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  • 1.
    Göransson, Ulf
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Jacobsson, Erik
    Uppsala University.
    Strand, Malin
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Andersson, Håkan S.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    The toxins of nemertean worms2019In: Toxins, ISSN 2072-6651, E-ISSN 2072-6651, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 1-36, article id 120Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most ribbon worms (phylum: Nemertea) are found in marine environments, where they act as predators and scavengers. They are characterized by an eversible proboscis that is used to hunt for prey and thick mucus covering their skin. Both proboscis and epidermal mucus mediate toxicity to predators and preys. Research into the chemical nature of the substances that render toxicity has not been extensive, but it has nevertheless led to the identification of several compounds of potential medicinal use or for application in biotechnology. This review provides a complete account of the current status of research into nemertean toxins.

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  • 2.
    Johansson, Emma
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Legrand, Catherine
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Bjorneras, Caroline
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Godhe, Anna
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Mazur-Marzec, Hanna
    Univ Gdansk, Poland.
    Säll, Torbjörn
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Rengefors, Karin
    Lund University, Sweden.
    High Diversity of Microcystin Chemotypes within a Summer Bloom of the Cyanobacterium Microcystis botrys2019In: Toxins, ISSN 2072-6651, E-ISSN 2072-6651, Vol. 11, no 12, p. 1-16, article id 698Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The fresh-water cyanobacterium Microcystis is known to form blooms world-wide, and is often responsible for the production of microcystins found in lake water. Microcystins are non-ribosomal peptides with toxic effects, e.g. on vertebrates, but their function remains largely unresolved. Moreover, not all strains produce microcystins, and many different microcystin variants have been described. Here we explored the diversity of microcystin variants within Microcystis botrys, a common bloom-former in Sweden. We isolated a total of 130 strains through the duration of a bloom in eutrophic Lake Vomb, and analyzed their microcystin profiles with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). We found that microcystin producing (28.5%) and non-producing (71.5%) M. botrys strains, co-existed throughout the bloom. However, microcystin producing strains were more prevalent towards the end of the sampling period. Overall, 26 unique M. botrys chemotypes were identified, and while some chemotypes re-occurred, others were found only once. The M. botrys chemotypes showed considerable variation both in terms of number of microcystin variants, as well as in what combinations the variants occurred. To our knowledge, this is the first report on microcystin chemotype variation and dynamics in M. botrys. In addition, our study verifies the co-existence of microcystin and non-microcystin producing strains, and we propose that environmental conditions may be implicated in determining their composition.

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