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  • 1.
    Aguirre-Gutiérrez, Jesús
    et al.
    Naturalis Biodiversity Center, The Netherlands ; University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Kissling, W. Daniel
    University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Carvalheiro, Luísa G.
    Universidade de Brasília, Brazil ; University of Lisbon, Portugal.
    WallisDeVries, Michiel F.
    Wageningen University, The Netherlands.
    Franzén, Markus
    Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Germany.
    Biesmeijer, Jacobus C.
    Naturalis Biodiversity Center, The Netherlands ; University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Functional traits help to explain half-century long shifts in pollinator distributions2016In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 6, article id 24451Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Changes in climate and land use can have important impacts on biodiversity. Species respond to such environmental modifications by adapting to new conditions or by shifting their geographic distributions towards more suitable areas. The latter might be constrained by species’ functional traits that influence their ability to move, reproduce or establish. Here, we show that functional traits related to dispersal, reproduction, habitat use and diet have influenced how three pollinator groups (bees, butterflies and hoverflies) responded to changes in climate and land-use in the Netherlands since 1950. Across the three pollinator groups, we found pronounced areal range expansions (>53%) and modelled range shifts towards the north (all taxa: 17–22 km), west (bees: 14 km) and east (butterflies: 11 km). The importance of specific functional traits for explaining distributional changes varied among pollinator groups. Larval diet preferences (i.e. carnivorous vs. herbivorous/detritivorous and nitrogen values of host plants, respectively) were important for hoverflies and butterflies, adult body size for hoverflies, and flight period length for all groups. Moreover, interactions among multiple traits were important to explain species’ geographic range shifts, suggesting that taxon-specific multi-trait analyses are needed to predict how global change will affect biodiversity and ecosystem services.

  • 2.
    Alegria Zufia, Javier
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Legrand, Catherine
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Water. Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Farnelid, Hanna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Water.
    Seasonal dynamics in picocyanobacterial abundance and clade composition at coastal and offshore stations in the Baltic Sea2022In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 12, no 1, article id 14330Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Picocyanobacteria (< 2 mu m in diameter) are significant contributors to total phytoplankton biomass. Due to the high diversity within this group, their seasonal dynamics and relationship with environmental parameters, especially in brackish waters, are largely unknown. In this study, the abundance and community composition of phycoerythrin rich picocyanobacteria (PE-SYN) and phycocyanin rich picocyanobacteria (PC-SYN) were monitored at a coastal (K-station) and at an offshore station (LMO; similar to 10 km from land) in the Baltic Sea over three years (2018-2020). Cell abundances of picocyanobacteria correlated positively to temperature and negatively to nitrate (NO3) concentration. While PE-SYN abundance correlated to the presence of nitrogen fixers, PC-SYN abundance was linked to stratification/shallow waters. The picocyanobacterial targeted amplicon sequencing revealed an unprecedented diversity of 2169 picocyanobacterial amplicons sequence variants (ASVs). A unique assemblage of distinct picocyanobacterial clades across seasons was identified. Clade A/B dominated the picocyanobacterial community, except during summer when low NO3, high phosphate (PO4) concentrations and warm temperatures promoted S5.2 dominance. This study, providing multiyear data, links picocyanobacterial populations to environmental parameters. The difference in the response of the two functional groups and clades underscore the need for further high-resolution studies to understand their role in the ecosystem.

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  • 3.
    Alodjants, Alexander P.
    et al.
    IIMO Univ, Russia.
    Bazhenov, A. Yu
    IIMO Univ, Russia.
    Khrennikov, Andrei
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mathematics.
    Bukhanovsky, A. , V
    ITMO University, Russia.
    Mean-field theory of social laser2022In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 12, no 1, article id 8566Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work we suggest a novel paradigm of social laser (solaser), which can explain such Internet inspired social phenomena as echo chambers, reinforcement and growth of information cascades, enhancement of social actions under strong mass media operation. The solaser is based on a wellknown in quantum physics laser model of coherent amplification of the optical field. Social networks are at the core of the solaser model; we define them by means of a network model possessing power-law degree distribution. In the solaser the network environment plays the same role as the gain medium has in a physical laser device. We consider social atoms as decision making agents (humans or even chat bots), which possess two (mental) states and occupy the nodes of a network. The solaser establishes communication between the agents as absorption and spontaneous or stimulated emission of socially actual information within echo chambers, which mimic an optical resonator of a convenient (physical) laser. We have demonstrated that social lasing represents the second order nonequilibrium phase transition, which evokes the release of coherent socially stimulated information field represented with the order parameter. The solaser implies the formation of macroscopic social polarization and results in a huge social impact, which is realized by viral information cascades occurring in the presence of population imbalance (social bias). We have shown that decision making agents follow an adiabatically time dependent mass media pump, which acts in the network community reproducing various reliable scenarios for information cascade evolution. We have also shown that in contrast to physical lasers, due to node degree peculiarities, the coupling strength of decision making agents with the network may be enhanced root < k > times. It leads to a large increase of speed, at which a viral message spreads through a social media. In this case, the mass media pump supports additional reinforcement and acceleration of cascade growth. We have revealed that the solaser model in some approximations possesses clear links with familiar !sing and SIS (susceptible-infected-susceptible) models typically used for evaluating a social impact and information growth, respectively. However, the solaser paradigm can serve as a new platform for modelling temporal social events, which originate from "microscopic" (quantum-like) processes occurring in the society. Our findings open new perspectives for interdisciplinary studies of distributed intelligence agents behavior associated with information exchange and social impact.

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  • 4.
    Aune, Emma
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    McMurray, John
    University of Glasgow, UK.
    Lundgren, Peter
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden;University of Borås, Sweden.
    Sattar, Naveed
    University of Glasgow, UK.
    Israelsson, Johan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Region Kalmar County, Sweden.
    Nordberg, Per
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Herlitz, Johan
    University of Borås, Sweden;The Swedish Registry of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation, Sweden.
    Rawshani, Araz
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden;The Swedish Registry of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation, Sweden.
    Clinical characteristics and survival in patients with heart failure experiencing in hospital cardiac arrest2022In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 12, no 1, article id 5685Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In patients with heart failure (HF) who suffered in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA), little is known about the characteristics, survival and neurological outcome. We used the Swedish Registry of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation to study this, including patients aged >= 18 years suffering IHCA (2008-2019), categorised as HF alone, HF with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), AMI alone, or other. Odds ratios (OR) for 30-day survival, trends in 30-day survival, and the implication of HF phenotype was studied. 6378 patients had HF alone, 2111 had HF with AMI, 4210 had AMI alone. Crude 5-year survival was 9.6% for HF alone, 12.9% for HF with AMI and 34.6% for AMI alone. The 5-year survival was 7.9% for patients with HF and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) >= 50%, 15.4% for LVEF < 40% and 12.3% for LVEF 40-49%. Compared with AMI alone, adjusted OR (95% CI) for 30-day survival was 0.66 (0.60-0.74) for HF alone, and 0.49 (0.43-0.57) for HF with AMI. OR for 30-day survival in 2017-2019 compared with 2008-2010 were 1.55 (1.24-1.93) for AMI alone, 1.37 (1.00-1.87) for HF with AMI and 1.30 (1.07-1.58) for HF alone. Survivors with HF had good neurological outcome in 92% of cases.

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  • 5.
    Bellenberg, Sören
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Salas, Beatriz
    Pontificia Univ Catolica Chile, Chile.
    Ganji, Suresh
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Jorquera-Roman, Cristian
    Pontificia Univ Catolica Chile, Chile.
    Valenzuela, Maria Luisa
    Univ Autonoma Chile, Chile.
    Buetti-Dinh, Antoine
    Univ Appl Sci Southern Switzerland SUPSI, Switzerland;Swiss Inst Bioinformat, Switzerland.
    Unelius, C. Rikard
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Dopson, Mark
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Vera, Mario
    Pontificia Univ Catolica Chile, Chile.
    Diffusible signal factor signaling controls bioleaching activity and niche protection in the acidophilic, mineral-oxidizing leptospirilli2021In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 11, no 1, article id 16275Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bioleaching of metal sulfide ores involves acidophilic microbes that catalyze the chemical dissolution of the metal sulfide bond that is enhanced by attached and planktonic cell mediated oxidation of iron(II)-ions and inorganic sulfur compounds. Leptospirillum spp. often predominate in sulfide mineral-containing environments, including bioheaps for copper recovery from chalcopyrite, as they are effective primary mineral colonizers and oxidize iron(II)-ions efficiently. In this study, we demonstrated a functional diffusible signal factor interspecies quorum sensing signaling mechanism in Leptospirillum ferriphilum and Leptospirillum ferrooxidans that produces (Z)-11-methyl-2-dodecenoic acid when grown with pyrite as energy source. In addition, pure diffusible signal factor and extracts from supernatants of pyrite grown Leptospirillum spp. inhibited biological iron oxidation in various species, and that pyrite grown Leptospirillum cells were less affected than iron grown cells to self inhibition. Finally, transcriptional analyses for the inhibition of iron-grown L. ferriphilum cells due to diffusible signal factor was compared with the response to exposure of cells to N- acyl-homoserine-lactone type quorum sensing signal compounds. The data suggested that Leptospirillum spp. diffusible signal factor production is a strategy for niche protection and defense against other microbes and it is proposed that this may be exploited to inhibit unwanted acidophile species.

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  • 6.
    Bergman, Anders
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Hellsvik, Johan
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Bessarab, Pavel F.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden;University of Iceland, Iceland.
    Delin, Anna
    Uppsala University, Sweden;y, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden;.
    Spin relaxation signature of colossal magnetic anisotropy in platinum atomic chains2016In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 6, article id 36872Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent experimental data demonstrate emerging magnetic order in platinum atomically thin nanowires. Furthermore, an unusual form of magnetic anisotropy-colossal magnetic anisotropy (CMA)-was earlier predicted to exist in atomically thin platinum nanowires. Using spin dynamics simulations based on first-principles calculations, we here explore the spin dynamics of atomically thin platinum wires to reveal the spin relaxation signature of colossal magnetic anisotropy, comparing it with other types of anisotropy such as uniaxial magnetic anisotropy (UMA). We find that the CMA alters the spin relaxation process distinctly and, most importantly, causes a large speed-up of the magnetic relaxation compared to uniaxial magnetic anisotropy. The magnetic behavior of the nanowire exhibiting CMA should be possible to identify experimentally at the nanosecond time scale for temperatures below 5 K. This time-scale is accessible in e.g., soft x-ray free electron laser experiments.

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  • 7.
    Bergström, Kristofer
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Nordahl, Oscar
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Söderling, Peter
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Koch-Schmidt, Per
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Borger, Tobias
    County Administration Board Kalmar County, Sweden.
    Tibblin, Petter
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Water.
    Larsson, Per
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Exceptional longevity in northern peripheral populations of Wels catfish (Siluris glanis)2022In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 12, no 1, article id 8070Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies of life-history variation across a species range are crucial for ecological understanding and successful conservation. Here, we examined the growth and age of Wels catfish (Silurus glanis) in Sweden, which represent the northernmost populations in Europe. A total of 1183 individuals were captured, marked and released between 2006 and 2020. Mark-recapture data from 162 individuals (size range: 13-195 cm) were used to estimate von Bertalanffy growth curve parameters which revealed very slow growth rates compared to catfish within the core distribution area (central Europe). The fitted von Bertalanffy growth curve predicted a 150 cm catfish to be around 40 years old, while the largest recaptured individual (length 195 cm) was estimated to be 70 (95% CI 50-112) years old. This was substantially older than the previously documented maximum age of a catfish. The weight at length relationships in these northern peripheral populations were similar to those documented for catfish in central Europe indicating that resources did not constrain growth. This indicates that the slow growth and exceptional high age in the northern catfish populations are the result of lower temperatures and/or local adaptations.

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  • 8.
    Bessarab, Pavel F.
    et al.
    University of Iceland, Iceland;ITMO University, Russia.
    Müller, Gideon P
    University of Iceland, Iceland;Forschungszentrum Jülich, Germany.
    Lobanov, Igor S
    ITMO University, Russia.
    Rybakov, Filipp N
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Kiselev, Nikolai S
    Forschungszentrum Jülich, Germany.
    Jonsson, Hannes
    University of Iceland, Iceland;Aalto University, Finland.
    Uzdin, Valery M
    ITMO University, Russia; St. Petersburg State University, Russia.
    Blügel, Stefan
    Forschungszentrum Jülich, Germany.
    Bergqvist, Lars
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Delin, Anna
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden;Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Lifetime of racetrack skyrmions2018In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, article id 3433Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The skyrmion racetrack is a promising concept for future information technology. There, binary bits are carried by nanoscale spin swirls-skyrmions-driven along magnetic strips. Stability of the skyrmions is a critical issue for realising this technology. Here we demonstrate that the racetrack skyrmion lifetime can be calculated from first principles as a function of temperature, magnetic field and track width. Our method combines harmonic transition state theory extended to include Goldstone modes, with an atomistic spin Hamiltonian parametrized from density functional theory calculations. We demonstrate that two annihilation mechanisms contribute to the skyrmion stability: At low external magnetic field, escape through the track boundary prevails, but a crossover field exists, above which the collapse in the interior becomes dominant. Considering a Pd/Fe bilayer on an Ir(111) substrate as a well-established model system, the calculated skyrmion lifetime is found to be consistent with reported experimental measurements. Our simulations also show that the Arrhenius pre-exponential factor of escape depends only weakly on the external magnetic field, whereas the pre-exponential factor for collapse is strongly field dependent. Our results open the door for predictive simulations, free from empirical parameters, to aid the design of skyrmion-based information technology.

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  • 9.
    Caliendo, V
    et al.
    Erasmus MC, Netherlands.
    Lewis, N. S.
    Royal Vet Coll, UK;Anim & Plant Hlth Agcy, UK.
    Pohlmann, A.
    Friedrich Loeffler Inst, Germany.
    Baillie, S. R.
    British Trust Ornithol, UK;European Union Bird Ringing, UK.
    Banyard, A. C.
    Anim & Plant Hlth Agcy, UK.
    Beer, M.
    Friedrich Loeffler Inst, Germany.
    Brown, I. H.
    Anim & Plant Hlth Agcy, UK.
    Fouchier, R. A. M.
    Erasmus MC, Netherlands.
    Hansen, R. D. E.
    Anim & Plant Hlth Agcy, UK.
    Lameris, T. K.
    Royal Netherlands Inst Sea Res, Netherlands.
    Lang, A. S.
    Mem Univ Newfoundland, Canada.
    Laurendeau, S.
    Canadian Food Inspect Agcy, Canada.
    Lung, O.
    Canadian Food Inspect Agcy, Canada.
    Robertson, G.
    Environm & Climate Change Canada, Canada.
    van der Jeugd, H.
    Vogeltrekstn Netherlands Inst Ecol NIOO KNAW, Netherlands.
    Alkie, T. N.
    Canadian Food Inspect Agcy, Canada.
    Thorup, K.
    Univ Copenhagen, Denmark.
    van Toor, Mariëlle L.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Water.
    Yason, C.
    Univ Prince Edward Isl, Canada.
    Kuiken, T.
    Erasmus MC, Netherlands.
    Berhane, Y.
    Canadian Food Inspect Agcy, Canada.
    Transatlantic spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 by wild birds from Europe to North America in 20212022In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 12, no 1, article id 11729Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses of the A/Goose/Guangdong/1/1996 lineage (GsGd), which threaten the health of poultry, wildlife and humans, are spreading across Asia, Europe, Africa and North America but are currently absent from South America and Oceania. In December 2021, H5N1 HPAI viruses were detected in poultry and a free-living gull in St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. Our phylogenetic analysis showed that these viruses were most closely related to HPAI GsGd viruses circulating in northwestern Europe in spring 2021. Our analysis of wild bird migration suggested that these viruses may have been carried across the Atlantic via Iceland, Greenland/Arctic or pelagic routes. The here documented incursion of HPAI GsGd viruses into North America raises concern for further virus spread across the Americas by wild bird migration.

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  • 10.
    Danielsson, Tom
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Carlsson, Jörg
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Kalmar County Hospital, Sweden.
    ten Siethoff, Lasse
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science. The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, Sweden.
    Ahnesjö, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Sustainable Health.
    Bergman, Patrick
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry. Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Sustainable Health.
    Aerobic capacity predict skeletal but not cardiac muscle damage after triathlon: the Iron(WO)man study2020In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 1-7, article id 901Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the association between aerobic capacity and biomarkers of skeletal- and cardiac muscle damage among amateur triathletes after a full distance Ironman. Men and women (N = 55) were recruited from local sport clubs. One month before an Ironman triathlon, they conducted a 20 m shuttle run test to determine aerobic capacity. Blood samples were taken immediately after finishing the triathlon, and analyzed for cardiac Troponin T (cTnT), Myosin heavy chain-a (MHC-a), N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), Creatin Kinas (CK), and Myoglobin. Regression models examining the association between the biomarkers and aerobic capacity expressed in both relative terms (mLO2*kg−1*min−1) and absolute terms (LO2*min−1) controlled for weight were fitted. A total of 39 subjects (26% females) had complete data and were included in the analysis. No association between aerobic capacity and cardiac muscle damage was observed. For myoglobin, adding aerobic capacity (mLO2*kg−1*min−1) increased the adjusted r2 from 0.026 to 0.210 (F: 8.927, p = 0.005) and for CK the adjusted r2 increased from -0.015 to 0.267 (F: 13.778, p = 0.001). In the models where aerobic capacity was entered in absolute terms the adjusted r2 increased from 0.07 to 0.227 (F: 10.386, p = 0.003) for myoglobin and for CK from -0.029 to 0.281 (F: 15.215, p < 0.001). A negative association between aerobic capacity and skeletal muscle damage was seen but despite the well-known cardio-protective health effect of high aerobic fitness, no such association could be observed in this study.

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  • 11.
    De Palma, Adriana
    et al.
    Imperial College London, UK;Natural History Museum, UK.
    Abrahamczyk, Stefan
    University of Bonn, Germany.
    Aizen, Marcelo A.
    National University of Comahue, Argentina.
    Albrecht, Matthias
    Agroscope, Switzerland.
    Basset, Yves
    Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Panama.
    Bates, Adam
    Nottingham Trent University, UK.
    Blake, Robin J.
    University of Reading, UK.
    Boutin, Céline
    Carleton University, Canada.
    Bugter, Rob
    Wageningen University and Research, Netherlands.
    Connop, Stuart
    University of East London, UK.
    Cruz-López, Leopoldo
    El Colegio de la Frontera Sur, Mexico.
    Cunningham, Saul A.
    Darvill, Ben
    Diekötter, Tim
    Dorn, Silvia
    Downing, Nicola
    Entling, Martin H.
    Farwig, Nina
    Felicioli, Antonio
    Fonte, Steven J.
    Fowler, Robert
    Franzén, Markus
    Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Germany.
    Goulson, Dave
    Grass, Ingo
    Hanley, Mick E.
    Hendrix, Stephen D.
    Herrmann, Farina
    Herzog, Felix
    Holzschuh, Andrea
    Jauker, Birgit
    Kessler, Michael
    Knight, M. E.
    Kruess, Andreas
    Lavelle, Patrick
    Le Féon, Violette
    Lentini, Pia
    Malone, Louise A.
    Marshall, Jon
    Pachón, Eliana Martínez
    McFrederick, Quinn S.
    Morales, Carolina L.
    Mudri-Stojnic, Sonja
    Nates-Parra, Guiomar
    Nilsson, Sven G.
    Öckinger, Erik
    Osgathorpe, Lynne
    Parra-H, Alejandro
    Peres, Carlos A.
    Persson, Anna S.
    Petanidou, Theodora
    Poveda, Katja
    Power, Eileen F.
    Quaranta, Marino
    Quintero, Carolina
    Rader, Romina
    Richards, Miriam H.
    Roulston, T’ai
    Rousseau, Laurent
    Sadler, Jonathan P.
    Samnegård, Ulrika
    Schellhorn, Nancy A.
    Schüepp, Christof
    Schweiger, Oliver
    Smith-Pardo, Allan H.
    Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf
    Stout, Jane C.
    Tonietto, Rebecca K.
    Tscharntke, Teja
    Tylianakis, Jason M.
    Verboven, Hans A. F.
    Vergara, Carlos H.
    Verhulst, Jort
    Westphal, Catrin
    Yoon, Hyung Joo
    Purvis, Andy
    Predicting bee community responses to land-use changes: effects of geographic and taxonomic biases2016In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 6, p. 1-14, article id 31153Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Land-use change and intensification threaten bee populations worldwide, imperilling pollination services. Global models are needed to better characterise, project, and mitigate bees' responses to these human impacts. The available data are, however, geographically and taxonomically unrepresentative; most data are from North America and Western Europe, overrepresenting bumblebees and raising concerns that model results may not be generalizable to other regions and taxa. To assess whether the geographic and taxonomic biases of data could undermine effectiveness of models for conservation policy, we have collated from the published literature a global dataset of bee diversity at sites facing land-use change and intensification, and assess whether bee responses to these pressures vary across 11 regions (Western, Northern, Eastern and Southern Europe; North, Central and South America; Australia and New Zealand; South East Asia; Middle and Southern Africa) and between bumblebees and other bees. Our analyses highlight strong regionally-based responses of total abundance, species richness and Simpson's diversity to land use, caused by variation in the sensitivity of species and potentially in the nature of threats. These results suggest that global extrapolation of models based on geographically and taxonomically restricted data may underestimate the true uncertainty, increasing the risk of ecological surprises.

  • 12.
    Ejsmond, M. J.
    et al.
    Jagiellonian University, Poland.
    Blackburn, N.
    BIORAS, Denmark.
    Fridolfsson, Emil
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Haecky, P.
    BIORAS, Denmark.
    Andersson, A.
    Umeå University, Sweden;Umeå Marine Science Centre, Sweden.
    Casini, M.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Belgrano, A.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden;University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hylander, Samuel
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Modeling vitamin B1 transfer to consumers in the aquatic food web2019In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 9, p. 1-11, article id 10045Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vitamin B-1 is an essential exogenous micronutrient for animals. Mass death and reproductive failure in top aquatic consumers caused by vitamin B-1 deficiency is an emerging conservation issue in Northern hemisphere aquatic ecosystems. We present for the first time a model that identifies conditions responsible for the constrained flow of vitamin B-1 from unicellular organisms to planktivorous fishes. The flow of vitamin B-1 through the food web is constrained under anthropogenic pressures of increased nutrient input and, driven by climatic change, increased light attenuation by dissolved substances transported to marine coastal systems. Fishing pressure on piscivorous fish, through increased abundance of planktivorous fish that overexploit mesozooplankton, may further constrain vitamin B-1 flow from producers to consumers. We also found that key ecological contributors to the constrained flow of vitamin B-1 are a low mesozooplankton biomass, picoalgae prevailing among primary producers and low fluctuations of population numbers of planktonic organisms.

  • 13.
    Eriksson, Per
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Lindskog, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Engholm, Ebbe
    Univ Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Blixt, Ola
    Univ Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Munster, Vincent
    NIAID, USA.
    Lundkvist, Åke
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Olsen, Björn
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Jourdain, Elsa
    INRA, France.
    Ellström, Patrik
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Characterization of avian influenza virus attachment patterns to human and pig tissues2018In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, article id 12215Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wild birds of Anseriformes and Charadriiformes are natural reservoirs of influenza A viruses (IAVs). Occasionally, IAVs transmit and adapt to mammalian hosts, and are maintained as epidemic strains in their new hosts. Viral adaptions to mammalian hosts include altered receptor preference of host epithelial sialylated oligosaccharides from terminal alpha 2,3-linked sialic acid (SA) towards alpha 2,6-linked SA. However, alpha 2,3-linked SA has been found in human respiratory tract epithelium, and human infections by avian IAVs (AIVs) have been reported. To further explore the attachment properties of AIVs, four AIVs of different subtypes were investigated on human and pig tissues using virus histochemistry. Additionally, glycan array analysis was performed for further characterization of IAVs' receptor structure tropism. Generally, AIV attachment was more abundant to human tissues than to pig tissues. The attachment pattern was very strong to human conjunctiva and upper respiratory tract, but variable to the lower respiratory tract. AIVs mainly attached to alpha 2,3-linked SA, but also to combinations of alpha 2,3-and alpha 2,6-linked SA. The low attachment of these AIV isolates to pig tissues, but high attachment to human tissues, addresses the question whether AIVs in general require passage through pigs to obtain adaptions towards mammalian receptor structures.

  • 14.
    Forsman, Anders
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Betzholtz, Per-Eric
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Franzén, Markus
    Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Germany.
    Faster poleward range shifts in moths with more variable colour patterns2016In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 6, p. 1-8, article id 36265Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Range shifts have been documented in many organisms, and climate change has been implicated asa contributing driver of latitudinal and altitudinal range modifications. However, little is known aboutwhat species trait(s) allow for faster environmental tracking and improved capacity for distributionexpansions. We used data for 416 species of moths, and show that range limits in Sweden have shifted tothe north by on average 52.4 km per decade between 1973 and 2014. When also including non-expandingspecies, average expansion rate was 23.2 km per decade. The rate of boundary shifts increased withincreasing levels of inter-individual variation in colour patterns and decreased with increasing latitude. Theassociation with colour patterns indicate that variation in this functionally important trait enables speciesto cope with novel and changing conditions. Northern range limits also increased with average abundanceand decreased with increasing year-to-year abundance fluctuations, implicating production of dispersersas a driver of range dynamics. Studies of terrestrial animals show that rates of poleward shifts differbetween taxonomic groups, increase over time, and depend on study duration and latitude. Knowledge ofhow distribution shifts change with time, location, and species characteristics may improve projections ofresponses to climate change and aid the protection of biodiversity

  • 15.
    Franic, Iva
    et al.
    CABI, Switzerland;Univ Bern, Switzerland;Swiss Fed Inst Forest, Switzerland.
    Allan, Eric
    Univ Bern, Switzerland.
    Prospero, Simone
    Swiss Fed Inst Forest, Switzerland.
    Adamson, Kalev
    Estonian Univ Life Sci, Estonia.
    Attorre, Fabio
    Sapienza Univ Rome, Italy.
    Auger-Rozenberg, Marie-Anne
    URZF, France.
    Augustin, Sylvie
    URZF, France.
    Avtzis, Dimitrios
    Hellen Agr Org Demeter, Greece.
    Baert, Wim
    Meise Bot Garden, Belgium.
    Barta, Marek
    Slovak Acad Sci, Slovakia.
    Bauters, Kenneth
    Meise Bot Garden, Belgium.
    Bellahirech, Amani
    Natl Res Inst Rural Engn Water & Forests INRGREF, Tunisia.
    Boron, Piotr
    Agr Univ Krakow, Poland.
    Braganca, Helena
    Inst Nacl Invest Agr & Vet IP INIAV IP, Portugal;ITQB NOVA, Portugal.
    Brestovanska, Tereza
    Silva Tarouca Res Inst Landscape & Ornamental Gard, Czech Republic.
    Brurberg, May Bente
    Norwegian Inst Bioecon Res, Norway;Norwegian Univ Life Sci, Norway.
    Burgess, Treena
    Murdoch Univ, Australia.
    Burokiene, Daiva
    Nat Res Ctr, Inst Bot, Lithuania.
    Cleary, Michelle
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Corley, Juan
    Inst Invest Forestales & Agr Bariloche INTA CONICE, Argentina.
    Coyle, David R.
    Clemson Univ, USA.
    Csoka, Gyoergy
    Clemson Univ, USA.
    Cerny, Karel
    Silva Tarouca Res Inst Landscape & Ornamental Gard, Czech Republic.
    Davydenko, Kateryna
    Ukrainian Res Inst Forestry & Forest Meliorat, Ukraine.
    de Groot, Maarten
    Slovenian Forestry Inst, Slovenia.
    Diez, Julio Javier
    Univ Valladolid, Spain.
    Dogmus Lehtijaervi, H. Tugba
    Isparta Univ Appl Sci, Turkiye.
    Drenkhan, Rein
    Estonian Univ Life Sci, Estonia.
    Edwards, Jacqueline
    La Trobe Univ, Australia;Agribio Ctr, Australia.
    Elsafy, Mohammed
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Eoetvoes, Csaba Bela
    Clemson Univ, USA.
    Falko, Roman
    Ukrainian Res Inst Mt Forestry, Ukraine.
    Fan, Jianting
    Zhejiang A&F Univ, China.
    Feddern, Nina
    Swiss Fed Inst Forest, Switzerland.
    Fuerjes-Miko, Agnes
    Clemson Univ, USA.
    Gossner, Martin M.
    Swiss Fed Inst Forest, Switzerland;Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Switzerland.
    Grad, Bartlomiej
    Agr Univ Krakow, Poland.
    Hartmann, Martin
    Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Switzerland.
    Havrdova, Ludmila
    Silva Tarouca Res Inst Landscape & Ornamental Gard, Czech Republic.
    Horakova, Miriam Kadasi
    Slovak Acad Sci, Slovakia.
    Hrabetova, Marketa
    Silva Tarouca Res Inst Landscape & Ornamental Gard, Czech Republic.
    Justesen, Mathias Just
    Univ Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Kacprzyk, Magdalena
    Agr Univ Krakow, Poland.
    Kenis, Marc
    CABI, Switzerland.
    Kirichenko, Natalia
    Russian Acad Sci, Russia;Siberian Fed Univ, Russia.
    Kovac, Marta
    Croatian Forest Res Inst, Croatia.
    Kramarets, Volodymyr
    Ukrainian Natl Forestry Univ, Ukraine.
    Lackovic, Nikola
    Jastrebarsko, Croatia.
    Lantschner, Maria Victoria
    Inst Invest Forestales & Agr Bariloche INTA CONICE, Argentina.
    Lazarevic, Jelena
    Univ Montenegro, Montenegro.
    Leskiv, Marianna
    Ukrainian Natl Forestry Univ, Ukraine.
    Li, Hongmei
    CABI, China.
    Madsen, Corrie Lynne
    Univ Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Malumphy, Chris
    Natl Agrifood Innovat Campus, UK.
    Matosevic, Dinka
    Croatian Forest Res Inst, Croatia.
    Matsiakh, Iryna
    Ukrainian Natl Forestry Univ, Ukraine.
    May, Tom W.
    Royal Bot Gardens Victoria, Australia.
    Meffert, Johan
    Natl Plant Protect Org, Netherlands.
    Migliorini, Duccio
    Natl Res Council CNR, Italy.
    Nikolov, Christo
    Natl Forest Ctr, Slovakia.
    O'Hanlon, Richard
    Dept Agr Food & Marine, Ireland.
    Oskay, Funda
    Cankiri Karatekin Univ, Turkiye.
    Paap, Trudy
    Univ Pretoria, Forestry & Agr Biotechnol Inst FABI, South Africa.
    Parpan, Taras
    Ukrainian Res Inst Mt Forestry, Ukraine.
    Piskur, Barbara
    Slovenian Forestry Inst, Slovenia.
    Ravn, Hans Peter
    Univ Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Richard, John
    Tanzania Forestry Res Inst TAFORI, Tanzania.
    Ronse, Anne
    Meise Bot Garden, Belgium.
    Roques, Alain
    URZF, France.
    Ruffner, Beat
    Swiss Fed Inst Forest, Snow & Landscape Res WSL, Switzerland.
    Santini, Alberto
    Natl Res Council CNR, Italy.
    Sivickis, Karolis
    Nat Res Ctr, Lithuania.
    Soliani, Carolina
    Inst Invest Forestales & Agr Bariloche INTA CONICE, Argentina.
    Talgo, Venche
    Norwegian Inst Bioecon Res, Norway.
    Tomoshevich, Maria
    Russian Acad Sci, Russia.
    Uimari, Anne
    Nat Resources Inst Finland, Finland.
    Ulyshen, Michael
    USDA Forest Serv, USA.
    Vettraino, Anna Maria
    Univ Tuscia, Italy.
    Villari, Caterina
    Univ Georgia, USA.
    Wang, Yongjun
    Zhejiang A & F University, China.
    Witzell, Johanna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Zlatkovic, Milica
    Univ Novi Sad, Serbia.
    Eschen, Rene
    CABI, Switzerland.
    Climate, host and geography shape insect and fungal communities of trees2023In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 13, no 1, article id 11570Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Non-native pests, climate change, and their interactions are likely to alter relationships between trees and tree-associated organisms with consequences for forest health. To understand and predict such changes, factors structuring tree-associated communities need to be determined. Here, we analysed the data consisting of records of insects and fungi collected from dormant twigs from 155 tree species at 51 botanical gardens or arboreta in 32 countries. Generalized dissimilarity models revealed similar relative importance of studied climatic, host-related and geographic factors on differences in tree-associated communities. Mean annual temperature, phylogenetic distance between hosts and geographic distance between locations were the major drivers of dissimilarities. The increasing importance of high temperatures on differences in studied communities indicate that climate change could affect tree-associated organisms directly and indirectly through host range shifts. Insect and fungal communities were more similar between closely related vs. distant hosts suggesting that host range shifts may facilitate the emergence of new pests. Moreover, dissimilarities among tree-associated communities increased with geographic distance indicating that human-mediated transport may serve as a pathway of the introductions of new pests. The results of this study highlight the need to limit the establishment of tree pests and increase the resilience of forest ecosystems to changes in climate.

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  • 16.
    Franzén, Markus
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Francioli, Yannick
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Askling, John
    Calluna AB, Sweden.
    Kindvall, Oskar
    Calluna AB, Sweden.
    Johansson, Victor
    Calluna AB, Sweden;Linköping University, Sweden.
    Forsman, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Differences in phenology, daily timing of activity, and associations of temperature utilization with survival in three threatened butterflies2022In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 12, no 1, article id 7534Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We used observational data collected during a mark-recapture study that generated a total of 7503 captures of 6108 unique individuals representing three endangered butterfly species to quantify inter-and intraindividual variation in temperature utilization and examine how activity patterns vary according to season, time of day, and ambient temperature. The Marsh Fritillary, the Apollo, and the Large Blue differed in utilized temperatures and phenology. Their daily activity patterns responded differently to temperature, in part depending on whether they were active in the beginning, middle or end of the season, in part reflecting interindividual variation and intraindividual flexibility, and in part owing to differences in ecology, morphology, and colouration. Activity temperatures varied over the season, and the Apollo and the Large Blue were primarily active at the highest available ambient temperatures (on the warmest days and during the warmest part of the day). The Marsh Fritillary was active early in the season and decreased activity during the highest temperatures. The relationship between individual lifespan and the average temperature was qualitatively different in the three species pointing to species-specific selection. Lifespan increased with an increasing range of utilized temperatures in all species, possibly reflecting that intra-individual flexibility comes with a general survival benefit.

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  • 17.
    Fridolfsson, Emil
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Bunse, Carina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lindehoff, Elin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Farnelid, Hanna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Pontiller, Benjamin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel, Germany.
    Bergström, Kristofer
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Pinhassi, Jarone
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Legrand, Catherine
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Hylander, Samuel
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Multiyear analysis uncovers coordinated seasonality in stocks and composition of the planktonic food web in the Baltic Sea proper2023In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 13, no 1, article id 11865Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The planktonic realm from bacteria to zooplankton provides the baseline for pelagic aquatic food webs. However, multiple trophic levels are seldomly included in time series studies, hampering a holistic understanding of the influence of seasonal dynamics and species interactions on food web structure and biogeochemical cycles. Here, we investigated plankton community composition, focusing on bacterio-, phyto- and large mesozooplankton, and how biotic and abiotic factors correlate at the Linnaeus Microbial Observatory (LMO) station in the Baltic Sea from 2011 to 2018. Plankton communities structures showed pronounced dynamic shifts with recurring patterns. Summarizing the parts of the planktonic microbial food web studied here to total carbon, a picture emerges with phytoplankton consistently contributing > 39% while bacterio- and large mesozooplankton contributed ~ 30% and ~ 7%, respectively, during summer. Cyanophyceae, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Proteobacteria were important groups among the prokaryotes. Importantly, Dinophyceae, and not Bacillariophyceae, dominated the autotrophic spring bloom whereas Litostomatea (ciliates) and Appendicularia contributed significantly to the consumer entities together with the more traditionally observed mesozooplankton, Copepoda and Cladocera. Our findings of seasonality in both plankton composition and carbon stocks emphasize the importance of time series analyses of food web structure for characterizing the regulation of biogeochemical cycles and appropriately constraining ecosystem models. 

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  • 18.
    Frost, Hanna K.
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden;Skåne University Hospital, Sweden.
    Andersson, Tomas
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Johansson, Sebastian
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Englund Johansson, Ulrica
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Ekström, Per
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Dahlin, Lars B.
    Lund University, Sweden;Skåne University Hospital, Sweden.
    Johansson, Fredrik
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Electrospun nerve guide conduits have the potential to bridge peripheral nerve injuries in vivo2018In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, no 1, article id 16716Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrospinning can be used to mimic the architecture of an acellular nerve graft, combining microfibers for guidance, and pores for cellular infiltration. We made electrospun nerve guides, from polycaprolactone (PCL) or poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA), with aligned fibers along the insides of the channels and random fibers around them. We bridged a 10 mm rat sciatic nerve defect with the guides, and, in selected groups, added a cell transplant derived from autologous stromal vascular fraction (SVF). For control, we compared to hollow silicone tubes; or autologous nerve grafts. PCL nerve guides had a high degree of autotomy (8/43 rats), a negative indicator with respect to future usefulness, while PLLA supported axonal regeneration, but did not outperform autologous nerve grafts. Transplanted cells survived in the PLLA nerve guides, but axonal regeneration was not enhanced as compared to nerve guides alone. The inflammatory response was partially enhanced by the transplanted cells in PLLA nerve grafts; Schwann cells were poorly distributed compared to nerve guide without cells. Tailor-made electrospun nerve guides support axonal regeneration in vivo, and can act as vehicles for co-transplanted cells. Our results motivate further studies exploring novel nerve guides and the effect of stromal cell-derived factors on nerve generation.

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  • 19.
    Gagner, Viktor Ahlberg
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lundholm, Ida
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Garcia-Bonete, Maria-Jose
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Rodilla, Helena
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Friedman, Ran
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Advanced Materials.
    Zhaunerchyk, Vitali
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bourenkov, Gleb
    DESY, Germany.
    Schneider, Thomas
    DESY, Germany.
    Stake, Jan
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Katona, Gergely
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Clustering of atomic displacement parameters in bovine trypsin reveals a distributed lattice of atoms with shared chemical properties2019In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 9, p. 1-14, article id 19281Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Low-frequency vibrations are crucial for protein structure and function, but only a few experimental techniques can shine light on them. The main challenge when addressing protein dynamics in the terahertz domain is the ubiquitous water that exhibit strong absorption. In this paper, we observe the protein atoms directly using X-ray crystallography in bovine trypsin at 100 K while irradiating the crystals with 0.5THz radiation alternating on and off states. We observed that the anisotropy of atomic displacements increased upon terahertz irradiation. Atomic displacement similarities developed between chemically related atoms and between atoms of the catalytic machinery. This pattern likely arises from delocalized polar vibrational modes rather than delocalized elastic deformations or rigid-body displacements. The displacement correlation between these atoms were detected by a hierarchical clustering method, which can assist the analysis of other ultra-high resolution crystal structures. These experimental and analytical tools provide a detailed description of protein dynamics to complement the structural information from static diffraction experiments.

  • 20.
    Hu, Yue O. O.
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden;Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Ndegwa, Nelson
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Alneberg, Johannes
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Johansson, Sebastian
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Logue, Jürg Brendan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Huss, Mikael
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Kaller, Max
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Lundeberg, Joakim
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Fagerberg, Jens
    Stockholm Vatten och Avfall AB, Sweden.
    Andersson, Anders F.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Stationary and portable sequencing-based approaches for tracing wastewater contamination in urban stormwater systems2018In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, article id 11907Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban sewer systems consist of wastewater and stormwater sewers, of which only wastewater is processed before being discharged. Occasionally, misconnections or damages in the network occur, resulting in untreated wastewater entering natural water bodies via the stormwater system. Cultivation of faecal indicator bacteria (e.g. Escherichia coli; E. coli) is the current standard for tracing wastewater contamination. This method is cheap but has limited specificity and mobility. Here, we compared the E. coli culturing approach with two sequencing-based methodologies (Illumina MiSeq 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing and Oxford Nanopore MinION shotgun metagenomic sequencing), analysing 73 stormwater samples collected in Stockholm. High correlations were obtained between E. coli culturing counts and frequencies of human gut microbiome amplicon sequences, indicating E. coli is indeed a good indicator of faecal contamination. However, the amplicon data further holds information on contamination source or alternatively how much time has elapsed since the faecal matter has entered the system. Shotgun metagenomic sequencing on a subset of the samples using a portable real-time sequencer, MinION, correlated well with the amplicon sequencing data. This study demonstrates the use of DNA sequencing to detect human faecal contamination in stormwater systems and the potential of tracing faecal contamination directly in the field.

  • 21.
    Isaksson, Sven
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Högberg, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Cultural Sciences. University of Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Lombard, Marlize
    University of Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Bradfield, Justin
    University of Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Potential biomarkers for southern African hunter-gatherer arrow poisons applied to ethno-historical and archaeological samples2023In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 13, no 1, article id 11877Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The detection of complex poison recipes applied to ancient hunting weapons has the potential to provide important insights into traditional pharmacological knowledge systems. Yet, recipes comprising many ingredients can be challenging to decipher, especially in older samples that have undergone biodegradation. We present the results of our attempt to analyze samples of poison collected from nineteenth and twentieth century arrowheads from southern Africa, and from a 1000-year-old archaeological bone point. The arrow poison residues and reference samples were analyzed by Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR FTIR) and Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC–MS). The ATR FTIR analysis is primarily able to separate between different arrow poison binder recipes. The extractives identified by GC–MS analysis consist of a multitude of components from both binders and active substances, confirming and adding to the results from the ATR FTIR analyses. We discuss the results in terms of potential biomarkers for arrow poisons in organic residue analyses of archaeological artefacts; that residues of toxic cardiotonic glycosides can be detected on curated and excavated arrow tips of between about 1000 and 100 years old, serves as proof of concept for working with older materials in the future.

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  • 22.
    Jacobsson, Erik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Andersson, Håkan S.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Strand, Malin
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Peigneur, Steve
    Univ Leuven, Belgium.
    Eriksson, Camilla
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Loden, Henrik
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Shariatgorji, Mohammadreza
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Andren, Per E.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Lebbe, Eline K. M.
    Univ Leuven, Belgium.
    Rosengren, K. Johan
    Univ Queensland, Australia.
    Tytgat, Jan
    Univ Leuven, Belgium.
    Göransson, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Peptide ion channel toxins from the bootlace worm, the longest animal on Earth2018In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, article id 4596Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Polypeptides from animal venoms have found important uses as drugs, pharmacological tools, and within biotechnological and agricultural applications. We here report a novel family of cystine knot peptides from nemertean worms, with potent activity on voltage-gated sodium channels. These toxins, named the alpha-nemertides, were discovered in the epidermal mucus of Lineus longissimus, the 'bootlace worm' known as the longest animal on earth. The most abundant peptide, the 31-residue long alpha-1, was isolated, synthesized, and its 3D NMR structure determined. Transcriptome analysis including 17 species revealed eight alpha-nemertides, mainly distributed in the genus Lineus. alpha-1 caused paralysis and death in green crabs (Carcinus maenas) at 1 mu g/kg (similar to 300 pmol/kg). It showed profound effect on invertebrate voltage-gated sodium channels (e.g. Blattella germanica Na(v)1) at low nanomolar concentrations. Strong selectivity for insect over human sodium channels indicates that a-nemertides can be promising candidates for development of bioinsecticidal agents.

  • 23.
    Johansson, Ulrika
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. KTH Royal Instute of Technology, Sweden;Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Widhe, Mona
    KTH Royal Instute of Technology, Sweden.
    Shalaly, Nancy Dekki
    KTH Royal Instute of Technology, Sweden.
    Arregui, Irene Linares
    KTH Royal Instute of Technology, Sweden.
    Nileback, Linnea
    KTH Royal Instute of Technology, Sweden.
    Tasiopoulos, Christos Panagiotis
    KTH Royal Instute of Technology, Sweden.
    Åstrand, Carolina
    KTH Royal Instute of Technology, Sweden.
    Berggren, Per-Olof
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden;Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Gasser, Christian
    KTH Royal Instute of Technology, Sweden.
    Hedhammar, My
    KTH Royal Instute of Technology, Sweden.
    Assembly of functionalized silk together with cells to obtain proliferative 3D cultures integrated in a network of ECM-like microfibers2019In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 9, p. 1-13, article id 6291Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tissues are built of cells integrated in an extracellular matrix (ECM) which provides a three-dimensional (3D) microfiber network with specific sites for cell anchorage. By genetic engineering, motifs from the ECM can be functionally fused to recombinant silk proteins. Such a silk protein, FN-silk, which harbours a motif from fibronectin, has the ability to self-assemble into networks of microfibers under physiological-like conditions. Herein we describe a method by which mammalian cells are added to the silk solution before assembly, and thereby get uniformly integrated between the formed microfibers. In the resulting 3D scaffold, the cells are highly proliferative and spread out more efficiently than when encapsulated in a hydrogel. Elongated cells containing filamentous actin and defined focal adhesion points confirm proper cell attachment to the FN-silk. The cells remain viable in culture for at least 90 days. The method is also scalable to macro-sized 3D cultures. Silk microfibers formed in a bundle with integrated cells are both strong and extendable, with mechanical properties similar to that of artery walls. The described method enables differentiation of stem cells in 3D as well as facile co-culture of several different cell types. We show that inclusion of endothelial cells leads to the formation of vessel-like structures throughout the tissue constructs. Hence, silk-assembly in presence of cells constitutes a viable option for 3D culture of cells integrated in a ECM-like network, with potential as base for engineering of functional tissue.

  • 24.
    Kamal-Eldin, Afaf
    et al.
    United Arab Emirates Univ, United Arab Emirates.
    George, Navomy
    United Arab Emirates Univ, United Arab Emirates.
    Sobti, Bhawna
    United Arab Emirates Univ, United Arab Emirates.
    AlRashidi, Nouf
    United Arab Emirates Univ, United Arab Emirates.
    Ghnimi, Sami
    Univ Claude Bernard Lyon 1, France.
    Ali, Abdul Aziz
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Andersson, Annica A. M.
    Swedish university of agricultural sciences, Sweden.
    Andersson, Roger
    Swedish university of agricultural sciences, Sweden.
    Antony, Asha
    United Arab Emirates Univ, United Arab Emirates.
    Hamed, Fathalla
    United Arab Emirates Univ, United Arab Emirates.
    Dietary fiber components, microstructure, and texture of date fruits (Phoenix dactylifera, L.)2020In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 1-11, article id 21767Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Date fruits vary widely in the hardness of their edible parts and they are classified accordingly into soft, semi-dry, and dry varieties. Fruit texture, a significant parameter in determining consumer acceptance, is related to the tissue structure and chemical composition of the fruit, mainly the ratio of sucrose to reducing sugars. This study aimed to understand the relationship between the chemical composition, microstructure, and texture profile of 10 major Emirati date fruits. The soluble sugars, glucose and fructose, represent ca 80 g/100 g of the fruits on the basis of dry weight (DW) while the dietary fiber contents varied 5.2-7.4 g/100 dg D.W. with lignin being the main determinant of the variability. The textures of the samples were studied using instrumental texture profile analysis. While no correlation was found between the soluble sugar and texture parameters in this study, the different fiber constituents correlated variably with the different parameters of date fruit texture. Lignin, arabinoxylan, galactomannan, and pectin were found to correlate significantly with fruit hardness and the related parameters, gumminess and chewiness. Both lignin and arabinoxylan correlated with resilience, and arabinoxylan exhibited a strong correlation with cohesiveness.

  • 25.
    Karlsson, Björn C. G.
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Friedman, Ran
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Dilution of whisky - the molecular perspective2017In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, no 6489Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Whisky is distilled to around 70% alcohol by volume (vol-%) then diluted to about 40 vol-%, and often drunk after further slight dilution to enhance its taste. The taste of whisky is primarily associated with amphipathic molecules, such as guaiacol, but why and how dilution enhances the taste is not well understood. We carried out computer simulations of water-ethanol mixtures in the presence of guaiacol, providing atomistic details on the structure of the liquid mixture. We found that guaiacol is preferentially associated with ethanol, and, therefore, primarily found at the liquid-air interface in mixtures that contain up to 45 vol-% of ethanol. At ethanol concentrations of 59 vol-% or higher, guaiacol is increasingly surrounded by ethanol molecules and is driven to the bulk. This indicates that the taste of guaiacol in the whisky would be enhanced upon dilution prior to bottling. Our findings may apply to other flavour-giving amphipathic molecules and could contribute to optimising the production of spirits for desired tastes. Furthermore, it sheds light on the molecular structure of water-alcohol mixtures that contain small solutes, and reveals that interactions with the water may be negligible already at 89 vol-% of ethanol.

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  • 26.
    Karpestam, Einat
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Merilaita, Sami
    Åbo Akademi University, Finland.
    Forsman, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Colour polymorphism protects prey individuals and populations against predation2016In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 6, article id 22122Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Colour pattern polymorphism in animals can influence and be influenced by interactions between predators and prey. However, few studies have examined whether polymorphism is adaptive, and there is no evidence that the co-occurrence of two or more natural prey colour variants can increase survival of populations. Here we show that visual predators that exploit polymorphic prey suffer from reduced performance, and further provide rare evidence in support of the hypothesis that prey colour polymorphism may afford protection against predators for both individuals and populations. This protective effect provides a probable explanation for the longstanding, evolutionary puzzle of the existence of colour polymorphisms. We also propose that this protective effect can provide an adaptive explanation for search image formation in predators rather than search image formation explaining polymorphism.

  • 27.
    Ketzer, João Marcelo
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Praeg, D.
    Independent researcher.
    Augustin, A. H.
    Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
    Rodrigues, L. F.
    Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Brazil.
    Steiger, A. K.
    Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
    Rahmati-Abkenar, Mahboubeh
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Viana, A. R.
    Petrobras Petroleo Brasileiro SA, Brazil.
    Miller, D. J.
    Petrobras Petroleo Brasileiro SA, Brazil.
    Malinverno, A.
    Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University, USA.
    Dickens, G. R.
    Trinity College Dublin, Ireland.
    Cupertino, J. A.
    Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
    Gravity complexes as a focus of seafloor fluid seepage: the Rio Grande Cone, SE Brazil2023In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 13, no 1, article id 4590Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Seafloor methane emissions can affect Earth’s climate and ocean chemistry. Vast quantities of methane formed by microbial decomposition of organic matter are locked within gas hydrate and free gas on continental slopes, particularly in large areas with high sediment accumulations such as deep-sea fans. The release of methane in slope environments has frequently been associated with dissociation of gas hydrates near the edge of the gas hydrate stability zone on the upper slope, with discharges in greater water depths less understood. Here we show, using data from the Rio Grande Cone (western South Atlantic), that the intrinsic, gravity-induced downslope collapse of thick slope sediment accumulations creates structures that serve as pathways for gas migration, unlocking methane and causing seafloor emissions via giant gas flares in the water column. The observed emissions in the study region (up to 310 Mg year−1) are three times greater than estimates for the entire US North Atlantic margin and reveal the importance of collapsing sediment accumulations for ocean carbon cycling. Similar outgassing systems on the Amazon and Niger fans suggest that gravity tectonics on passive margins is a common yet overlooked mechanism driving massive seafloor methane emissions in sediment-laden continental slopes. © 2023, The Author(s).

  • 28.
    Khrennikov, Andrei
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mathematics. Natl Res Univ Informat Technol Mech & Opt ITMO, Russia.
    Basieva, Irina
    City Univ London, UK.
    Pothos, Emmanuel M.
    City Univ London, UK.
    Yamato, Ichiro
    Tokyo Univ Sci, Japan;Chiba Univ, Japan.
    Quantum probability in decision making from quantum information representation of neuronal states2018In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, article id 16225Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The recent wave of interest to modeling the process of decision making with the aid of the quantum formalism gives rise to the following question: 'How can neurons generate quantum-like statistical data?' (There is a plenty of such data in cognitive psychology and social science). Our model is based on quantum-like representation of uncertainty in generation of action potentials. This uncertainty is a consequence of complexity of electrochemical processes in the brain; in particular, uncertainty of triggering an action potential by the membrane potential. Quantum information state spaces can be considered as extensions of classical information spaces corresponding to neural codes; e.g., 0/1, quiescent/firing neural code. The key point is that processing of information by the brain involves superpositions of such states. Another key point is that a neuronal group performing some psychological function F is an open quantum system. It interacts with the surrounding electrochemical environment. The process of decision making is described as decoherence in the basis of eigenstates of F. A decision state is a steady state. This is a linear representation of complex nonlinear dynamics of electrochemical states. Linearity guarantees exponentially fast convergence to the decision state.

  • 29.
    Kirdok, Emrah
    et al.
    Mersin Univ, Turkiye.
    Kashuba, Natalija
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Damlien, Hege
    Univ Oslo, Norway.
    Manninen, Mikael A.
    Univ Helsinki, Finland.
    Nordqvist, Bengt
    Foundation War-Booty Site Finnestorp, Sweden.
    Kjellström, Anna
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Jakobsson, Mattias
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Lindberg, A. Michael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Storå, Jan
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Persson, Per
    Univ Oslo, Norway.
    Andersson, Björn
    Karolinska Insitutet, Sweden.
    Aravena, Andres
    Istanbul Univ, Turkiye.
    Götherström, Anders
    Centre for Palaeogenetics, Sweden;Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Metagenomic analysis of Mesolithic chewed pitch reveals poor oral health among stone age individuals2024In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 13, no 1, article id 22125Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prehistoric chewed pitch has proven to be a useful source of ancient DNA, both from humans and their microbiomes. Here we present the metagenomic analysis of three pieces of chewed pitch from Huseby Klev, Sweden, that were dated to 9,890-9,540 before present. The metagenomic profile exposes a Mesolithic oral microbiome that includes opportunistic oral pathogens. We compared the data with healthy and dysbiotic microbiome datasets and we identified increased abundance of periodontitis-associated microbes. In addition, trained machine learning models predicted dysbiosis with 70-80% probability. Moreover, we identified DNA sequences from eukaryotic species such as red fox, hazelnut, red deer and apple. Our results indicate a case of poor oral health during the Scandinavian Mesolithic, and show that pitch pieces have the potential to provide information on material use, diet and oral health.

  • 30.
    Kitaguchi, Y.
    et al.
    Kyoto University, Japan.
    Habuka, S.
    Kyoto University, Japan.
    Okuyama, H.
    Kyoto University, Japan.
    Hatta, S.
    Kyoto University, Japan.
    Aruga, T.
    Kyoto University, Japan.
    Frederiksen, T.
    DIPC, Spain ; Ikerbasque, Spain.
    Paulsson, Magnus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Ueba, H.
    University of Toyama, Japan.
    Controlling single-molecule junction conductance by molecular interactions2015In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 5, article id 11796Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For the rational design of single-molecular electronic devices, it is essential to understand environmental effects on the electronic properties of a working molecule. Here we investigate the impact of molecular interactions on the single-molecule conductance by accurately positioning individual molecules on the electrode. To achieve reproducible and precise conductivity measurements, we utilize relatively weak pi-bonding between a phenoxy molecule and a STM-tip to form and cleave one contact to the molecule. The anchoring to the other electrode is kept stable using a chalcogen atom with strong bonding to a Cu(110) substrate. These non-destructive measurements permit us to investigate the variation in single-molecule conductance under different but controlled environmental conditions. Combined with density functional theory calculations, we clarify the role of the electrostatic field in the environmental effect that influences the molecular level alignment.

  • 31.
    Lard, Mercy
    et al.
    Lund University.
    ten Siethoff, Lasse
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Månsson, Alf
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Linke, Heiner
    Lund University.
    Tracking Actomyosin at Fluorescence Check Points2013In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 3, article id 1092Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Emerging concepts for on-chip biotechnologies aim to replace microfluidic flow by active, molecular-motor driven transport of cytoskeletal filaments, including applications in bio-simulation, biocomputation, diagnostics, and drug screening. Many of these applications require reliable detection, with minimal data acquisition, of filaments at many, local checkpoints in a device consisting of a potentially complex network of channels that guide filament motion. Here we develop such a detection system using actomyosin motility. Detection points consist of pairs of gold lines running perpendicular to nanochannels that guide motion of fluorescent actin filaments. Fluorescence interference contrast (FLIC) is used to locally enhance the signal at the gold lines. A cross-correlation method is used to suppress errors, allowing reliable detection of single or multiple filaments. Optimal device design parameters are discussed. The results open for automatic read-out of filament count and velocity in high-throughput motility assays, helping establish the viability of active, motor-driven on-chip applications.

  • 32.
    Lawson, Becki
    et al.
    Zool Soc London, UK.
    Robinson, Robert A.
    British Trust Ornithol, UK.
    Fernandez, Julia Rodriguez-Ramos
    IDEXX Labs Ltd, UK.
    John, Shinto K.
    Zool Soc London, UK.
    Benitez, Laura
    Univ Complutense Madrid, Spain.
    Tolf, Conny
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Risely, Kate
    British Trust Ornithol, UK.
    Toms, Mike P.
    British Trust Ornithol, UK.
    Cunningham, Andrew A.
    Zool Soc London, UK.
    Williams, Richard A. J.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Univ Complutense Madrid, Spain.
    Spatio-temporal dynamics and aetiology of proliferative leg skin lesions in wild British finches2018In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, article id 14670Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Proliferative leg skin lesions have been described in wild finches in Europe although there have been no large-scale studies of their aetiology or epizootiology to date. Firstly, disease surveillance, utilising public reporting of observations of live wild finches was conducted in Great Britain (GB) and showed proliferative leg skin lesions in chaffinches (Fringilla coelebs) to be widespread. Seasonal variation was observed, with a peak during the winter months. Secondly, pathological investigations were performed on a sample of 39 chaffinches, four bullfinches (Pyrrhula pyrrhula), one greenfinch (Chloris chloris) and one goldfinch (Carduelis carduelis) with proliferative leg skin lesions and detected Cnemidocoptes sp. mites in 91% (41/45) of affected finches and from all species examined. Fringilla coelebs papillomavirus (FcPV1) PCR was positive in 74% (23/31) of birds tested: a 394 base pair sequence was derived from 20 of these birds, from all examined species, with 100% identity to reference genomes. Both mites and FcPV1 DNA were detected in 71% (20/28) of birds tested for both pathogens. Histopathological examination of lesions did not discriminate the relative importance of mite or FcPV1 infection as their cause. Development of techniques to localise FcPV1 within lesions is required to elucidate the pathological significance of FcPV1 DNA detection.

  • 33.
    Lebret, Karen
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Östman, Örjan
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Langenheder, Silke
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Drakare, Stina
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Guillemette, Francois
    Univ Quebec Trois Rivieres, Canada.
    Lindström, Eva S.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    High abundances of the nuisance raphidophyte Gonyostomum semen in brown water lakes are associated with high concentrations of iron2018In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, article id 13463Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Algal blooms occur frequently in lakes and oceans and the causes and consequences of those are often studied. In this study, we focus on a less well known type of algal bloom by the freshwater raphidophyte Gonyostomum semen. This species' abundance and occurrence is increasing, especially in brown water lakes, the most abundant lake type in the boreal zone. The aim of the study was to investigate which environmental factors are associated with G. semen by statistical evaluation of field data of 95 Swedish lakes over five years. Although we found G. semen to be associated with dark waters it was, contrary to our expectations, mainly high concentrations of iron, and only to a lesser extent high TOC (total organic carbon) concentrations, that were associated with blooms of G. semen. In addition, high phosphorus concentrations and low pH also appear to facilitate G. semen blooms. We suggest that browning of lakes caused by increased iron concentrations may decrease net heterotrophy by fostering heavy algal blooms, i.e. the opposite to commonly assumed effects of increased DOM (dissolved organic matter).

  • 34.
    Lehtonen, Topi K.
    et al.
    Monash Univ, Australia.
    Svensson, P. Andreas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Monash Univ, Australia.
    Wong, Bob B. M.
    Monash Univ, Australia.
    Aggressive desert goby males also court more, independent of the physiological demands of salinity2018In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, article id 9352Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Both between- and within-individual variation in behaviour can be important in determining mating opportunities and reproductive outcomes. Such behavioural variability can be induced by environmental conditions, especially if individuals vary in their tolerance levels or resource allocation patterns. We tested the effects of exposure to different salinity levels on male investment into two important components of mating success-intrasexual aggression and intersexual courtship-in a fish with a resource defence mating system, the desert goby, Chlamydogobius eremius. We found that males that were more aggressive to rivals also exhibited higher rates of courtship displays towards females. Contrary to predictions, this positive relationship, and the consistency of the two behaviours, were not affected by the salinity treatment, despite the physiological costs that high salinity imposes on the species. Moreover, over the entire data-set, there was only a marginally non-significant tendency for males to show higher levels of aggression and courtship in low, than high, salinity. The positive correlation between male aggression and courtship, independent of the physiological demands of the environment, suggests that males are not inclined to make contrasting resource investments into these two key reproductive behaviours. Instead, in this relatively euryhaline freshwater species, typical investment into current reproductive behaviours can occur under a range of different salinity conditions.

  • 35.
    Levchenko, K.
    et al.
    Polish Acad Sci, Poland.
    Prokscha, T.
    Paul Scherrer Inst, Switzerland.
    Sadowski, Janusz
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Polish Acad Sci, Poland;Lund University, Sweden.
    Radelytskyi, I.
    Polish Acad Sci, Poland.
    Jakiela, R.
    Polish Acad Sci, Poland.
    Trzyna, M.
    Polish Acad Sci, Poland;Univ Rzeszow, Poland.
    Andrearczyk, T.
    Polish Acad Sci, Poland.
    Figielski, T.
    Polish Acad Sci, Poland.
    Wosinski, T.
    Polish Acad Sci, Poland.
    Evidence for the homogeneous ferromagnetic phase in (Ga, Mn) (Bi, As) epitaxial layers from muon spin relaxation spectroscopy2019In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 9, p. 1-8, article id 3394Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ferromagnetic semiconductor thin layers of the quaternary (Ga,Mn)(Bi,As) and reference, ternary (Ga, Mn) As compounds, epitaxially grown under either compressive or tensile strain, have been characterized from a perspective of structural and magnetization homogeneity. The quality and composition of the layers have been confirmed by secondary-ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). A thorough evaluation of the magnetic properties as a function of temperature and applied magnetic field has been performed by means of SQUID magnetometry and low-energy muon spin relaxation (mu SR) spectroscopy, which enables studying local (on the nanometer scale) magnetic properties of the layers. The results testify that the ferromagnetic order builds up almost homogeneously below the Curie temperature in the full volume fraction of both the (Ga, Mn) As and (Ga, Mn)(Bi, As) layers. Incorporation of a small amount of heavy Bi atoms into (Ga, Mn) As, which distinctly enhances the strength of spin-orbit coupling in the quaternary (Ga, Mn)(Bi, As) layers, does not deteriorate noticeably their magnetic properties.

  • 36.
    Lindström, Jonathan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Friedman, Ran
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Rotating between ponatiniband imatinib temporarily increasesthe efficacy of imatinib as shownin a chronic myeloid leukaemiamodel2022In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 12, article id 5164Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Targeted therapies for chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) are effective, but rarely curative. Patients typically require treatment indefinitely, which gives ample time for drug resistance to evolve. Drug resistance issues are one of the main causes of death owing to CML, thus any means of preventing resistance are of importance. Drug rotations, wherein treatment is switched periodically between different drugs are one such option, and have been theorized to delay the onset of resistance. In vitro testing of drug rotation therapy is a first step towards applying it in animal or human trials. We developed a method for testing drug rotation protocols in CML cell lines based around culturing cells with a moderate amount of inhibitors interspersed with washing procedures and drug swaps. Drug rotations of imatinib and ponatinib were evaluated in a CML specific cell line, KCL-22. The growth of KCL-22 cells was initially reduced by a drug rotation, but the cells eventually adapted to the protocol. Our results show that ponatinib in a drug rotation temporarily sensitizes the cells to imatinib, but the effect is short-lived and is eventually lost after a few treatment cycles. Possible explanations for this observation are discussed.

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  • 37.
    Marcusson-Clavertz, David
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden;Ludwig Maximilian Univ Munich, Germany.
    Kjell, Oscar N. E.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Kim, Jinhyuk
    Shizuoka Univ, Japan.
    Persson, Stefan D.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Cardena, Etzel
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Sad mood and poor sleep are related to task-unrelated thoughts and experience of diminished cognitive control2020In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 10, no 1, article id 8940Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies have indicated that a sad mood and sleep deprivation increase mind wandering, but it is unclear whether these associations reflect reduced effort in concentrating on the task at hand or diminished cognitive control. In an internet-based experiment, participants completed a sleep disturbance questionnaire followed by a complex span task and a 2-back task with thought-sampling probes. Subsequently, participants underwent a positive, neutral, or negative mood induction prior to repeating the 2-back. The results (N=504) replicated the finding of increased task-unrelated thoughts following sad mood induction, B=0.56 (SE=0.14), p<0.01, d=0.31. Unguided thoughts were increased following sad mood induction, B=0.31 (0.13), p=0.02, but working memory did not significantly moderate this association (p=0.31). People reported a lower degree of trying to concentrate on the 2-back after the sad mood induction, B=-0.07 (0.04), p=0.04, but actual performance was not affected (p=0.46). Sleep disturbances showed small associations with task-unrelated, B=0.23 (0.08), p<0.01, and unguided thoughts, B=0.32 (0.08), p<0.01. This study strengthens the evidence that a sad mood and poor sleep relate to mind wandering.

  • 38.
    Molnár, Anna
    et al.
    Eszterházy Károly Catholic University, Hungary;Eötvös Loránd University, Hungary.
    Knapp, Daniel
    Eötvös Loránd University, Hungary.
    Lovas, Miklós
    Eszterházy Károly Catholic University, Hungary.
    Tóth, Gergő
    Eötvös Loránd University, Hungary;Semmelweis University, Hungary.
    Boldizsár, Imre
    Eötvös Loránd University, Hungary;Semmelweis University, Hungary.
    Váczy, Kálmán Zoltán
    Eszterházy Károly Catholic University, Hungary.
    Kovács, Gábor M.
    Eötvös Loránd University, Hungary;Centre for Agricultural Research, Hungary.
    Untargeted metabolomic analyses support the main phylogenetic groups of the common plant-associated Alternaria fungi isolated from grapevine (Vitis vinifera)2023In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 13, no 1, article id 19298Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Alternaria, a cosmopolitan fungal genus is a dominant member of the grapevine (Vitis vinifera) microbiome. Several Alternaria species are known to produce a variety of secondary metabolites, which are particularly relevant to plant protection and food safety in field crops. According to previous findings, the majority of Alternaria species inhabiting grapevine belong to Alternaria sect. Alternaria. However, the phylogenetic diversity and secondary metabolite production of the distinct Alternaria species has remained unclear. In this study, our aim was to examine the genetic and metabolic diversity of endophytic Alternaria isolates associated with the above-ground tissues of the grapevine. Altogether, 270 Alternaria isolates were collected from asymptomatic leaves and grape clusters of different grapevine varieties in the Eger wine region of Hungary. After analyses of the nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and RNA polymerase second largest subunit (rpb2) sequences, 170 isolates were chosen for further analyses. Sequences of the Alternaria major allergen gene (Alt a 1), endopolygalacturonase (endoPG), OPA10-2, and KOG1058 were also included in the phylogenetic analyses. Identification of secondary metabolites and metabolite profiling of the isolates were performed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)–high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry (HR-MS/MS). The multilocus phylogeny results revealed two distinct groups in grapevine, namely A. alternata and the A. arborescens species complex (AASC). Eight main metabolites were identified in all collected Alternaria isolates, regardless of their affiliation to the species and lineages. Multivariate analyses of untargeted metabolites found no clear separations; however, a partial least squares-discriminant analysis model was able to successfully discriminate between the metabolic datasets from isolates belonging to the AASC and A. alternata. By conducting univariate analysis based on the discriminant ability of the metabolites, we also identified several features exhibiting large and significant variation between A. alternata and the AASC. The separation of these groups may suggest functional differences, which may also play a role in the functioning of the plant microbiome.

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  • 39.
    Moretto, Luisa
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Heylen, Rachel
    Univ Cambridge, UK.
    Holroyd, Natalie
    UCL, UK.
    Vance, Steven
    Crescendo Biol Ltd, UK.
    Broadhurst, R. William
    Univ Cambridge, UK.
    Modular type I polyketide synthase acyl carrier protein domains share a common N-terminally extended fold2019In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 9, article id 2325Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Acyl carrier protein (ACP) domains act as interaction hubs within modular polyketide synthase (PKS) systems, employing specific protein-protein interactions to present acyl substrates to a series of enzyme active sites. Many domains from the multimodular PKS that generates the toxin mycolactone display an unusually high degree of sequence similarity, implying that the few sites which vary may do so for functional reasons. When domain boundaries based on prior studies were used to prepare two isolated ACP segments from this system for studies of their interaction properties, one fragment adopted the expected tertiary structure, but the other failed to fold, despite sharing a sequence identity of 49%. Secondary structure prediction uncovered a previously undetected helical region (H0) that precedes the canonical helix-bundle ACP topology in both cases. This article reports the NMR solution structures of two N-terminally extended mycolactone mACP constructs, mH0ACPa and mH0ACPb, both of which possess an additional alpha-helix that behaves like a rigid component of the domain. The interactions of these species with a phosphopantetheinyl transferase and a ketoreductase domain are unaffected by the presence of H0, but a shorter construct that lacks the H0 region is shown to be substantially less thermostable than mH0ACPb. Bioinformatics analysis suggests that the extended H0-ACP motif is present in 98% of type I cis-acyltransferase PKS chain-extension modules. The polypeptide linker that connects an H0-ACP motif to the preceding domain must therefore be similar to 12 residues shorter than previously thought, imposing strict limits on ACP-mediated substrate delivery within and between PKS modules.

  • 40.
    Nordebo, Sven
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Naeem, Farhan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Tans, Pieter
    NOAA Global Monitoring Laboratory, USA.
    Estimating the short-time rate of change in the trend of the Keeling curve2020In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 10, p. 1-11, article id 21222Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    What exactly is the short-time rate of change (growth rate) in the trend of CO2 data such as the Keeling curve? The answer to this question will obviously depend very much on the duration in time over which the trend has been defined, as well as the smoothing technique that has been used. As an estimate of the short-time rate of change we propose to employ a very simple and robust definition of the trend based on a centered 1-year sliding data window for averaging and a corresponding centered 1-year difference (2-year data window) to estimate its rate of change. In this paper, we show that this simple strategy applied to weekly data of the Keeling curve (1974–2020) gives an estimated rate of change which is perfectly consistent with a more sophisticated regression analysis technique based on Taylor and Fourier series expansions. From a statistical analysis of the regression model and by using the Cramér–Rao lower bound, it is demonstrated that the relative error in the estimated rate of change is less than 5 %%. As an illustration, the estimates are finally compared to some other publicly available data regarding anthropogenic CO2 emissions and natural phenomena such as the El Niño.

  • 41.
    Näsström, Thomas
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Advanced Materials.
    Andersson, Per-Ola
    FOI Swedish Defence Research Agency, Sweden;Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Lejon, Christian
    FOI Swedish Defence Research Agency, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Björn C. G.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Advanced Materials.
    Amyloid fibrils prepared using an acetylated and methyl amidated peptide model of the alpha-Synuclein NAC 71-82 amino acid stretch contain an additional cross-beta structure also found in prion proteins2019In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 9, p. 1-14, article id 15949Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The 71-82 fragment of the non-amyloid-beta component (NAC) region of the Parkinson's disease (PD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) related protein alpha-Synuclein, has been reported to be important during protein misfolding. Although reports have demonstrated the importance of this fragment for the aggregation properties of the full-length protein, its exact role in pre-fibrillar oligomerisation, fibrillar growth and morphology has not yet been fully elucidated. Here, we provide evidence that fibrils prepared from an acetylated and methyl amidated peptide of the NAC 71-82 amino acid stretch of alpha-Synuclein are amyloid and contain, in addition to the cross-beta structure detected in the full-length protein fibrils, a cross-beta structure previously observed in prion proteins. These results shed light on the aggregation propensity of the NAC 71-82 amino acid stretch of the full-length protein but also the roles of the N- and C-terminal domains of alpha-Synuclein in balancing this aggregation propensity. The results also suggest that early aggregated forms of the capped NAC 71-82 peptide generated structures were stabilised by an anti-parallel and twisted beta-sheet motif. Due to its expected toxicity, this beta-sheet motif may be a promising molecular target for the development of therapeutic strategies for PD and DLB.

  • 42.
    Rahlff, Janina
    et al.
    Carl von Ossietzky University of Oldenburg, Germany.
    Ribas-Ribas, Mariana
    Carl von Ossietzky University of Oldenburg, Germany.
    Brown, Scott M.
    Columbia University, USA.
    Mustaffa, Nur Ili Hamizah
    Carl von Ossietzky University of Oldenburg, Germany.
    Renz, Jasmin
    German Centre for Marine Biodiversity Research, Germany.
    Peck, Myron A.
    University of Hamburg, Germany.
    Bird, Kimberley
    Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, UK.
    Cunliffe, Michael
    Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, UK.
    Melkonian, Katharina
    Carl von Ossietzky University Oldenburg, Germany.
    Zappa, Christopher J.
    Columbia University, USA.
    Blue pigmentation of neustonic copepods benefits exploitation of a prey-rich niche at the air-sea boundary2018In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, no 1, article id 11510Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The sea-surface microlayer (SML) at the air-sea interface is a distinct, under-studied habitat compared to the subsurface and copepods, important components of ocean food webs, have developed key adaptations to exploit this niche. By using automated SML sampling, high-throughput sequencing and unmanned aerial vehicles, we report on the distribution and abundance of pontellid copepods in relation to the unique biophysicochemical signature of the SML. We found copepods in the SML even during high exposure to sun-derived ultraviolet radiation and their abundance was significantly correlated to increased algal biomass. We additionally investigated the significance of the pontellids’ blue pigmentation and found that the reflectance peak of the blue pigment matched the water-leaving spectral radiance of the ocean surface. This feature could reduce high visibility at the air-sea boundary and potentially provide camouflage of copepods from their predators.

  • 43.
    Rechcinski, Marcin
    et al.
    Jagiellonian Univ Krakow, Poland.
    Tusznio, Joanna
    Jagiellonian Univ Krakow, Poland.
    Akhshik, Arash
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Management (MAN). Jagiellonian Univ Krakow, Poland.
    Grodzinska-Jurczak, Malgorzata
    Jagiellonian Univ Krakow, Poland.
    A critical assessment of a protected area conflict analysis based on secondary data in the age of datafication2023In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 13, no 1, article id 8028Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, a global trend towards a broader use of secondary data in social sciences has been reinforced by the COVID-19 pandemic. This evoked doubts about the validity of the results unless restrictive assessment procedures are implemented. To address this need in the field of protected area (PA) conflict analysis, we propose a three-fold approach (theory-, method-, and cross-scale simulation-driven) to assess the usefulness of the utilized state register dataset and the indicator analysis methodology for the multi-level recognition of PA conflict determinants. With the ultimate aim to inform case study selection, we processed 187 relevant indicators from the official Statistics Poland register for a Lesser Poland region. We distinguished five types of PA conflict determinants in Lesser Poland ('urbanity', 'agriculture', 'tourism', 'small-scale entrepreneurship', and 'sprawl') and respective groups of 15 clusters comprising local-level units. For one cluster, we juxtaposed the obtained results with secondary data from another source (Internet content) and for a specific PA (Tatra National Park). Although the reported conflict issues corresponded to the indicator-derived descriptors of the cluster, in the theory-driven phase of the assessment, the state register failed to address the key prerequisites of PA conflicts. We have demonstrated that, in crisis conditions such as COVID-19, the proposed method can serve as a proxy for a multi-level recognition of PA conflict potentials, provided that it synthesises the results of different methodological approaches, followed by in-person interviews in the selected case studies.

  • 44.
    Rems, Lea
    et al.
    University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Ušaj, Marko
    University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Kandušer, Maša
    University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Reberšek, Matej
    University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Miklavčič, Damijan
    University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Pucihar, Gorazd
    University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Cell electrofusion using nanosecond electric pulses2013In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 3, article id 3382Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrofusion is an efficient method for fusing cells using short-duration high-voltage electric pulses. However, electrofusion yields are very low when fusion partner cells differ considerably in their size, since the extent of electroporation (consequently membrane fusogenic state) with conventionally used microsecond pulses depends proportionally on the cell radius. We here propose a new and innovative approach to fuse cells with shorter, nanosecond (ns) pulses. Using numerical calculations we demonstrate that ns pulses can induce selective electroporation of the contact areas between cells (i.e. the target areas), regardless of the cell size. We then confirm experimentally on B16-F1 and CHO cell lines that electrofusion of cells with either equal or different size by using ns pulses is indeed feasible. Based on our results we expect that ns pulses can improve fusion yields in electrofusion of cells with different size, such as myeloma cells and B lymphocytes in hybridoma technology.

  • 45.
    Roberts, N.
    et al.
    Plymouth Univ, UK.
    Fyfe, R. M.
    Plymouth Univ, UK.
    Woodbridge, J.
    Plymouth Univ, UK.
    Gaillard, Marie-José
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Davis, B. A. S.
    Univ Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Kaplan, J. O.
    Max Planck Inst Sci Human Hist, Germany;ARVE Res SARL, Switzerland.
    Marquer, L.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Mazier, F.
    Jean Jaures Univ, France.
    Nielsen, A. B.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Sugita, S.
    Tallinn Univ, Estonia.
    Trondman, Anna-Kari
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Leydet, M.
    Aix Marseille Univ, France.
    Europe's lost forests: a pollen-based synthesis for the last 11,000 years2018In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, article id 716Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    8000 years ago, prior to Neolithic agriculture, Europe was mostly a wooded continent. Since then, its forest cover has been progressively fragmented, so that today it covers less than half of Europe's land area, in many cases having been cleared to make way for fields and pasture-land. Establishing the origin of Europe's current, more open land-cover mosaic requires a long-term perspective, for which pollen analysis offers a key tool. In this study we utilise and compare three numerical approaches to transforming pollen data into past forest cover, drawing on >1000 C-14-dated site records. All reconstructions highlight the different histories of the mixed temperate and the northern boreal forests, with the former declining progressively since similar to 6000 years ago, linked to forest clearance for agriculture in later prehistory (especially in northwest Europe) and early historic times (e.g. in north central Europe). In contrast, extensive human impact on the needle-leaf forests of northern Europe only becomes detectable in the last two millennia and has left a larger area of forest in place. Forest loss has been a dominant feature of Europe's landscape ecology in the second half of the current interglacial, with consequences for carbon cycling, ecosystem functioning and biodiversity.

  • 46.
    Sadowski, Janusz
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Polish Acad Sci, Poland.
    Kaleta, Anna
    Polish Acad Sci, Poland.
    Kryvyi, Serhii
    Polish Acad Sci, Poland.
    Janaszko, Dorota
    Polish Acad Sci, Poland.
    Kurowska, Boguslawa
    Polish Acad Sci, Poland.
    Bilska, Marta
    Polish Acad Sci, Poland.
    Wojciechowski, Tomasz
    Polish Acad Sci, Poland.
    Domagala, Jaroslaw Z.
    Polish Acad Sci, Poland.
    Sanchez, Ana M.
    Univ Warwick, UK.
    Kret, Slawomir
    Polish Acad Sci, Poland.
    Bi incorporation and segregation in the MBE-grown GaAs-(Ga,Al) As-Ga(As,Bi) core shell nanowires2022In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 12, no 1, article id 6007Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Incorporation of Bi into GaAs-(Ga,Al)As-Ga(As,Bi) core-shell nanowires grown by molecular beam epitaxy is studied with transmission electron microscopy. Nanowires are grown on GaAs(111)B substrates with Au-droplet assisted mode. Bi-doped shells are grown at low temperature (300 degrees C) with a close to stoichiometric Ga/As flux ratio. At low Bi fluxes, the Ga(As,Bi) shells are smooth, with Bi completely incorporated into the shells. Higher Bi fluxes (Bi/As flux ratio similar to 4%) led to partial segregation of Bi as droplets on the nanowires sidewalls, preferentially located at the nanowire segments with wurtzite structure. We demonstrate that such Bi droplets on the sidewalls act as catalysts for the growth of branches perpendicular to the GaAs trunks. Due to the tunability between zinc-blende and wurtzite polytypes by changing the nanowire growth conditions, this effect enables fabrication of branched nanowire architectures with branches generated from selected (wurtzite) nanowire segments.

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  • 47.
    Salis, Romana K.
    et al.
    University of Otago, New Zealand.
    Bruder, A.
    University of Otago, New Zealand.
    Piggott, J. J.
    University of Otago, New Zealand;University of Dublin, Ireland.
    Summerfield, T. C.
    University of Otago, New Zealand.
    Matthaei, C. D.
    University of Otago, New Zealand.
    High-throughput amplicon sequencing and stream benthic bacteria: Identifying the best taxonomic level for multiple-stressor research2017In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, no February, p. 1-12, article id 44657Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Disentangling the individual and interactive effects of multiple stressors on microbial communities is a key challenge to our understanding and management of ecosystems. Advances in molecular techniques allow studying microbial communities in situ and with high taxonomic resolution. However, the taxonomic level which provides the best trade-off between our ability to detect multiple-stressor effects versus the goal of studying entire communities remains unknown. We used outdoor mesocosms simulating small streams to investigate the effects of four agricultural stressors (nutrient enrichment, the nitrification inhibitor dicyandiamide (DCD), fine sediment and flow velocity reduction) on stream bacteria (phyla, orders, genera, and species represented by Operational Taxonomic Units with 97% sequence similarity). Community composition was assessed using amplicon sequencing (16S rRNA gene, V3-V4 region). DCD was the most pervasive stressor, affecting evenness and most abundant taxa, followed by sediment and flow velocity. Stressor pervasiveness was similar across taxonomic levels and lower levels did not perform better in detecting stressor effects. Community coverage decreased from 96% of all sequences for abundant phyla to 28% for species. Order-level responses were generally representative of responses of corresponding genera and species, suggesting that this level may represent the best compromise between stressor sensitivity and coverage of bacterial communities.

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  • 48.
    Seidel, Laura
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Broman, Elias
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Turner, Stephanie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Ståhle, Magnus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Dopson, Mark
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Interplay between eutrophication and climate warming on bacterial communities in coastal sediments differs depending on water depth and oxygen history2021In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 11, no 1, article id 23384Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Coastal aquatic systems suffer from nutrient enrichment, which results in accelerated eutrophication effects due to increased microbial metabolic rates. Climate change related prolonged warming will likely accelerate existing eutrophication effects, including low oxygen concentrations. However, how the interplay between these environmental changes will alter coastal ecosystems is poorly understood. In this study, we compared 16S rRNA gene amplicon based bacterial communities in coastal sediments of a Baltic Sea basin in November 2013 and 2017 at three sites along a water depth gradient with varying bottom water oxygen histories. The shallow site showed changes of only 1.1% in relative abundance of bacterial populations in 2017 compared to 2013, while the deep oxygen-deficient site showed up to 11% changes in relative abundance including an increase of sulfate-reducing bacteria along with a 36% increase in organic matter content. The data suggested that bacterial communities in shallow sediments were more resilient to seasonal oxygen decline, while bacterial communities in sediments subjected to long-term hypoxia seemed to be sensitive to oxygen changes and were likely to be under hypoxic/anoxic conditions in the future. Our data demonstrate that future climate changes will likely fuel eutrophication related spread of low oxygen zones.

  • 49.
    Seisenbaeva, Gulaim A.
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Fromell, Karin
    Uppsala University.
    Vinogradov, Vasiliy V.
    ITMO Univ Kronverksky, Russia.
    Terekhov, Aleksey N.
    Ivanovo State Med Acad, Russia.
    Pakhomov, Andrey V.
    Ivanovo State Med Acad, Russia.
    Nilsson, Bo
    Uppsala University.
    Nilsson Ekdahl, Kristina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Uppsala University.
    Vinogradov, Vladimir V.
    ITMO Univ Kronverksky, Russia.
    Kessler, Vadim G.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Dispersion of TiO2 nanoparticles improves burn wound healing and tissue regeneration through specific interaction with blood serum proteins2017In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, article id 15448Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Burn wounds are one of the most important causes of mortality and especially morbidity around the world. Burn wound healing and skin tissue regeneration remain thus one of the most important challenges facing the mankind. In the present study we have addressed this challenge, applying a solution-stabilized dispersion TiO2 nanoparticles, hypothesizing that their ability to adsorb proteins will render them a strong capacity in inducing body fluid coagulation and create a protective hybrid material coating. The in vitro study of interaction between human blood and titania resulted at enhanced TiO2 concentrations in formation of rather dense gel composite materials and even at lower content revealed specific adsorption pattern initiating the cascade response, promising to facilitate the regrowth of the skin. The subsequent in vivo study of the healing of burn wounds in rats demonstrated formation of a strongly adherent crust of a nanocomposite, preventing infection and inflammation with quicker reduction of wound area compared to untreated control. The most important result in applying the TiO2 dispersion was the apparently improved regeneration of damaged tissues with appreciable decrease in scar formation and skin color anomalies.

  • 50.
    Senra, Hugo
    et al.
    University of Coimbra, Portugal.
    Hernandez-Moreno, Laura
    University of Minho, Portugal.
    Moreno, Natacha
    Hospital Santa Maria Maior E.P.E, Portugal.
    Macedo, António Filipe
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Sustainable Health.
    Anxiety levels moderate the association between visual acuity and health-related quality of life in chronic eye disease patients.2022In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 12, no 1, article id 2313Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current study examines the potential moderating effect of depression and anxiety on the relationship between visual acuity and health-related quality of life in patients with chronic eye diseases. Of the 71 patients, 37 (52%) were female and 34 (48%) were male, age (mean ± SD) was 69 ± 12 years. A significant multivariate regression model was found for patients' health-related quality of life (EQ-5D-5L index) (R2 = 0.43, p < 0.001), in which visual acuity (logMAR) (p < 0.001), anxiety (HADS-A) (p = 0.007), and age of diagnosis (p = 0.04)  were independently associated with health-related quality of life (EQ-5D-5L). The moderation model for anxiety (R2 = 0.47, F = 5.91, p < 0.001) revealed a significant interaction of visual acuity and levels of anxiety in relation to health-related quality of life. Conditional effects analysis suggested that higher logMAR values (which indicate more vision loss) were associated with lower EQ-5D-5L index (indicating worse health-related quality of life), this relationship being stronger (even more negative), when levels of anxiety are high. Clinical and rehabilitation services providing care for chronic eye disease patients should include regular checks for patients' levels of anxiety, even in patients who still have preserved visual acuity, to help preventing a synergistic source of long-term poor quality of life and disability.

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