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  • 1.
    Andersson, Solbritt
    et al.
    Ekologiska Institutionen, Lunds Universitet.
    Söderström, Bengt
    Ekologiska Institutionen, Lunds Universitet.
    Effects of lime (CaCO3) on ectomycorrhizal colonization of Picea abies (L) KARST - seedlings planted in a spruce forest1995Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 10, nr 2, s. 149-154Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In two consecutive years, seedlings of Norway spruce (Picea abies) were planted in a 50-yr-old Norway spruce forest in limed (3.8 tons CaCO3 ha-1) and control plots. After 6 months they were harvested and the mycorrhizal status of the roots was analysed. Six types of mycorrhiza were distinguished. Three decreased after liming, two increased and one was not affected consistently by the liming. The effects on the total mycorrhizal colonization of the roots were opposite for the two years, indicating that the effects of liming are influenced strongly by other environmental factors. Statistical analysis also revealed pronounced natural variation in space. An inventory of the sporocarp-producing fungi showed that the number of saprotrophic species producing sporocarps was significantly higher in the limed plots whereas the number of ectomycorrhizal species was lower in the limed plots, compared with the control plots. It is concluded that more information is needed concerning the effects of liming on different soil types before any general conclusions can be made about its effects on mycorrhizal colonization.

  • 2.
    Götmark, Frank
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Schott, Kaitlin Muir
    University of Alberta, Canada.
    Jensen, Anna M.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Factors influencing presence-absence of oak (Quercus spp.) seedlings after conservation-oriented partial cutting of high forests in Sweden2011Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 26, nr 2, s. 136-145Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We studied occurrence of oak seedlings (Quercus robur L. and Q. petraea Liebl.) in 11 semi-natural oak-rich temperate forests in south Sweden after partial cutting (mean harvest; 26% of basal area). Earlier studies show that canopy openness is positively correlated with oak seedling performance. We used 20 pairs of subplots in each forest, with and without oak seedlings and matched with respect to canopy openness, to analyse other factors associated with seedling establishment and growth. The height of the ground layer (herbs and woody plants) had negative influence, i.e. higher height was associated with reduced probability of seedling occurrence. Higher soil water content had positive influence on seedling occurrence. Protection of seedlings by e.g. Rubus spp., twigs or dead wood was associated with lower seedling occurrence, but seedlings that did establish there tended to be taller. Type of ground vegetation and species composition did not differ between subplots with and without oak seedling. Thus, after conservation-oriented partial cutting of closed canopy high forests, increasing height of the ground vegetation disfavours oak seedlings (independent of canopy openness). High soil moisture favours oak seedlings, as does protected microsites for seedlings that can maintain high growth rate among their competitors.

  • 3.
    Hedwall, Per-Ola
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Brunet, Jörg
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Nordin, Annika
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Bergh, Johan
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU).
    Decreased variation of forest understory vegetation is an effect of fertilisation in young stands of Picea abies2011Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 26, nr S11, s. 46-55Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The substitution of fossil fuels with biofuels to mitigate climate change has caused increased interest in enhancing forest biomass production through fertilisation. We investigated the effects of different fertilisation frequencies on the diversity of understory vegetation in young stands of Picea abies on five sites distributed in regions in the middle and south of Sweden. The treatments included fertilisation conducted annually, every second year or every third year, as well as an unfertilised control. A lower number of vascular plant species was observed on fertilised plots than on control plots, whereas the number of bryophyte species remained unchanged. Fertilised plots also showed a lower variance in species composition and a lower Shannon’s diversity index than unfertilised plots. Fertilised plots were more similar to each other than unfertilised plots were to each other over the geographical range. The two most intensive fertilisation treatments had similar effects on the vegetation, whereas the effects of fertilisation conducted every third year were not as substantial. However, the treatment in which fertilisation occurred every third year implies a lower stem-wood production, and there is little knowledge of the longterm differences between the treatments. We conclude that fertilisation of young stands will lead to long-term changes in understory vegetation at the stand scale, whereas the effects at the landscape level are still largely unknown.

  • 4.
    Hedwall, Per-Ola
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Gong, Peichen
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences ; European Forest Inst EFINORD.
    Ingerslev, Morten
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Bergh, Johan
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT). Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Fertilization in northern forests - biological, economic and environmental constraints and possibilities2014Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 29, nr 4, s. 301-311Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Forests of northern ecosystems respond slowly to management activities and the possibilities to increase the growth in a short-term perspective and meet swift increases in society's demand for biomass are small. An exception among the silvicultural measures is fertilization which can be applied in combination with present management systems and, almost instantly, enhances forest productivity. There may, however, be both economic and environmental constraints to large-scale applications of fertilizers in forest. Here we review the literature concerning biomass production of forests under different fertilization regimens, environmental constraints and possibilities in northern forests on mineral soils. Further on we discuss the implications of both extensive and more intensive fertilization in relation to the developing bioeconomy, which encompasses the production and conversion of renewable biological resources into food, health and industrial products and energy. Fertilization in Sweden and Finland is currently practiced by extensive fertilization regimens where nitrogen fertilizers are applied once, or up to three times, during a rotation period, mainly in mature forest. This type of fertilization gives, in most cases, a small and transient effect on the environment as well as a high rate of return to the forest owner with low-economic risk. The increase in biomass production, however, is relatively small and consequently the impact on the processing industry and the bioeconomy is limited. More intensive fertilization regimens implying intensive fertilization starting in young forests may, on the other hand, considerably increase the biomass supply and value for the industry. The economic and environmental risks of this type of fertilization may, however, be larger and more research is needed on the effects on the stand level, and especially on the landscape level, including late rotation management of the forest.

  • 5.
    Malmqvist, Cecilia
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    Wallertz, Kristina
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Lindström, Anders
    Dalarna University ; Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Storability and freezing tolerance of Douglas fir and Norway spruce seedlings grown in mid-Sweden2017Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 32, nr 1, s. 30-38Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change provides new challenges to Nordic forestry. Use of non-native species, such as Douglas fir, can be a means of mitigating the effects of climate change and meeting the growing demand for biomass. When Douglas fir is grown in Sweden, it is several degrees of latitude north of its normal range, which can affect timing of growth cessation, hardening of seedlings, and seedling storability. The objective of this study was to investigate tolerance to freezing and sub-zero storability of seven Douglas fir provenances and make comparisons with the native Norway spruce. Freezing tolerance and storability were evaluated by measuring the electrolytic leakage of shoots and roots after freezing, complemented with a three-week cultivation test after storage. All provenances of Douglas fir used in this study were able to tolerate frozen storage at −4°C for about four months. Norway spruce and the interior Douglas fir provenance, Three Valley, could be stored earlier in the autumn than the southern coastal Douglas fir provenances. Consequently, it should be possible to store Douglas fir seedlings with the same routines as for Norway spruce.

  • 6.
    Nilsson, Daniel
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    Nilsson, Bengt
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    Thörnqvist, Thomas
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    Bergh, Johan
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    Amount of nutrients extracted and left behind at a clear-felled area using the fresh-stacked and dried-stacked methods of logging residue extraction2018Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 33, nr 5, s. 437-445Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Nutrient removal has been one of the key issues since the harvesting of logging residues started in Sweden. This study examined the actual removal of nutrients by measuring the amounts of biomass removed (from a forest products perspective) combined with their respective nutrient concentrations (N, P, Ca, K and Mg), from a clear-felled area when using the dried-stacked and fresh-stacked methods. The most important finding is that the two methods were very similar regarding nutrients remaining at the clear-felled area. Of the nutrients remaining there, most were found to be well distributed between the harvester heaps. Both methods fulfilled the requirements of the Swedish Forest Agency. A sensitivity analysis showed that even if the dried-stacked method left more needles, or the fresh-stacked method extracted more logging residues, there would only be a small impact on the levels of nutrients removed. The sensitivity analysis also showed that the amount of logging residues remaining between the harvester heaps seems to be much more important for nutrients left behind, regardless of extraction method. With this in mind, it is highly probable that improvements to the extraction of logging residues, without increasing nutrient removal, can be made.

  • 7.
    Sandberg, Dick
    et al.
    Luleå Univ Technol.
    Vasiri, Mojgan
    Luleå Univ Technol.
    Trischler, Johann
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    Ohman, Micael
    Luleå Univ Technol.
    The role of the wood mechanical industry in the Swedish forest industry cluster2014Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 29, nr 4, s. 352-359Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The forest and forest products form one of the most important basis for the transfer to a bio-based economy in Sweden. About 75% of the area covered by forest in Sweden is used industrially to produce raw material for the wood-refining industries. Every year, this cluster uses 75 million m(3) of roundwood and has an export value of (sic)12 billion. This review paper is devoted to the wood mechanical industry, i.e. the industry which turns the forest into sawn timber, packaging, construction wood, furniture and interior fittings. The sawmills consume about half of the volume of softwood which is felled, and about two-thirds of the sawn timber go to export without any further refining within the country. Nevertheless, in spite of the relatively low degree of refinement in the sawmill and the fact that the sawmills in general over time have a very low profitability, they are responsible for 70-80% of the forest owners' profits on the sale of timber. An increased upgrading of the sawn timber within the country is desirable from a national economic viewpoint increased employment opportunities, increased export income, etc. It should then in the first place be for products with a higher added value, such as furniture and fittings. Today, the refinement value is 15-20 times higher for products from joinery and furniture industries compared to that of the sawn timber, and the added value of the wood within the building industry is only about 1.5 times.

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