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  • 1.
    Reinhold, Stephan
    et al.
    University of St. Gallen, Switzerland.
    Beritelli, Pietro
    University of St. Gallen, Switzerland.
    Grünig, Rouven
    University of St. Gallen, Switzerland.
    A business model typology for destination management organizations2019In: Tourism Review, ISSN 1660-5373, E-ISSN 1759-8451, Vol. 74, no 6, p. 1135-1152Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The need and legitimacy of destination management organizations (DMOs) are increasingly questioned. Still, the tourism literature provides little advice on how DMOs change and finance their activities for the benefit of their destination-given contextual change. This conceptual article aims to contribute to filling this gap. The authors do so by proposing a typology of business models for destination management organizations.

    Design/methodology/approach

    With the help of typological reasoning, the authors develop a new framework of DMO business model ideal types. To this end, the authors draw on extant literature on business model typologies and identify key dimensions of DMO business models from the tourism literature.

    Findings

    The challenges DMOs face, as discussed in the tourism literature, relate to both ends of their business model: On the one end, the value creation side, the perceived value of the activities they traditionally pursue has been declining; on the other end, the value capture side, revenue streams are less plentiful or attached to more extensive demands. On the basis of two dimensions, configurational complexity and perceived control, the authors identify four distinct ideal types of DMO business models: the destination factory, destination service center, value orchestrator and value enabler.

    Originality/value

    The authors outline a “traditional” DMO business model that stands in contrast to existing DMO classifications and that relates DMO challenges to the business model concept. The typology provides an integrated description of how DMO business models may be positioned to create and capture value for the organization and the destination(s) it serves. The ideal types point to important interdependencies of specific business model design choices.

  • 2.
    Reinhold, Stephan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. University of St. Gallen, Switzerland.
    Laesser, Christian
    University of St. Gallen, Switzerland.
    Beritelli, Pietro
    University of St. Gallen, Switzerland.
    Flow-based destination management and marketing: a perspective article2019In: Tourism Review, ISSN 1660-5373, E-ISSN 1759-8451Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose This paper aims to provide a selective review of sectoral and academic developments that have led to the flow-based view of destination management and marketing and inspires future work. Design/methodology/approach A review of the relevant literature serves as a foundation for the discussion of the flow-based view of destination management and marketing. From the results of this review, future prospects for practice and research are derived. Findings Destination management and marketing has undergone many changes in the past and is subject for some major overhauls in the future. Originality/value The paper inspires in terms of rather asking questions for the future than finding answers from the past.

  • 3.
    Reinhold, Stephan
    et al.
    University of St. Gallen, Switzerland.
    Zach, Florian J
    Virginia Tech, USA.
    Krizaj, Dejan
    University of Primorska, Slovenia.
    Business models in tourism – state of the art2019In: Tourism Review, ISSN 1660-5373, E-ISSN 1759-8451, Vol. 74, no 6, p. 1120-1134Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    This paper aims to review the state of the art for the Tourism Reviewspecial issue on “Business Models in Tourism”. The authors’ purpose is twofold: first, to contextualize the empirical and conceptual contributions featured in the special issue in relation to the state of research on business models in tourism. Second, the authors position the special issue in the broader scholarly conversation on business models to identify avenues for future research.

    Design/methodology/approach

    The authors systematically review the content of tourism-specific business model studies from leading literature databases to answer four questions relevant for future work on business models in tourism: First, how do tourism scholars define the business model concept? Second, what is the ontological stance (object, schema or tool) of existing studies of tourism business models? Third, what are the methodological preferences of existing work on business models in tourism? And finally, what qualifies as rigorous business model research?

    Findings

    From the critical review of 32 contributions, the authors identify a minimal consensus and dominant approach to conceptualizing the business model concept in tourism studies. In addition, the authors reveal a strong preference for small-n case study research designs. In sum, those findings point to important gaps and design decisions for future business model studies in tourism.

    Originality/value

    This review of the state of research on business models in tourism details research opportunities with regard to theory, methods and applications that tourism scholars can investigate to contribute to the theory and practice of business model management.

  • 4.
    Reinhold, Stephan
    et al.
    University of St. Gallen, Switzerland.
    Zach, Florian J
    Washington State University, USA.
    Krizaj, Dejan
    University of Primorska, Slovenia.
    Business models in tourism: a review and research agenda2017In: Tourism Review, ISSN 1660-5373, E-ISSN 1759-8451, Vol. 72, no 4, p. 462-482Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    Business models and the business model concept have become a fixture of scholarly and managerial attention. With a focus on how actors create, capture and disseminate value, business model research holds the promise to inform the tourism sector’s search for ways to innovate and change outdated business practices. Yet, the concept has inspired little research tackling the contingencies of the tourism context. The purpose of this paper is to address this gap in this review and research agenda on business models in tourism.

    Design/methodology/approach

    In this paper, the authors review and synthesize contributions from publications in EBSCO, Emerald Insight, ProQuest and Science Direct databases, that make explicit use of the business model concept in tourism (anytime up to September 2016). We conceptualize the identified articles as a coherent body of knowledge on business models in tourism with the objective of identifying common themes that characterize existing contributions.

    Findings

    From the review of 28 qualified articles, the authors identify four emergent themes: sector-specific configurations, the role of different value types, design themes for consistency and regulatory contingencies. These themes inform three domains in which the authors present avenues for tourism-specific studies on business models, as well as their management and innovation that the authors position in relation to the general business model literature.

    Originality/value

    This review details how researchers across disciplines conceptualize the business model. Together with the identified directions for further research, this literature review thus establishes a common conceptual basis and stock of knowledge for the study of business models in tourism research.

  • 5.
    Reinhold, Stephan
    et al.
    University of St. Gallen, Switzerland.
    Zach, Florian J
    Washington State University, USA.
    Krizaj, Dejan
    University of Primorska, Slovenia.
    Editorial - Business Models in Tourism2019In: Tourism Review, ISSN 1660-5373, E-ISSN 1759-8451, Vol. 74, no 6, p. 1117-1119Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As advocates of a fascinating research context and an applied discipline, tourism and hospitality, scholars are developing unique concepts to explain travel-related phenomena and are on the lookout for new theories and theoretical frameworks from other disciplines that help them make sense of the shifts and swings in market behavior. The focus of this special issue, the business model concept, is part of the latter category and aligns with Tourism Review's aspiration to advance our understanding of tourism value creation from a multidisciplinary, holistic perspective.

  • 6.
    Strzelecka, Marianna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Okulicz-Kozaryn, Adam
    Rutgers Univ Camden, USA.
    Is tourism conducive to residents' social trust?: Evidence form large-scale social surveys2018In: Tourism Review, ISSN 1660-5373, E-ISSN 1759-8451, Vol. 73, no 1, p. 1-27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purposes - This paper aims to understand the character of the relationship between tourism growth and residents' social trust. Design/methodology/approach - The study uses large-scale data to model the effect of tourism on generalized trust attitudes Among advantages to analyzing data from large-scale social surveys, extensive content and representative coverage of the population are probably the most appealing. The broad coverage of the population of the large-scale social surveys allows for a broader generalization of the study results as well as comparison of areas with very different tourist activity. Findings - This study offers two key findings. First, the effect of tourist arrivals (as per capita) on social trust attitudes is stronger in poorer regions than in wealthier regions. Second, only domestic tourism positively affects trust. Research limitations/implications - This study delivered a straightforward analysis of large data to be able to generalize findings and make a significant theoretical contribution to tourism discipline. This goal was pursued at the expense of complex or in-depth explanation of the observed phenomenon. Practical implications - Findings from this study indicate that there are at least two crucial criteria for tourism to be able to strengthen residents' social trust. First, domestic tourism should be encouraged in destination regions in their early development stages and inmore homogeneous regions. Perhaps, focus on domestic tourists before internationalization of a tourism product is the most effective way to promote tourism development that is supported by local residents. Second, tourism is likely to have stronger positive effect on social trust in poorer regions. Thus, tourism policy makers should take into consideration the actual economic need for tourism. Residents in wealthier regions may show less support for tourism simply because they don't need it and they have no economic incentives to be involved. In fact, tourismin wealthier regions is likely to diminish residents' social trust, and thus it disrupts local social and political processes that rely on high social trust. Originality/value - Social trust is considered an important measure of social cohesion and it enables modern societies to thrive. Social trust has not been problematized in the context of contemporary tourism growth. This is the first study that uses large data social survey to model the effect of tourism on social trust in European destination regions.

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