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  • 1.
    Ferreira, Marisa Borges
    et al.
    University of Minho, Portugal;Association “Todos com a Esclerose Multipla (TEM)”, Portugal.
    Pereira, Paulo Alexandre
    Association “Todos com a Esclerose Multipla (TEM)”, Portugal;University of Minho, Portugal.
    Parreira, Marta
    Association “Todos com a Esclerose Multipla (TEM)”, Portugal.
    Sousa, Ines
    University of Minho, Portugal.
    Figueiredo, José
    Association “Todos com a Esclerose Multipla (TEM)”, Portugal.
    Cerqueira, João José
    University of Minho, Portugal;Hospital de Braga, Portugal.
    Macedo, António Filipe
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry. University of Minho, Portugal.
    Relationships between neuropsychological and antisaccade measures in multiple sclerosis patients2018In: PeerJ, ISSN 2167-8359, E-ISSN 2167-8359, Vol. 6, p. 1-18, article id e5737Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    The Stroop test is frequently used to assess deficits in inhibitory control in people with multiple sclerosis (MS). This test has limitations and antisaccade eye movements, that also measure inhibitory control, may be an alternative to Stroop.

    Objectives

    The aim of this study was twofold: (i) to investigate if the performance in the antisaccade task is altered in patients with MS and (ii) to investigate the correlation between performances in neuropsychological tests, the Stroop test and the antisaccade task.

    Methods

    We measured antisaccades (AS) parameters with an infrared eye tracker (SMIRED 250 Hz) using a standard AS paradigm. A total of 38 subjects diagnosed with MS and 38 age and gender matched controls participated in this study. Neuropsychological measures were obtained from the MS group.

    Results

    Patients with MS have higher error rates and prolonged latency than controls in the antisaccade task. There was a consistent association between the Stroop performance and AS latency. Stroop performance but not AS latency was associated with other neuropsychological measures in which the MS group showed deficits.

    Conclusions

    Our findings suggest that AS may be a selective and independent measure to investigate inhibitory control in patients with MS. More studies are necessary to confirm our results and to describe brain correlates associated with impaired performance in the antisaccade task in people diagnosed with MS.

  • 2.
    Lawson, Julia M.
    et al.
    Simon Fraser University, Canada.
    Fordham, Sonja V.
    The Ocean Foundation, USA.
    O'Malley, Mary P.
    WildAid, USA ; Manta Trust, UK.
    Davidson, Lindsay N. K.
    Simon Fraser University, Canada.
    Walls, Rachel H. L.
    Simon Fraser University, Canada.
    Heupel, Michelle R.
    Australian Institute of Marine Science, Australia.
    Stevens, Guy
    Manta Trust, UK ; University of York, UK.
    Fernando, Daniel
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Manta Trust, UK ; Blue Resources, Sri Lanka.
    Budziak, Ania
    Project AWARE Foundation, USA.
    Simpfendorfer, Colin A.
    James Cook University, Australia.
    Ender, Isabel
    Manta Trust, UK.
    Francis, Malcolm P.
    National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research, New Zealand.
    di Sciara, Giuseppe Notarbartolo
    Tethys Research Institute, Italy.
    Dulvy, Nicholas K.
    Simon Fraser University, Canada.
    Sympathy for the devil: a conservation strategy for devil and manta rays2017In: PeerJ, ISSN 2167-8359, E-ISSN 2167-8359, Vol. 5, article id 3027Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. International trade for luxury products, medicines, and tonics poses a threat to both terrestrial and marine wildlife. The demand for and consumption of gill plates (known as Peng Yu Sai, "Fish Gill of Mobulid Ray") from devil and manta rays (subfamily Mobulinae, collectively referred to as mobulids) poses a significant threat to these marine fishes because of their extremely low productivity. The demand for these gill plates has driven an international trade supplied by largely unmonitored and unregulated catches from target, and incidental fisheries around the world. Scientific research, conservation campaigns, and legal protections for devil rays have lagged behind those for manta rays despite similar threats across all mobufids. Methods. To investigate the difference in attention given to devil rays and manta rays, we examined trends in the scientific literature and updated species distribution maps for all mobufids. Using available information on target and incidental fisheries, and gathering information on fishing and trade regulations (at international, national, and territorial levels), we examined how threats and protective measures overlap with species distribution. We then used a species conservation planning approach to develop the Global Devil and Manta Ray Conservation Strategy, specifying a vision, goals, objectives, and actions to advance the knowledge and protection of both devil and manta rays. Results and Discussion. Our literature review revealed that there had been nearly 2.5-times more "manta"-titled publications, than "mobula" or "devil ray"-titled publications over the Past 4.5 years (January 2012 June 2016). The majority of these recent publications were reports on occurrence of mobulid species. These publications contributed to updated Area of Occupancy and Extent of Occurrence maps which showed expanded distributions for most mobulid species and overlap between the two genera. While several international protections have recently expanded to include all mobulids, there remains a greater number of national, state, and territory-level protections for manta rays compared to devil rays. We hypothesize that there are fewer scientific publications and regulatory protections for devil rays due primarily to perceptions of charisma that favour manta rays. We suggest that the well-established species conservation framework used here offers an objective solution to close this gap. To advance the goals of the conservation strategy we highlight opportunities for parity in protection and suggest solutions to help reduce target and by catch fisheries.

  • 3.
    Loderer, Christoph
    et al.
    Tech Univ Dresden, Germany.
    Holmfeldt, Karin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Lundin, Daniel
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Non-host class II ribonucleotide reductase in Thermus viruses: sequence adaptation and host interaction2019In: PeerJ, ISSN 2167-8359, E-ISSN 2167-8359, Vol. 7, p. 1-17, article id e6700Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ribonucleotide reductases (RNR) are essential enzymes for all known life forms. Their current taxonomic distribution suggests extensive horizontal gene transfer e.g., by processes involving viruses. To improve our understanding of the underlying processes, we characterized a monomeric class II RNR (NrdJm) enzyme from a Thermus virus, a subclass not present in any sequenced Thermus spp. genome. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a distant origin of the nrdJm gene with the most closely related sequences found in mesophiles or moderate thermophiles from the Firmicutes phylum. GC-content, codon usage and the ratio of coding to non-coding substitutions (dN/dS) suggest extensive adaptation of the gene in the virus in terms of nucleotide composition and amino acid sequence. The NrdJm enzyme is a monomeric B-12-dependent RNR with nucleoside triphosphate specificity. It exhibits a temperature optimum at 60-70 degrees C, which is in the range of the growth optimum of Thermus spp. Experiments in combination with the Thermus thermophilus thioredoxin system show that the enzyme is able to retrieve electrons from the host NADPH pool via host thioredoxin and thioredoxin reductases. This is different from other characterized viral RNRs such as T4 phage RNR, where a viral thioredoxin is present. We hence show that the monomeric class II RNR, present in Thermus viruses, was likely transferred from an organism phylogenetically distant from the one they were isolated from, and adapted to the new host in genetic signature and amino acids sequence.

  • 4.
    Schütz, Erica
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology. Univ Gothenburg ; Network Empowerment & Well Being, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sailer, Uta
    Univ Gothenburg ; Network Empowerment & Well Being, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Al Nima, Ali
    Univ Gothenburg ; Network Empowerment & Well Being, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Rosenberg, Patricia
    Network Empowerment & Well Being, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Andersson Arnten, Ann-Christine
    Univ Gothenburg ; Network Empowerment & Well Being, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Archer, Trevor
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology. Univ Gothenburg ; Network Empowerment & Well Being, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Garcia, Danilo
    Network Empowerment & Well Being, Gothenburg, Sweden.;Univ Gothenburg, CELAM, Gothenburg, Sweden.;Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Inst Neurosci & Physiol, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    The affective profiles in the USA: happiness, depression, life satisfaction, and happiness-increasing strategies2013In: PeerJ, ISSN 2167-8359, E-ISSN 2167-8359, Vol. 1, article id e156Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. The affective profiles model categorizes individuals as self-fulfilling (high positive affect, low negative affect), high affective (high positive affect, high negative affect), low affective (low positive affect, low negative affect), and self-destructive (low positive affect, high negative affect). The model has been used extensively among Swedes to discern differences between profiles regarding happiness, depression, and also life satisfaction. The aim of the present study was to investigate such differences in a sample of residents of the USA. The study also investigated differences between profiles with regard to happiness-increasing strategies. Methods. In Study I, 900 participants reported affect (Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule; PANAS) and happiness (Happiness-Depression Scale). In Study II, 500 participants self-reported affect (PANAS), life satisfaction (Satisfaction With Life Scale), and how often they used specific strategies to increase their own happiness (Happiness-Increasing Strategies Scales). Results. The results showed that, compared to the other profiles, self-fulfilling individuals were less depressed, happier, and more satisfied with their lives. Nevertheless, self-destructive individuals were more depressed, unhappier, and less satisfied than all other profiles. The self-fulfilling individuals tended to use strategies related to agentic (e. g., instrumental goal-pursuit), communal (e. g., social affiliation), and spiritual (e. g., religion) values when pursuing happiness. Conclusion. These differences suggest that promoting positive emotions can positively influence a depressive-to-happy state as well as increasing life satisfaction. Moreover, the present study shows that pursuing happiness through strategies guided by agency, communion, and spirituality is related to a self-fulfilling experience described as high positive affect and low negative affect.

  • 5.
    Thureborn, Petter
    et al.
    Södertörn University.
    Franzetti, Andrea
    Södertörn University ; Univ Milano Bicocca, Italy.
    Lundin, Daniel
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Sci Life Labs, BILS, Solna.
    Sjöling, Sara
    Södertörn University.
    Reconstructing ecosystem functions of the active microbial community of the Baltic Sea oxygen depleted sediments2016In: PeerJ, ISSN 2167-8359, E-ISSN 2167-8359, Vol. 4, article id e1593Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Baltic Sea deep water and sediments hold one of the largest anthropogenically induced hypoxic areas in the world. High nutrient input and low water exchange result in eutrophication and oxygen depletion below the halocline. As a consequence at Landsort Deep, the deepest point of the Baltic Sea, anoxia in the sediments has been a persistent condition over the past decades. Given that microbial communities are drivers of essential ecosystem functions we investigated the microbial community metabolisms and functions of oxygen depleted Landsort Deep sediments by metatranscriptomics. Results show substantial expression of genes involved in protein metabolism demonstrating that the Landsort Deep sediment microbial community is active. Identified expressed gene suites of metabolic pathways with importance for carbon transformation including fermentation, dissimilatory sulphate reduction and methanogenesis were identified. The presence of transcripts for these metabolic processes suggests a potential for heterotrophic-autotrophic community synergism and indicates active mineralisation of the organic matter deposited at the sediment as a consequence of the eutrophication process. Furthermore, cyanobacteria, probably deposited from the water column, are transcriptionally active in the anoxic sediment at this depth. Results also reveal high abundance of transcripts encoding integron integrases. These results provide insight into the activity of the microbial community of the anoxic sediment at the deepest point of the Baltic Sea and its possible role in ecosystem functioning.

  • 6.
    Zhu, Egui
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet;Hubei Univ, Peoples Republic of China.
    Hadadgar, Arash
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Masiello, Italo
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Zary, Nabil
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Augmented reality in healthcare education: an integrative review2014In: PeerJ, ISSN 2167-8359, E-ISSN 2167-8359, Vol. 2, article id e469Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. The effective development of healthcare competencies poses great educational challenges. A possible approach to provide learning opportunities is the use of augmented reality (AR) where virtual learning experiences can be embedded in a real physical context. The aim of this study was to provide a comprehensive overview of the current state of the art in terms of user acceptance, the AR applications developed and the effect of AR on the development of competencies in healthcare. Methods. We conducted an integrative review. Integrative reviews are the broadest type of research review methods allowing for the inclusion of various research designs to more fully understand a phenomenon of concern. Our review included multi-disciplinary research publications in English reported until 2012. Results. 2529 research papers were found from ERIC, CINAHL, Medline, PubMed, Web of Science and Springer-link. Three qualitative, 20 quantitative and 2 mixed studies were included. Using a thematic analysis, we've described three aspects related to the research, technology and education. This study showed that AR was applied in a wide range of topics in healthcare education. Furthermore acceptance for AR as a learning technology was reported among the learners and its potential for improving different types of competencies. Discussion. AR is still considered as a novelty in the literature. Most of the studies reported early prototypes. Also the designed AR applications lacked an explicit pedagogical theoretical framework. Finally the learning strategies adopted were of the traditional style 'see one, do one and teach one' and do not integrate clinical competencies to ensure patients' safety.

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