
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science. Univ Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Ritz, Christian
    Univ Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Faber, Jens
    Univ Copenhagen, Denmark;Herlev Hosp, Denmark.
    Skouby, Sven
    Univ Copenhagen, Denmark;Herlev Hosp, Denmark.
    Pingel, Jessica
    Univ Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Sundgot-Borgen, Jorunn
    Norwegian Sch Sport Sci, Norway.
    Sjödin, Anders
    Univ Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Tornberg, Åsa
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Impact of Menstrual Function on Hormonal Response to Repeated Bouts of Intense Exercise2019In: Frontiers in Physiology, ISSN 1664-042X, E-ISSN 1664-042X, Vol. 10, p. 1-8, article id 942Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Strenous exercise stimulates the hypothalamic-pituitary (HP) axis in order to ensure homeostasis and promote anabolism. Furthermore, exercise stimulates a transient increase in the neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) suggested to mediate the anxiolytic effects of exercise. Athletes with secondary functional hypothalamic amenorrhea (FHA) have been reported to have lower BDNF, and a blunted HP axis response to exercise as athletes with overtraining syndrome. Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate the hormonal and BDNF responses to a two-bout maximal exercise protocol with four hours of recovery in between in FHA and eumenorrheic (EUM) athletes. Methods: Eumenorrheic (n = 16) and FHA (n = 14) endurance athletes were recruited from national teams and competitive clubs. Protocols included gynecological examination; body composition (DXA); 7-day assessment of energy availability; blood sampling pre and post the two exercises tests. Results: There were no differences between groups in hormonal responses to the first exercise bout. After the second exercise bout IGFBP-3 increased more in FHA compared with EUM athletes (2.1 +/- 0.5 vs. 0.6 +/- 0.6 mu g/L, p = 0.048). There were non-significant trends toward higher increase in IGF-1 (39.3 +/- 4.3 vs. 28.0 +/- 4.6 mu g/L, p = 0.074), BDNF (96.5 +/- 22.9 vs. 34.4 +/- 23.5 mu g/L, p = 0.058), GH to cortisol ratio (0.329 +/- 0.010 vs. 0.058 +/- 0.010, p = 0.082), and decrease in IGF-1 to IGFBP-3 ratio (-2.04 +/- 1.2 vs. 0.92 +/- 1.22, p = 0.081) in athletes with FHA compared with EUM athletes. Furthermore, there was a non-significant trend toward a higher increase in prolactin to cortisol ratio in EUM athletes compared with athletes with FHA (0.60 +/- 0.15 vs. 0.23 +/- 0.15, p = 0.071). No differences in the hormonal or BDNF responses between the two exercise bouts as a result of menstrual function were found. Conclusion: No major differences in the hormonal or BDNF responses between the two exercise bouts as a result of menstrual function could be detected.

  • 2.
    Månsson, Alf
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Hypothesis and theory: mechanical instabilities and non-uniformities in hereditary sarcomere myopathies2014In: Frontiers in Physiology, ISSN 1664-042X, E-ISSN 1664-042X, Vol. 5, article id 350Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), due to point mutations in genes for sarcomere proteins such as myosin, occurs in 1/500 people and is the most common cause of sudden death in young individuals. Similar mutations in skeletal muscle, e.g., in the MYH7 gene for slow myosin found in both the cardiac ventricle and slow skeletal muscle, may also cause severe disease but the severity and the morphological changes are often different. In HCM, the modified protein function leads, over years to decades, to secondary remodeling with substantial morphological changes, such as hypertrophy, myofibrillar disarray, and extensive fibrosis associated with severe functional deterioration. Despite intense studies, it is unclear how the moderate mutation-induced changes in protein function cause the long-term effects. In hypertrophy of the heart due to pressure overload (e.g., hypertension), mechanical stress in the myocyte is believed to be major initiating stimulus for activation of relevant cell signaling cascades. Here it is considered how expression of mutated proteins, such as myosin or regulatory proteins, could have similar consequences through one or both of the following mechanisms: (1) contractile instabilities within each sarcomere (with more than one stable velocity for a given load), (2) different tension generating capacities of cells in series. These mechanisms would have the potential to cause increased tension and/or stretch of certain cells during parts of the cardiac cycle. Modeling studies are used to illustrate these ideas and experimental tests are proposed. The applicability of similar ideas to skeletal muscle is also postulated, and differences between heart and skeletal muscle are discussed.

  • 3.
    Pojskić, Haris
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University.
    Erik, Åslin
    Mid Sweden University.
    Krolo, Ante
    University of Split, Croatia.
    Jukic, Ivan
    University of Zagreb, Croatia.
    Uljevic, Ognjen
    University of Split, Croatia.
    Spasic, Miodrag
    University of Split, Croatia.
    Sekulic, Damir
    University of Split, Croatia.
    Importance of reactive agility and change of direction speed in differentiating performance levels in junior soccer players: reliability and validity of newly developed soccer-specific tests2018In: Frontiers in Physiology, ISSN 1664-042X, E-ISSN 1664-042X, Vol. 9, no May, p. 1-11, article id 506Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Agility is a significant determinant of success in soccer; however, studies have rarely presented and evaluated soccer-specific tests of reactive agility (S_RAG) and non-reactive agility (change of direction speed – S_CODS) or their applicability in this sport. The aim of this study was to define the reliability and validity of newly developed tests of the S_RAG and S_CODS to discriminate between the performance levels of junior soccer players. The study consisted of 20 players who were involved at the highest national competitive rank (all males; age: 17.0 0.9 years), divided into three playing positions (defenders, midfielders, and forwards) and two performance levels(U17 and U19). Variables included body mass (BM), body height, body fat percentage,20-m sprint, squat jump, countermovement jump, reactive-strength-index, unilateral jump, 1RM-back-squat, S_CODS, and three protocols of S_RAG. The reliabilities of theS_RAG and S_CODS were appropriate to high (ICC: 0.70 to 0.92), with the strongest reliability evidenced for the S_CODS. The S_CODS and S_RAG shared 25–40% of the common variance. Playing positions significantly differed in BM (large effect-size differences [ES]; midfielders were lightest) and 1RM-back-squat (large ES; lowest results in midfielders). The performance levels significantly differed in age and experience in soccer; U19 achieved better results in the S_CODS (t-test: 3.61, p < 0.05, large ES)and two S_RAG protocols (t-test: 2.14 and 2.41, p < 0.05, moderate ES). Newly developed tests of soccer-specific agility are applicable to differentiate U17 and U19players. Coaches who work with young soccer athletes should be informed that the development of soccer-specific CODS and RAG in this age is mostly dependent on training of the specific motor proficiency.

  • 4.
    Pojskić, Haris
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science. Mid Sweden University.
    Eslami, Bahareh
    Mid Sweden University.
    Relationship between obesity, physical activity, and cardiorespiratory fitness levels in children and adolescents in Bosnia and Herzegovina: an analysis of gender differences2018In: Frontiers in Physiology, ISSN 1664-042X, E-ISSN 1664-042X, Vol. 9, p. 1-11, article id 1734Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aimed to examine: (i) the level of physical activity (PA), obesity indices and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) among boys and girls in primary school, and (ii) to determine the association of obesity indices and PA with CRF for the total number of participants, and then separately for boys and girls. 753 sixth to ninth grade girls and boys aged 10–14 years took part in this cross-sectional study. The PA was assessed by the “Physical Activity Questionnaire – Children” and CRF was assessed by the Maximalmultistage a 20 m shuttle run test. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumferences (WC), and waist to height ratio (WHtR) were considered as obesity indices. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to explore correlates of CRF. The results obtained showed the prevalence of general overweight and obesity was 25.5% in our sample which was lower than that in the regional estimate (e.g., 28%) for Eastern Europe. Among all participants, CRF was associated with male sex, older age, a lower WC percentile, higher WHtR, and higher level of PA. The model accounted for 24% of the variance. CRF was associated with older age and a higher level of PA among girls and boys. Lower WC percentile was a significant determinant of CRF among boys. In conclusion, general overweight/obesity was not independently associated with CRF. Those with better CRF were more likely to be male and older, had a higher level ofPA and lower central adiposity. These findings emphasize the importance of supporting school-age children to take a part in programmed physical activity regardless of their body composition.

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