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  • 1.
    El-Sayed, Ashraf M.
    et al.
    New Zealand Inst Plant & Food Res Ltd, New Zealand.
    Unelius, C. Rikard
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. New Zealand Inst Plant & Food Res Ltd, New Zealand.
    Suckling, David M.
    New Zealand Inst Plant & Food Res Ltd, New Zealand;Univ Auckland, New Zealand.
    Honey Norisoprenoids Attract Bumble Bee, Bombus terrestris, in New Zealand Mountain Beech Forests2018In: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, ISSN 0021-8561, E-ISSN 1520-5118, Vol. 66, no 50, p. 13065-13072Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Three varieties of honey of different dominant floral origin were found to attract social Hymenoptera, including the large earth bumble bee, Bombus terrestris, in a New Zealand mountain beech forest. This study was undertaken to identify volatile organic compounds that induce the attraction of bumble bees to honeybee (Apis mellifera) honey. We analyzed the chemical composition of the volatile organic compounds produced in three distinct varieties of honey (i.e., manuka, honeydew, and clover honey). The composition of the chemical profile of the three honey varieties differed in the quality and in the ratio of compounds in the headspace. o-Methoxyacetophenone was the main compound in the headspace of all three honey varieties. Among the 40 compounds identified in the headspace in the three varieties, only seven shared compounds (i.e., benzaldehyde, benzyl alcohol, phenylacetaldehyde, 2-phenylethanol, isophorone, 4-oxoisophorone, and o-methoxyacetophenone) were present in the headspace of the three honey varieties. The relative attractiveness of various blends of the seven common compounds found in the three honey varieties was tested for the attraction to bumble bees in a mountain beech forest. A binary blend of isophorone and 4-oxoisophorone at a ratio of 90:10 was the most attractive blend for both bumble bee workers and queens. A small number of honey bee workers were also attracted to the former binary blend. Our study represents the first identification of a honey-derived attractant for bumble bees and honey bees. The potential application of our finding for monitoring of bumble bees or to enhance crop pollination and help to tackle the current concern of a global pollination crisis is discussed.

  • 2. Strålsjö, Lena M
    et al.
    Witthöft, Cornelia M.
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, Uppsala.
    Sjöholm, Ingegerd M
    Jägerstad, Margaretha I
    Folate content in strawberries (Fragaria x ananassa): effects of cultivar, ripeness, year of harvest, storage, and commercial processing.2003In: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, ISSN 0021-8561, E-ISSN 1520-5118, Vol. 51, no 1, p. 128-133Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Folate concentrations in strawberries and folate retention during storage and commercial processing of strawberries were investigated. No previous study has focused on the effects of cultivar, ripeness, and year of harvest of strawberries with respect to the folate content. This study showed the folate concentration in strawberries to significantly depend on all of these different factors. Total folate was quantified using a modified and validated radioprotein-binding assay with external calibration (5-CH(3)-H(4)folate). Folate content in 13 different strawberry cultivars varied from 335 microg/100 g of dry matter (DM) for cv. Senga Sengana to 644 microg/100 g of DM for cv. Elsanta. Swedish harvests from 1999 and 2001 yielded higher folate concentrations than did the harvest from 2000, and the grade of ripeness affected the folate content in strawberries. This study indicated high folate retention in intact berries during storage until 3 or 9 days at 4 degrees C (71-99%) and also in most tested commercial products (79-103%). On the basis of these data fresh strawberries as well as processed strawberry products are recommended to be good folate sources. For instance, 250 g (fresh weight) of strawberries ( approximately 125 microg of folate) supplies approximately 50% of the recommended daily folate intake in various European countries (200-300 microg/day) or 30% of the U.S. recommendation (400 microg/day).

  • 3. Sunnerheim, Kerstin
    et al.
    Nordqvist, Annelie
    Nordlander, Göran
    Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin
    Unelius, Rikard
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Bohman, Björn
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Nordenhem, Henrik
    Hellqvist, Claes
    Karlén, Anders
    Quantitative Structure -Activity Relationships of Pine Weevil Antifeedants, a Multivariate Approach2007In: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, ISSN 0021-8561, E-ISSN 1520-5118, Vol. 55Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Unelius, C. Rikard
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Bohman, Björn
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Univ Western Australia, Australia.
    Nordlander, Goran
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Comparison of Phenylacetates with Benzoates and Phenylpropanoates as Antifeedants for the Pine Weevil, Hylobius abietis2018In: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, ISSN 0021-8561, E-ISSN 1520-5118, Vol. 66, no 44, p. 11797-11805Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study concludes an extensive investigation of antifeedants for the pine weevil, Hylobius abietis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), an economically important pest of planted conifer seedlings. Building on the previously reported antifeedant effects of benzoates and phenylpropanoids (aromatic compounds with one- or three-carbon-atom substituents on the benzene ring), we here report the antifeedant effects of compounds with two-carbon-atom side chains (i.e., phenylacetates). We also present new results; the best antifeedants from the benzoate class were tested at 10-fold lower concentrations in order to find the optimal antifeedants. Generally, for all three compound classes, efficient antifeedants were found to have one or two methyl, chloro, or methoxy substituents on the aromatic ring. For monosubstituted phenylpropanoids, the substituent preferably should be in the para-position. In the search for synergistic antifeedant effects among the three compound classes, combinations of compounds from the three classes were tested in binary and ternary mixtures.

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