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  • 1.
    Baskaran, Karthikeyan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Inde, Krister
    Ekblad, Johan
    Melis-Dankers, Bart
    Closed circuit driving performance in persons with quadrantanopia and hemianopia in Sweden2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Optometry and Visual Science, ISSN 1891-0882, E-ISSN 1891-0890, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 14-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, persons with homonymous visual field defects (HVFDs) are not allowed to drive and usually their driving licences are revoked. Although earlier studies (de Haan et al. 2014; Elgin et al. 2010) have shown that HVFDs do not necessarily impair practical fitness to drive, the Swedish transport agency does not allow them any on-road driving testing to prove their practical fitness to drive. The aim of this study was to evaluate driving performance in participants with visual field defects after acquired brain injury in a closed circuit driving track. Eleven former drivers with varying degrees of quadrantanopia and hemianopia after acquired brain damage were recruited for this study from the stroke rehabilitation department at Kalmar County Hospital. The median age of the participants was 55 years and their age ranged from 37 to 73 years. Driving performance was assessed by two experienced driving instructors. They graded the participants on a scale from 1 (major faults) to 5 (excellent) on the following five categories: manoeuvring the vehicle, risk assessment, traffic rules, visual scanning and situation awareness. The subject would pass the driving test only if they had scored 3 or more in each category. The subjects who passed the closed circuit driving track test were evaluated further with a driving simulator. Five (45%) out of 11 participants passed the driving test and were adjudged as fit to drive. The remaining six (55%) participants failed in at least one category. Three failed in visual scanning, two failed in manoeuvring and one failed in both the aforementioned categories as well as risk assessment. Three subjects who passed the closed circuit driving track test were also evaluated in a driving simulator. Out of the three subjects, only one was able to complete and pass the evaluation while the remaining two participants aborted the evaluation due to simulator sickness. Homonymous visual field defects do not necessarily impair fitness to drive. Therefore, an on-road assessment of practical fitness to drive should be allowed in Sweden for this population in the near future. The decision on practical fitness to drive cannot be based solely on the presence of visual field defects. A rehabilitation program aimed at improving safe driving should be put into practice with an on-road driving training and assessment procedure. It should be developed and implemented by experienced traffic inspectors as a complementary part of the decision to either issue or revoke a driving licence for this population.

  • 2.
    Johansson, Oskar
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Morgan, Philip
    University of Manchester, UK.
    Gierow, Peter
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Trends in Swedish Contact Lens Prescribing 20172019In: Scandinavian Journal of Optometry and Visual Science, ISSN 1891-0882, E-ISSN 1891-0890, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 5-7Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The purpose was to evaluate the trends of contact lens prescribing among Swedish optometrists in 2017.

    Materials and Methods: A standardized survey form was distributed to Swedish optometrists using their professional organisations, optometry chains, direct email, and by hand directly. They were asked to fill out the form for the ten contact lens fits performed after receipt of the survey form. Information was collected regarding age and sex of patient, fit/refit, lens design and material, modality and solution prescribed.

    Results: 57 forms were returned detailing 562 fits. The mean age of the patients was 37 yrs, and 65 % were female. 83 % were fitted for full-time wear and 27 % were managed as new fits. 94.7 % were soft contact lens fits and silicone hydrogel was the dominating material.

    Conclusions: When compared with data from Norway and Denmark, it is evident that daily disposables are more popular in these countries (74 %), whereas in Sweden it is monthly replacements (58 %). Otherwise, the results are similar to what has been reported from other parts of the world.

  • 3.
    Miranda, Antonio Miguel
    et al.
    University of Minho Braga, Portugal.
    Nunes-Pereira, Eduardo J
    University of Minho Braga, Portugal.
    Baskaran, Karthikeyan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Macedo, António Filipe
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry. University of Minho Braga, Portugal.
    Eye movements, convergence distance and pupil-size when reading from smartphone, computer, print and tablet2018In: Scandinavian Journal of Optometry and Visual Science, ISSN 1891-0882, E-ISSN 1891-0890, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 1-5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated the use of eye-tracking glasses to monitor visual behaviour when reading from electronic devices and paper in free-viewing conditions. The Tobii-Pro-Glasses were used to monitor 20 subjects with normal vision during reading tasks. Reading was performed in a smartphone, computer, paper and tablet. Texts from the IReST-test were read in devices in a random order. Participants read one text in each device and then repeated the same task 1 hour later; in total each participant read eight different texts. The sequence for the devices was randomized. We found differences between devices for saccade amplitude, fixation duration, convergence distance and pupil size. Reading speed between computer and tablet was slightly different (8 words-per-minute) and pupil size reduced up to 20% in electronic devices compared to print. Behavioural changes observed whilst reading from different devices may reflect an attempt from readers to optimize performance. The need to maintain visual performance under different visual condition may lead to increased visual symptoms. Eye-tracking glasses could be a valuable tool to investigate visual aspects of digital strain.

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