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  • 1.
    Aguirre-Gutiérrez, Jesús
    et al.
    Naturalis Biodiversity Center, The Netherlands ; University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Kissling, W. Daniel
    University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Carvalheiro, Luísa G.
    Universidade de Brasília, Brazil ; University of Lisbon, Portugal.
    WallisDeVries, Michiel F.
    Wageningen University, The Netherlands.
    Franzén, Markus
    Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Germany.
    Biesmeijer, Jacobus C.
    Naturalis Biodiversity Center, The Netherlands ; University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Functional traits help to explain half-century long shifts in pollinator distributions2016In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 6, article id 24451Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Changes in climate and land use can have important impacts on biodiversity. Species respond to such environmental modifications by adapting to new conditions or by shifting their geographic distributions towards more suitable areas. The latter might be constrained by species’ functional traits that influence their ability to move, reproduce or establish. Here, we show that functional traits related to dispersal, reproduction, habitat use and diet have influenced how three pollinator groups (bees, butterflies and hoverflies) responded to changes in climate and land-use in the Netherlands since 1950. Across the three pollinator groups, we found pronounced areal range expansions (>53%) and modelled range shifts towards the north (all taxa: 17–22 km), west (bees: 14 km) and east (butterflies: 11 km). The importance of specific functional traits for explaining distributional changes varied among pollinator groups. Larval diet preferences (i.e. carnivorous vs. herbivorous/detritivorous and nitrogen values of host plants, respectively) were important for hoverflies and butterflies, adult body size for hoverflies, and flight period length for all groups. Moreover, interactions among multiple traits were important to explain species’ geographic range shifts, suggesting that taxon-specific multi-trait analyses are needed to predict how global change will affect biodiversity and ecosystem services.

  • 2.
    Eriksson, Per
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Lindskog, Cecilia
    Uppsala University.
    Engholm, Ebbe
    Univ Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Blixt, Ola
    Univ Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Munster, Vincent
    NIAID, USA.
    Lundkvist, Åke
    Uppsala University.
    Olsen, Björn
    Uppsala University.
    Jourdain, Elsa
    INRA, France.
    Ellström, Patrik
    Uppsala University.
    Characterization of avian influenza virus attachment patterns to human and pig tissues2018In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, article id 12215Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wild birds of Anseriformes and Charadriiformes are natural reservoirs of influenza A viruses (IAVs). Occasionally, IAVs transmit and adapt to mammalian hosts, and are maintained as epidemic strains in their new hosts. Viral adaptions to mammalian hosts include altered receptor preference of host epithelial sialylated oligosaccharides from terminal alpha 2,3-linked sialic acid (SA) towards alpha 2,6-linked SA. However, alpha 2,3-linked SA has been found in human respiratory tract epithelium, and human infections by avian IAVs (AIVs) have been reported. To further explore the attachment properties of AIVs, four AIVs of different subtypes were investigated on human and pig tissues using virus histochemistry. Additionally, glycan array analysis was performed for further characterization of IAVs' receptor structure tropism. Generally, AIV attachment was more abundant to human tissues than to pig tissues. The attachment pattern was very strong to human conjunctiva and upper respiratory tract, but variable to the lower respiratory tract. AIVs mainly attached to alpha 2,3-linked SA, but also to combinations of alpha 2,3-and alpha 2,6-linked SA. The low attachment of these AIV isolates to pig tissues, but high attachment to human tissues, addresses the question whether AIVs in general require passage through pigs to obtain adaptions towards mammalian receptor structures.

  • 3.
    Forsman, Anders
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Betzholtz, Per-Eric
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Franzén, Markus
    Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Germany.
    Faster poleward range shifts in moths with more variable colour patterns2016In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 6, article id 36265Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Range shifts have been documented in many organisms, and climate change has been implicated asa contributing driver of latitudinal and altitudinal range modifications. However, little is known aboutwhat species trait(s) allow for faster environmental tracking and improved capacity for distributionexpansions. We used data for 416 species of moths, and show that range limits in Sweden have shifted tothe north by on average 52.4 km per decade between 1973 and 2014. When also including non-expandingspecies, average expansion rate was 23.2 km per decade. The rate of boundary shifts increased withincreasing levels of inter-individual variation in colour patterns and decreased with increasing latitude. Theassociation with colour patterns indicate that variation in this functionally important trait enables speciesto cope with novel and changing conditions. Northern range limits also increased with average abundanceand decreased with increasing year-to-year abundance fluctuations, implicating production of dispersersas a driver of range dynamics. Studies of terrestrial animals show that rates of poleward shifts differbetween taxonomic groups, increase over time, and depend on study duration and latitude. Knowledge ofhow distribution shifts change with time, location, and species characteristics may improve projections ofresponses to climate change and aid the protection of biodiversity

  • 4.
    Hu, Yue O. O.
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology;Karolinska Institutet.
    Ndegwa, Nelson
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Alneberg, Johannes
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Johansson, Sebastian
    Stockholm University.
    Logue, Jürg Brendan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Huss, Mikael
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Kaller, Max
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Lundeberg, Joakim
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Fagerberg, Jens
    Stockholm Vatten och Avfall AB.
    Andersson, Anders F.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Stationary and portable sequencing-based approaches for tracing wastewater contamination in urban stormwater systems2018In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, article id 11907Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban sewer systems consist of wastewater and stormwater sewers, of which only wastewater is processed before being discharged. Occasionally, misconnections or damages in the network occur, resulting in untreated wastewater entering natural water bodies via the stormwater system. Cultivation of faecal indicator bacteria (e.g. Escherichia coli; E. coli) is the current standard for tracing wastewater contamination. This method is cheap but has limited specificity and mobility. Here, we compared the E. coli culturing approach with two sequencing-based methodologies (Illumina MiSeq 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing and Oxford Nanopore MinION shotgun metagenomic sequencing), analysing 73 stormwater samples collected in Stockholm. High correlations were obtained between E. coli culturing counts and frequencies of human gut microbiome amplicon sequences, indicating E. coli is indeed a good indicator of faecal contamination. However, the amplicon data further holds information on contamination source or alternatively how much time has elapsed since the faecal matter has entered the system. Shotgun metagenomic sequencing on a subset of the samples using a portable real-time sequencer, MinION, correlated well with the amplicon sequencing data. This study demonstrates the use of DNA sequencing to detect human faecal contamination in stormwater systems and the potential of tracing faecal contamination directly in the field.

  • 5.
    Jacobsson, Erik
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Andersson, Håkan S.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Strand, Malin
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Peigneur, Steve
    Univ Leuven, Belgium.
    Eriksson, Camilla
    Uppsala University.
    Loden, Henrik
    Uppsala University.
    Shariatgorji, Mohammadreza
    Uppsala University.
    Andren, Per E.
    Uppsala University.
    Lebbe, Eline K. M.
    Univ Leuven, Belgium.
    Rosengren, K. Johan
    Univ Queensland, Australia.
    Tytgat, Jan
    Univ Leuven, Belgium.
    Göransson, Ulf
    Uppsala University.
    Peptide ion channel toxins from the bootlace worm, the longest animal on Earth2018In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, article id 4596Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Polypeptides from animal venoms have found important uses as drugs, pharmacological tools, and within biotechnological and agricultural applications. We here report a novel family of cystine knot peptides from nemertean worms, with potent activity on voltage-gated sodium channels. These toxins, named the alpha-nemertides, were discovered in the epidermal mucus of Lineus longissimus, the 'bootlace worm' known as the longest animal on earth. The most abundant peptide, the 31-residue long alpha-1, was isolated, synthesized, and its 3D NMR structure determined. Transcriptome analysis including 17 species revealed eight alpha-nemertides, mainly distributed in the genus Lineus. alpha-1 caused paralysis and death in green crabs (Carcinus maenas) at 1 mu g/kg (similar to 300 pmol/kg). It showed profound effect on invertebrate voltage-gated sodium channels (e.g. Blattella germanica Na(v)1) at low nanomolar concentrations. Strong selectivity for insect over human sodium channels indicates that a-nemertides can be promising candidates for development of bioinsecticidal agents.

  • 6.
    Johansson, Ulrika
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. KTH Royal Instute of Technology, Sweden;Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Widhe, Mona
    KTH Royal Instute of Technology, Sweden.
    Shalaly, Nancy Dekki
    KTH Royal Instute of Technology, Sweden.
    Arregui, Irene Linares
    KTH Royal Instute of Technology, Sweden.
    Nileback, Linnea
    KTH Royal Instute of Technology, Sweden.
    Tasiopoulos, Christos Panagiotis
    KTH Royal Instute of Technology, Sweden.
    Åstrand, Carolina
    KTH Royal Instute of Technology, Sweden.
    Berggren, Per-Olof
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden;Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Gasser, Christian
    KTH Royal Instute of Technology, Sweden.
    Hedhammar, My
    KTH Royal Instute of Technology, Sweden.
    Assembly of functionalized silk together with cells to obtain proliferative 3D cultures integrated in a network of ECM-like microfibers2019In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 9, p. 1-13, article id 6291Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tissues are built of cells integrated in an extracellular matrix (ECM) which provides a three-dimensional (3D) microfiber network with specific sites for cell anchorage. By genetic engineering, motifs from the ECM can be functionally fused to recombinant silk proteins. Such a silk protein, FN-silk, which harbours a motif from fibronectin, has the ability to self-assemble into networks of microfibers under physiological-like conditions. Herein we describe a method by which mammalian cells are added to the silk solution before assembly, and thereby get uniformly integrated between the formed microfibers. In the resulting 3D scaffold, the cells are highly proliferative and spread out more efficiently than when encapsulated in a hydrogel. Elongated cells containing filamentous actin and defined focal adhesion points confirm proper cell attachment to the FN-silk. The cells remain viable in culture for at least 90 days. The method is also scalable to macro-sized 3D cultures. Silk microfibers formed in a bundle with integrated cells are both strong and extendable, with mechanical properties similar to that of artery walls. The described method enables differentiation of stem cells in 3D as well as facile co-culture of several different cell types. We show that inclusion of endothelial cells leads to the formation of vessel-like structures throughout the tissue constructs. Hence, silk-assembly in presence of cells constitutes a viable option for 3D culture of cells integrated in a ECM-like network, with potential as base for engineering of functional tissue.

  • 7.
    Karlsson, Björn C. G.
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Friedman, Ran
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Dilution of whisky - the molecular perspective2017In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, no 6489Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Whisky is distilled to around 70% alcohol by volume (vol-%) then diluted to about 40 vol-%, and often drunk after further slight dilution to enhance its taste. The taste of whisky is primarily associated with amphipathic molecules, such as guaiacol, but why and how dilution enhances the taste is not well understood. We carried out computer simulations of water-ethanol mixtures in the presence of guaiacol, providing atomistic details on the structure of the liquid mixture. We found that guaiacol is preferentially associated with ethanol, and, therefore, primarily found at the liquid-air interface in mixtures that contain up to 45 vol-% of ethanol. At ethanol concentrations of 59 vol-% or higher, guaiacol is increasingly surrounded by ethanol molecules and is driven to the bulk. This indicates that the taste of guaiacol in the whisky would be enhanced upon dilution prior to bottling. Our findings may apply to other flavour-giving amphipathic molecules and could contribute to optimising the production of spirits for desired tastes. Furthermore, it sheds light on the molecular structure of water-alcohol mixtures that contain small solutes, and reveals that interactions with the water may be negligible already at 89 vol-% of ethanol.

  • 8.
    Karpestam, Einat
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Merilaita, Sami
    Åbo Akademi University, Finland.
    Forsman, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Colour polymorphism protects prey individuals and populations against predation2016In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 6, article id 22122Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Colour pattern polymorphism in animals can influence and be influenced by interactions between predators and prey. However, few studies have examined whether polymorphism is adaptive, and there is no evidence that the co-occurrence of two or more natural prey colour variants can increase survival of populations. Here we show that visual predators that exploit polymorphic prey suffer from reduced performance, and further provide rare evidence in support of the hypothesis that prey colour polymorphism may afford protection against predators for both individuals and populations. This protective effect provides a probable explanation for the longstanding, evolutionary puzzle of the existence of colour polymorphisms. We also propose that this protective effect can provide an adaptive explanation for search image formation in predators rather than search image formation explaining polymorphism.

  • 9.
    Khrennikov, Andrei
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mathematics. Natl Res Univ Informat Technol Mech & Opt ITMO, Russia.
    Basieva, Irina
    City Univ London, UK.
    Pothos, Emmanuel M.
    City Univ London, UK.
    Yamato, Ichiro
    Tokyo Univ Sci, Japan;Chiba Univ, Japan.
    Quantum probability in decision making from quantum information representation of neuronal states2018In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, article id 16225Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The recent wave of interest to modeling the process of decision making with the aid of the quantum formalism gives rise to the following question: 'How can neurons generate quantum-like statistical data?' (There is a plenty of such data in cognitive psychology and social science). Our model is based on quantum-like representation of uncertainty in generation of action potentials. This uncertainty is a consequence of complexity of electrochemical processes in the brain; in particular, uncertainty of triggering an action potential by the membrane potential. Quantum information state spaces can be considered as extensions of classical information spaces corresponding to neural codes; e.g., 0/1, quiescent/firing neural code. The key point is that processing of information by the brain involves superpositions of such states. Another key point is that a neuronal group performing some psychological function F is an open quantum system. It interacts with the surrounding electrochemical environment. The process of decision making is described as decoherence in the basis of eigenstates of F. A decision state is a steady state. This is a linear representation of complex nonlinear dynamics of electrochemical states. Linearity guarantees exponentially fast convergence to the decision state.

  • 10.
    Kitaguchi, Y.
    et al.
    Kyoto University, Japan.
    Habuka, S.
    Kyoto University, Japan.
    Okuyama, H.
    Kyoto University, Japan.
    Hatta, S.
    Kyoto University, Japan.
    Aruga, T.
    Kyoto University, Japan.
    Frederiksen, T.
    DIPC, Spain ; Ikerbasque, Spain.
    Paulsson, Magnus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Ueba, H.
    University of Toyama, Japan.
    Controlling single-molecule junction conductance by molecular interactions2015In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 5, article id 11796Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For the rational design of single-molecular electronic devices, it is essential to understand environmental effects on the electronic properties of a working molecule. Here we investigate the impact of molecular interactions on the single-molecule conductance by accurately positioning individual molecules on the electrode. To achieve reproducible and precise conductivity measurements, we utilize relatively weak pi-bonding between a phenoxy molecule and a STM-tip to form and cleave one contact to the molecule. The anchoring to the other electrode is kept stable using a chalcogen atom with strong bonding to a Cu(110) substrate. These non-destructive measurements permit us to investigate the variation in single-molecule conductance under different but controlled environmental conditions. Combined with density functional theory calculations, we clarify the role of the electrostatic field in the environmental effect that influences the molecular level alignment.

  • 11.
    Lard, Mercy
    et al.
    Lund University.
    ten Siethoff, Lasse
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Månsson, Alf
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Linke, Heiner
    Lund University.
    Tracking Actomyosin at Fluorescence Check Points2013In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 3, article id 1092Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Emerging concepts for on-chip biotechnologies aim to replace microfluidic flow by active, molecular-motor driven transport of cytoskeletal filaments, including applications in bio-simulation, biocomputation, diagnostics, and drug screening. Many of these applications require reliable detection, with minimal data acquisition, of filaments at many, local checkpoints in a device consisting of a potentially complex network of channels that guide filament motion. Here we develop such a detection system using actomyosin motility. Detection points consist of pairs of gold lines running perpendicular to nanochannels that guide motion of fluorescent actin filaments. Fluorescence interference contrast (FLIC) is used to locally enhance the signal at the gold lines. A cross-correlation method is used to suppress errors, allowing reliable detection of single or multiple filaments. Optimal device design parameters are discussed. The results open for automatic read-out of filament count and velocity in high-throughput motility assays, helping establish the viability of active, motor-driven on-chip applications.

  • 12.
    Lawson, Becki
    et al.
    Zool Soc London, UK.
    Robinson, Robert A.
    British Trust Ornithol, UK.
    Fernandez, Julia Rodriguez-Ramos
    IDEXX Labs Ltd, UK.
    John, Shinto K.
    Zool Soc London, UK.
    Benitez, Laura
    Univ Complutense Madrid, Spain.
    Tolf, Conny
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Risely, Kate
    British Trust Ornithol, UK.
    Toms, Mike P.
    British Trust Ornithol, UK.
    Cunningham, Andrew A.
    Zool Soc London, UK.
    Williams, Richard A. J.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Univ Complutense Madrid, Spain.
    Spatio-temporal dynamics and aetiology of proliferative leg skin lesions in wild British finches2018In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, article id 14670Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Proliferative leg skin lesions have been described in wild finches in Europe although there have been no large-scale studies of their aetiology or epizootiology to date. Firstly, disease surveillance, utilising public reporting of observations of live wild finches was conducted in Great Britain (GB) and showed proliferative leg skin lesions in chaffinches (Fringilla coelebs) to be widespread. Seasonal variation was observed, with a peak during the winter months. Secondly, pathological investigations were performed on a sample of 39 chaffinches, four bullfinches (Pyrrhula pyrrhula), one greenfinch (Chloris chloris) and one goldfinch (Carduelis carduelis) with proliferative leg skin lesions and detected Cnemidocoptes sp. mites in 91% (41/45) of affected finches and from all species examined. Fringilla coelebs papillomavirus (FcPV1) PCR was positive in 74% (23/31) of birds tested: a 394 base pair sequence was derived from 20 of these birds, from all examined species, with 100% identity to reference genomes. Both mites and FcPV1 DNA were detected in 71% (20/28) of birds tested for both pathogens. Histopathological examination of lesions did not discriminate the relative importance of mite or FcPV1 infection as their cause. Development of techniques to localise FcPV1 within lesions is required to elucidate the pathological significance of FcPV1 DNA detection.

  • 13.
    Lebret, Karen
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Uppsala University.
    Östman, Örjan
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Langenheder, Silke
    Uppsala University.
    Drakare, Stina
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Guillemette, Francois
    Univ Quebec Trois Rivieres, Canada.
    Lindström, Eva S.
    Uppsala University.
    High abundances of the nuisance raphidophyte Gonyostomum semen in brown water lakes are associated with high concentrations of iron2018In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, article id 13463Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Algal blooms occur frequently in lakes and oceans and the causes and consequences of those are often studied. In this study, we focus on a less well known type of algal bloom by the freshwater raphidophyte Gonyostomum semen. This species' abundance and occurrence is increasing, especially in brown water lakes, the most abundant lake type in the boreal zone. The aim of the study was to investigate which environmental factors are associated with G. semen by statistical evaluation of field data of 95 Swedish lakes over five years. Although we found G. semen to be associated with dark waters it was, contrary to our expectations, mainly high concentrations of iron, and only to a lesser extent high TOC (total organic carbon) concentrations, that were associated with blooms of G. semen. In addition, high phosphorus concentrations and low pH also appear to facilitate G. semen blooms. We suggest that browning of lakes caused by increased iron concentrations may decrease net heterotrophy by fostering heavy algal blooms, i.e. the opposite to commonly assumed effects of increased DOM (dissolved organic matter).

  • 14.
    Lehtonen, Topi K.
    et al.
    Monash Univ, Australia.
    Svensson, P. Andreas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Monash Univ, Australia.
    Wong, Bob B. M.
    Monash Univ, Australia.
    Aggressive desert goby males also court more, independent of the physiological demands of salinity2018In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, article id 9352Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Both between- and within-individual variation in behaviour can be important in determining mating opportunities and reproductive outcomes. Such behavioural variability can be induced by environmental conditions, especially if individuals vary in their tolerance levels or resource allocation patterns. We tested the effects of exposure to different salinity levels on male investment into two important components of mating success-intrasexual aggression and intersexual courtship-in a fish with a resource defence mating system, the desert goby, Chlamydogobius eremius. We found that males that were more aggressive to rivals also exhibited higher rates of courtship displays towards females. Contrary to predictions, this positive relationship, and the consistency of the two behaviours, were not affected by the salinity treatment, despite the physiological costs that high salinity imposes on the species. Moreover, over the entire data-set, there was only a marginally non-significant tendency for males to show higher levels of aggression and courtship in low, than high, salinity. The positive correlation between male aggression and courtship, independent of the physiological demands of the environment, suggests that males are not inclined to make contrasting resource investments into these two key reproductive behaviours. Instead, in this relatively euryhaline freshwater species, typical investment into current reproductive behaviours can occur under a range of different salinity conditions.

  • 15.
    Levchenko, K.
    et al.
    Polish Acad Sci, Poland.
    Prokscha, T.
    Paul Scherrer Inst, Switzerland.
    Sadowski, Janusz
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Polish Acad Sci, Poland;Lund University.
    Radelytskyi, I.
    Polish Acad Sci, Poland.
    Jakiela, R.
    Polish Acad Sci, Poland.
    Trzyna, M.
    Polish Acad Sci, Poland;Univ Rzeszow, Poland.
    Andrearczyk, T.
    Polish Acad Sci, Poland.
    Figielski, T.
    Polish Acad Sci, Poland.
    Wosinski, T.
    Polish Acad Sci, Poland.
    Evidence for the homogeneous ferromagnetic phase in (Ga, Mn) (Bi, As) epitaxial layers from muon spin relaxation spectroscopy2019In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 9, p. 1-8, article id 3394Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ferromagnetic semiconductor thin layers of the quaternary (Ga,Mn)(Bi,As) and reference, ternary (Ga, Mn) As compounds, epitaxially grown under either compressive or tensile strain, have been characterized from a perspective of structural and magnetization homogeneity. The quality and composition of the layers have been confirmed by secondary-ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). A thorough evaluation of the magnetic properties as a function of temperature and applied magnetic field has been performed by means of SQUID magnetometry and low-energy muon spin relaxation (mu SR) spectroscopy, which enables studying local (on the nanometer scale) magnetic properties of the layers. The results testify that the ferromagnetic order builds up almost homogeneously below the Curie temperature in the full volume fraction of both the (Ga, Mn) As and (Ga, Mn)(Bi, As) layers. Incorporation of a small amount of heavy Bi atoms into (Ga, Mn) As, which distinctly enhances the strength of spin-orbit coupling in the quaternary (Ga, Mn)(Bi, As) layers, does not deteriorate noticeably their magnetic properties.

  • 16.
    Moretto, Luisa
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Heylen, Rachel
    Univ Cambridge, UK.
    Holroyd, Natalie
    UCL, UK.
    Vance, Steven
    Crescendo Biol Ltd, UK.
    Broadhurst, R. William
    Univ Cambridge, UK.
    Modular type I polyketide synthase acyl carrier protein domains share a common N-terminally extended fold2019In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 9, article id 2325Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Acyl carrier protein (ACP) domains act as interaction hubs within modular polyketide synthase (PKS) systems, employing specific protein-protein interactions to present acyl substrates to a series of enzyme active sites. Many domains from the multimodular PKS that generates the toxin mycolactone display an unusually high degree of sequence similarity, implying that the few sites which vary may do so for functional reasons. When domain boundaries based on prior studies were used to prepare two isolated ACP segments from this system for studies of their interaction properties, one fragment adopted the expected tertiary structure, but the other failed to fold, despite sharing a sequence identity of 49%. Secondary structure prediction uncovered a previously undetected helical region (H0) that precedes the canonical helix-bundle ACP topology in both cases. This article reports the NMR solution structures of two N-terminally extended mycolactone mACP constructs, mH0ACPa and mH0ACPb, both of which possess an additional alpha-helix that behaves like a rigid component of the domain. The interactions of these species with a phosphopantetheinyl transferase and a ketoreductase domain are unaffected by the presence of H0, but a shorter construct that lacks the H0 region is shown to be substantially less thermostable than mH0ACPb. Bioinformatics analysis suggests that the extended H0-ACP motif is present in 98% of type I cis-acyltransferase PKS chain-extension modules. The polypeptide linker that connects an H0-ACP motif to the preceding domain must therefore be similar to 12 residues shorter than previously thought, imposing strict limits on ACP-mediated substrate delivery within and between PKS modules.

  • 17.
    Rems, Lea
    et al.
    University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Ušaj, Marko
    University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Kandušer, Maša
    University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Reberšek, Matej
    University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Miklavčič, Damijan
    University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Pucihar, Gorazd
    University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Cell electrofusion using nanosecond electric pulses2013In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 3, article id 3382Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrofusion is an efficient method for fusing cells using short-duration high-voltage electric pulses. However, electrofusion yields are very low when fusion partner cells differ considerably in their size, since the extent of electroporation (consequently membrane fusogenic state) with conventionally used microsecond pulses depends proportionally on the cell radius. We here propose a new and innovative approach to fuse cells with shorter, nanosecond (ns) pulses. Using numerical calculations we demonstrate that ns pulses can induce selective electroporation of the contact areas between cells (i.e. the target areas), regardless of the cell size. We then confirm experimentally on B16-F1 and CHO cell lines that electrofusion of cells with either equal or different size by using ns pulses is indeed feasible. Based on our results we expect that ns pulses can improve fusion yields in electrofusion of cells with different size, such as myeloma cells and B lymphocytes in hybridoma technology.

  • 18.
    Roberts, N.
    et al.
    Plymouth Univ, UK.
    Fyfe, R. M.
    Plymouth Univ, UK.
    Woodbridge, J.
    Plymouth Univ, UK.
    Gaillard, Marie-José
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Davis, B. A. S.
    Univ Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Kaplan, J. O.
    Max Planck Inst Sci Human Hist, Germany;ARVE Res SARL, Switzerland.
    Marquer, L.
    Lund University.
    Mazier, F.
    Jean Jaures Univ, France.
    Nielsen, A. B.
    Lund University.
    Sugita, S.
    Tallinn Univ, Estonia.
    Trondman, Anna-Kari
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Leydet, M.
    Aix Marseille Univ, France.
    Europe's lost forests: a pollen-based synthesis for the last 11,000 years2018In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, article id 716Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    8000 years ago, prior to Neolithic agriculture, Europe was mostly a wooded continent. Since then, its forest cover has been progressively fragmented, so that today it covers less than half of Europe's land area, in many cases having been cleared to make way for fields and pasture-land. Establishing the origin of Europe's current, more open land-cover mosaic requires a long-term perspective, for which pollen analysis offers a key tool. In this study we utilise and compare three numerical approaches to transforming pollen data into past forest cover, drawing on >1000 C-14-dated site records. All reconstructions highlight the different histories of the mixed temperate and the northern boreal forests, with the former declining progressively since similar to 6000 years ago, linked to forest clearance for agriculture in later prehistory (especially in northwest Europe) and early historic times (e.g. in north central Europe). In contrast, extensive human impact on the needle-leaf forests of northern Europe only becomes detectable in the last two millennia and has left a larger area of forest in place. Forest loss has been a dominant feature of Europe's landscape ecology in the second half of the current interglacial, with consequences for carbon cycling, ecosystem functioning and biodiversity.

  • 19.
    Seisenbaeva, Gulaim A.
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Fromell, Karin
    Uppsala University.
    Vinogradov, Vasiliy V.
    ITMO Univ Kronverksky, Russia.
    Terekhov, Aleksey N.
    Ivanovo State Med Acad, Russia.
    Pakhomov, Andrey V.
    Ivanovo State Med Acad, Russia.
    Nilsson, Bo
    Uppsala University.
    Nilsson Ekdahl, Kristina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Uppsala University.
    Vinogradov, Vladimir V.
    ITMO Univ Kronverksky, Russia.
    Kessler, Vadim G.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Dispersion of TiO2 nanoparticles improves burn wound healing and tissue regeneration through specific interaction with blood serum proteins2017In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, article id 15448Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Burn wounds are one of the most important causes of mortality and especially morbidity around the world. Burn wound healing and skin tissue regeneration remain thus one of the most important challenges facing the mankind. In the present study we have addressed this challenge, applying a solution-stabilized dispersion TiO2 nanoparticles, hypothesizing that their ability to adsorb proteins will render them a strong capacity in inducing body fluid coagulation and create a protective hybrid material coating. The in vitro study of interaction between human blood and titania resulted at enhanced TiO2 concentrations in formation of rather dense gel composite materials and even at lower content revealed specific adsorption pattern initiating the cascade response, promising to facilitate the regrowth of the skin. The subsequent in vivo study of the healing of burn wounds in rats demonstrated formation of a strongly adherent crust of a nanocomposite, preventing infection and inflammation with quicker reduction of wound area compared to untreated control. The most important result in applying the TiO2 dispersion was the apparently improved regeneration of damaged tissues with appreciable decrease in scar formation and skin color anomalies.

  • 20.
    Shahini, Negar
    et al.
    Oslo University Hospital, Norway;University of Oslo, Norway.
    Michelsen, Annika E
    Oslo University Hospital, Norway;University of Oslo, Norway.
    Nilsson, Per H.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. University of Oslo, Norway;Oslo University Hospital, Norway.
    Ekholt, Karin
    University of Oslo, Norway.
    Gullestad, Lars
    University of Oslo, Norway;Oslo University Hospital, Norway.
    Broch, Kaspar
    Oslo University Hospital, Norway.
    Dahl, Christen P.
    Oslo University Hospital, Norway.
    Aukrust, Pål
    Oslo University Hospital, Norway;University of Oslo, Norway.
    Ueland, Thor
    Oslo University Hospital, Norway;University of Oslo, Norway.
    Mollnes, Tom Eirik
    University of Oslo, Norway;Oslo University Hospital, Norway;University of Tromsø, Norway;Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Yndestad, Arne
    Oslo University Hospital, Norway;University of Oslo, Norway.
    Louwe, Mieke C.
    Oslo University Hospital, Norway;University of Oslo, Norway.
    The alternative complement pathway is dysregulated in patients with chronic heart failure2017In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, p. 1-10, article id 42532Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The complement system, an important arm of the innate immune system, is activated in heart failure (HF). We hypothesized that HF patients are characterized by an imbalance of alternative amplification loop components; including properdin and complement factor D and the alternative pathway inhibitor factor H. These components and the activation product, terminal complement complex (TCC), were measured in plasma from 188 HF patients and 67 age- and sex- matched healthy controls by enzyme immunoassay. Our main findings were: (i) Compared to controls, patients with HF had significantly increased levels of factor D and TCC, and decreased levels of properdin, particularly patients with advanced clinical disorder (i.e., NYHA functional class IV), (ii) Levels of factor D and properdin in HF patients were correlated with measures of systemic inflammation (i.e., C-reactive protein), neurohormonal deterioration (i.e., Nt-proBNP), cardiac function, and deteriorated diastolic function, (iii) Low levels of factor H and properdin were associated with adverse outcome in univariate analysis and for factor H, this was also seen in an adjusted model. Our results indicate that dysregulation of circulating components of the alternative pathway explain the increased degree of complement activation and is related to disease severity in HF patients.

  • 21.
    Shneyer, Boris I.
    et al.
    Technion, Israel.
    Ušaj, Marko
    Technion, Israel.
    Wiesel-Motiuk, Naama
    Technion, Israel.
    Regev, Ronit
    Technion, Israel.
    Henn, Arnon
    Technion, Israel.
    ROS induced distribution of mitochondria to filopodia by Myo19 depends on a class specific tryptophan in the motor domain2017In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, no 1, article id 11577Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The role of the actin cytoskeleton in relation to mitochondria function and dynamics is only recently beginning to be recognized. Myo19 is an actin-based motor that is bound to the outer mitochondrial membrane and promotes the localization of mitochondria to filopodia in response to glucose starvation. However, how glucose starvation induces mitochondria localization to filopodia, what are the dynamics of this process and which enzymatic adaptation allows the translocation of mitochondria to filopodia are not known. Here we show that reactive oxygen species (ROS) mimic and mediate the glucose starvation induced phenotype. In addition, time-lapse fluorescent microscopy reveals that ROS-induced Myo19 motility is a highly dynamic process which is coupled to filopodia elongation and retraction. Interestingly, Myo19 motility is inhibited by back-to-consensus-mutation of a unique residue of class XIX myosins in the motor domain. Kinetic analysis of the purified mutant Myo19 motor domain reveals that the duty ratio (time spent strongly bound to actin) is highly compromised in comparison to that of the WT motor domain, indicating that Myo19 unique motor properties are necessary to propel mitochondria to filopodia tips. In summary, our study demonstrates the contribution of actin-based motility to the mitochondrial localization to filopodia by specific cellular cues.

  • 22.
    Sunde, Johanna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Tamario, Carl
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Tibblin, Petter
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Larsson, Per
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Forsman, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Variation in salinity tolerance between and within anadromous subpopulations of pike (Esox lucius)2018In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, article id 22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental heterogeneity is a key determinant of genetic and phenotypic diversity. Stable andhomogenous environments tends to result in evolution of specialism and local adaptations, whiletemporally unpredictable environments may maintain a diversity of specialists, promote generaliststrategies, or favour diversified bet hedging strategies. We compared salinity tolerance between twoanadromous subpopulations of pike (Esox Lucius) that utilize freshwater spawning sites with differentsalinity regimes. Eggs from each population were artificially fertilized and incubated in a salinitygradient (0, 3, 5, 7, and 9 psu) using a split-brood design. Effects on embryonic development, hatchingsuccess, survival of larvae, and fry body length were compared between populations and families.The population naturally spawning in the stable freshwater habitat showed signs of specialization forfreshwater spawning. The population exposed to fluctuating selective pressure in a spawning area withoccasional brackish water intrusions tolerated higher salinities and displayed considerable variation inreaction norms. Genetic differences and plasticity of salinity tolerance may enable populations to copewith changes in salinity regimes associated with future climate change. That geographically adjacentsubpopulations can constitute separate units with different genetic characteristics must be consideredin management and conservation efforts to avoid potentially negative effects of genetic admixture onpopulation fitness and persistence.

  • 23.
    Tibblin, Petter
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Berggren, Hanna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Nordahl, Oscar
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Larsson, Per
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Forsman, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Causes and consequences of intra-specific variation in vertebral number2016In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 6, article id 26372Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Intraspecific variation in vertebral number is taxonomically widespread. Much scientific attention hasbeen directed towards understanding patterns of variation in vertebral number among individualsand between populations, particularly across large spatial scales and in structured environments.However, the relative role of genes, plasticity, selection, and drift as drivers of individual variation andpopulation differentiation remains unknown for most systems. Here, we report on patterns, causesand consequences of variation in vertebral number among and within sympatric subpopulations ofpike (Esox lucius). Vertebral number differed among subpopulations, and common garden experimentsindicated that this reflected genetic differences. A QST-FST comparison suggested that populationdifferences represented local adaptations driven by divergent selection. Associations with fitness traitsfurther indicated that vertebral counts were influenced both by stabilizing and directional selectionwithin populations. Overall, our study enhances the understanding of adaptive variation, which iscritical for the maintenance of intraspecific diversity and species conservation.

  • 24.
    Ušaj, Marko
    et al.
    Technion, Israel.
    Henn, Arnon
    Technion, Israel.
    Kinetic adaptation of human Myo19 for active mitochondrial transport to growing filopodia tips2017In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, no 1, article id 11596Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Myosins are actin-based molecular motors which are enzymatically adapted for their cellular functions such as transportation and membrane tethering. Human Myo19 affects mitochondrial motility, and promotes their localization to stress-induced filopodia. Therefore, studying Myo19 enzymology is essential to understand how this motor may facilitate mitochondrial motility. Towards this goal, we have purified Myo19 motor domain (Myo19-3IQ) from a human-cell expression system and utilized transient kinetics to study the Myo19-3IQ ATPase cycle. We found that Myo19-3IQ exhibits noticeable conformational changes (isomerization steps) preceding both ATP and ADP binding, which may contribute to nucleotide binding regulation. Notably, the ADP isomerization step and subsequent ADP release contribute significantly to the rate-limiting step of the Myo19-3IQ ATPase cycle. Both the slow ADP isomerization and ADP release prolong the time Myo19-3IQ spend in the strong actin binding state and hence contribute to its relatively high duty ratio. However, the predicted duty ratio is lower than required to support motility as a monomer. Therefore, it may be that several Myo19 motors are required to propel mitochondria movement on actin filaments efficiently. Finally, we provide a model explaining how Myo19 translocation may be regulated by the local ATP/ADP ratio, coupled to the mitochondria presence in the filopodia.

  • 25.
    Vila-Costa, Maria
    et al.
    IDAEA CSIC, Spain.
    Sebastian, Marta
    CSIC, Spain;Univ Las Palmas Gran Canaria, Spain.
    Pizarro, Mariana
    IDAEA CSIC, Spain.
    Cerro-Galvez, Elena
    IDAEA CSIC, Spain.
    Lundin, Daniel
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Gasol, Josep M.
    CSIC, Spain.
    Dachs, Jordi
    IDAEA CSIC, Spain.
    Microbial consumption of organophosphate esters in seawater under phosphorus limited conditions2019In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 9, article id 233Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The anthropogenic perturbation of the phosphorus (P) marine biogeochemical cycle due to synthetic organophosphorus compounds remains unexplored. The objective of this work was to investigate the microbial degradation of organophosphate triesters (OPEs), widely used as plasticizers and flame retardants, in seawater and their effects on the physiology and composition of microbial communities. Experiments were performed in July 2014 using surface seawater from the Blanes Bay Microbial Observatory (NW Mediterranean) to which OPEs were added at environmentally relevant concentrations. The concentrations of OPEs in the dissolved-phase generally decreased after 24 hours of incubation at in situ conditions. The fitted first order reaction constants were significantly different than zero for the trihaloalkyl phosphate, tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate and trialyl phosphate tricresyl phosphate. In general, OPEs triggered an increase of the percentage of actively respiring bacteria, total bacterial activity, and the number of low-nucleic acid bacteria, and a decrease in the percentage of membrane-compromised bacteria. Members of some bacterial groups, in particular Flavobacteria, increased their specific activity, indicating that seawater contains bacteria with the potential to degrade OPEs. In aged seawater that was presumably depleted of labile dissolved organic carbon and inorganic P, alkaline phosphatase activities significantly decreased when OPEs were added, indicating a relief on P stress, consistent with the role of OPEs as potential P sources.

  • 26.
    Williams, Richard A. J.
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Tolf, Conny
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Molecular identification of papillomavirus in ducks2018In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, article id 9096Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Papillomaviruses infect many vertebrates, including birds. Persistent infections by some strains can cause malignant proliferation of cells (i.e. cancer), though more typically infections cause benign tumours, or may be completely subclinical. Sometimes extensive, persistent tumours are recorded-notably in chaffinches and humans. In 2016, a novel papillomavirus genotype was characterized from a duck faecal microbiome, in Bhopal, India; the sixth papillomavirus genotype from birds. Prompted by this finding, we screened 160 cloacal swabs and 968 faecal samples collected from 299 ducks sampled at Ottenby Bird Observatory, Sweden in 2015, using a newly designed real-time PCR. Twenty one samples (1.9%) from six individuals (2%) were positive. Eighteen sequences were identical to the published genotype, duck papillomavirus 1. One additional novel genotype was recovered from three samples. Both genotypes were recovered from a wild strain domestic mallard that was infected for more than 60 days with each genotype. All positive individuals were adult (P = 0.004). Significantly more positive samples were detected from swabs than faecal samples (P < 0.0001). Sample type data suggests transmission may be via direct contact, and only infrequently, via the oral-faecal route. Infection in only adult birds supports the hypothesis that this virus is sexually transmitted, though more work is required to verify this.

  • 27.
    Zehnder, Christoffer
    et al.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Germany.
    Peltzer, Jan-Niklas
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Germany.
    Gibson, James S. K. -L.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Germany.
    Möncke, Doris
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology. Natl Hellen Res Fdn, Greece.
    Korte-Kerzel, Sandra
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Germany.
    Non-Newtonian Flow to the Theoretical Strength of Glasses via Impact Nanoindentation at Room Temperature2017In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, article id 17618Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In many daily applications glasses are indispensable and novel applications demanding improved strength and crack resistance are appearing continuously. Up to now, the fundamental mechanical processes in glasses subjected to high strain rates at room temperature are largely unknown and thus guidelines for one of the major failure conditions of glass components are non-existent. Here, we elucidate this important regime for the first time using glasses ranging from a dense metallic glass to open fused silica by impact as well as quasi-static nanoindentation. We show that towards high strain rates, shear deformation becomes the dominant mechanism in all glasses accompanied by Non-Newtonian behaviour evident in a drop of viscosity with increasing rate covering eight orders of magnitude. All glasses converge to the same limit stress determined by the theoretical hardness, thus giving the first experimental and quantitative evidence that Non-Newtonian shear flow occurs at the theoretical strength at room temperature.

1 - 27 of 27
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