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  • 1. Abbasi, R.
    et al.
    Abdou, Y.
    Abu-Zayyad, T.
    Adams, J.
    Aguilar, J. A.
    Ahlers, M.
    Andeen, K.
    Auffenberg, J.
    Bai, X.
    Baker, M.
    Barwick, S. W.
    Bay, R.
    Alba, J. L. Bazo
    Beattie, K.
    Beatty, J. J.
    Bechet, S.
    Becker, J. K.
    Becker, K. -H
    Benabderrahmane, M. L.
    Berdermann, J.
    Berghaus, P.
    Berley, D.
    Bernardini, E.
    Bertrand, D.
    Besson, D. Z.
    Bissok, M.
    Blaufuss, E.
    Boersma, D. J.
    Bohm, C.
    Bolmont, J.
    Botner, O.
    Bradley, L.
    Braun, J.
    Breder, D.
    Castermans, T.
    Chirkin, D.
    Christy, B.
    Clem, J.
    Cohen, S.
    Cowen, D. F.
    D'Agostino, M. V.
    Danninger, M.
    Day, C. T.
    De Clercq, C.
    Demiroers, L.
    Depaepe, O.
    Descamps, F.
    Desiati, P.
    de Vries-Uiterweerd, G.
    DeYoung, T.
    Diaz-Velez, J. C.
    Dreyer, J.
    Dumm, J. P.
    Duvoort, M. R.
    Edwards, W. R.
    Ehrlich, R.
    Eisch, J.
    Ellsworth, R. W.
    Engdegard, O.
    Euler, S.
    Evenson, P. A.
    Fadiran, O.
    Fazely, A. R.
    Feusels, T.
    Filimonov, K.
    Finley, C.
    Foerster, M. M.
    Fox, B. D.
    Franckowiak, A.
    Franke, R.
    Gaisser, T. K.
    Gallagher, J.
    Ganugapati, R.
    Gerhardt, L.
    Gladstone, L.
    Goldschmidt, A.
    Goodman, J. A.
    Gozzini, R.
    Grant, D.
    Griesel, T.
    Gro, A.
    Grullon, S.
    Gunasingha, R. M.
    Gurtner, M.
    Ha, C.
    Hallgren, A.
    Halzen, F.
    Han, K.
    Hanson, K.
    Hasegawa, Y.
    Heise, J.
    Helbing, K.
    Herquet, P.
    Hickford, S.
    Hill, G. C.
    Hoffman, K. D.
    Hoshina, K.
    Hubert, D.
    Huelsnitz, W.
    Huelss, J. -P
    Hulth, P. O.
    Hultqvist, K.
    Hussain, S.
    Imlay, R. L.
    Inaba, M.
    Ishihara, A.
    Jacobsen, J.
    Japaridze, G. S.
    Johansson, H.
    Joseph, J. M.
    Kampert, K. -H
    Kappes, A.
    Karg, T.
    Karle, A.
    Kelley, J. L.
    Kenny, P.
    Kiryluk, J.
    Kislat, F.
    Klein, S. R.
    Knops, S.
    Kohnen, G.
    Kolanoski, H.
    Koepke, L.
    Kowalski, M.
    Kowarik, T.
    Krasberg, M.
    Kuehn, K.
    Kuwabara, T.
    Labare, M.
    Lafebre, S.
    Laihem, K.
    Landsman, H.
    Lauer, R.
    Lennarz, D.
    Lucke, A.
    Lundberg, J.
    Luenemann, J.
    Madsen, J.
    Majumdar, P.
    Maruyama, R.
    Mase, K.
    Matis, H. S.
    McParland, C. P.
    Meagher, K.
    Merck, M.
    Meszaros, P.
    Middell, E.
    Milke, N.
    Miyamoto, H.
    Mohr, A.
    Montaruli, T.
    Morse, R.
    Movit, S. M.
    Nahnhauer, R.
    Nam, J. W.
    Niessen, P.
    Nygren, D. R.
    Odrowski, S.
    Olivas, A.
    Olivo, M.
    Ono, M.
    Panknin, S.
    Patton, S.
    de los Heros, C. Perez
    Petrovic, J.
    Piegsa, A.
    Pieloth, D.
    Pohl, Arvid
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för datavetenskap, fysik och matematik, DFM.
    Porrata, R.
    Potthoff, N.
    Price, P. B.
    Prikockis, M.
    Przybylski, G. T.
    Rawlins, K.
    Redl, P.
    Resconi, E.
    Rhode, W.
    Ribordy, M.
    Rizzo, A.
    Rodrigues, J. P.
    Roth, P.
    Rothmaier, F.
    Rott, C.
    Roucelle, C.
    Rutledge, D.
    Ryckbosch, D.
    Sander, H. -G
    Sarkar, S.
    Schlenstedt, S.
    Schmidt, T.
    Schneider, D.
    Schukraft, A.
    Schulz, O.
    Schunck, M.
    Seckel, D.
    Semburg, B.
    Seo, S. H.
    Sestayo, Y.
    Seunarine, S.
    Silvestri, A.
    Slipak, A.
    Spiczak, G. M.
    Spiering, C.
    Stamatikos, M.
    Stanev, T.
    Stephens, G.
    Stezelberger, T.
    Stokstad, R. G.
    Stoufer, M. C.
    Stoyanov, S.
    Strahler, E. A.
    Straszheim, T.
    Sulanke, K. -H
    Sullivan, G. W.
    Swillens, Q.
    Taboada, I.
    Tamburro, A.
    Tarasova, O.
    Tepe, A.
    Ter-Antonyan, S.
    Terranova, C.
    Tilav, S.
    Toale, P. A.
    Tooker, J.
    Tosi, D.
    Turcan, D.
    van Eijndhoven, N.
    Vandenbroucke, J.
    Van Overloop, A.
    Voigt, B.
    Walck, C.
    Waldenmaier, T.
    Walter, M.
    Wendt, C.
    Westerhoff, S.
    Whitehorn, N.
    Wiebusch, C. H.
    Wiedemann, A.
    Wikstroem, G.
    Williams, D. R.
    Wischnewski, R.
    Wissing, H.
    Woschnagg, K.
    Xu, X. W.
    Yodh, G.
    Yoshida, S.
    SEARCH FOR MUON NEUTRINOS FROM GAMMA-RAY BURSTS WITH THE IceCube NEUTRINO TELESCOPE2010Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 710, nr 1, s. 346-359Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We present the results of searches for high-energy muon neutrinos from 41 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) in the northern sky with the IceCube detector in its 22 string configuration active in 2007/2008. The searches cover both the prompt and a possible precursor emission as well as a model-independent, wide time window of -1 hr to + 3 hr around each GRB. In contrast to previous searches with a large GRB population, we do not utilize a standard Waxman-Bahcall GRB flux for the prompt emission but calculate individual neutrino spectra for all 41 GRBs from the burst parameters measured by satellites. For all of the three time windows, the best estimate for the number of signal events is zero. Therefore, we place 90% CL upper limits on the fluence from the prompt phase of 3.7 x 10(-3) erg cm(-2) (72 TeV-6.5 PeV) and on the fluence from the precursor phase of 2.3 x 10(-3) erg cm(-2) (2.2-55 TeV), where the quoted energy ranges contain 90% of the expected signal events in the detector. The 90% CL upper limit for the wide time window is 2.7 x 10(-3) erg cm(-2) (3 TeV-2.8 PeV) assuming an E-2 flux.

  • 2. Abbasi, R.
    et al.
    Abdou, Y.
    Abu-Zayyad, T.
    Adams, J.
    Aguilar, J. A.
    Ahlers, M.
    Andeen, K.
    Auffenberg, J.
    Bai, X.
    Baker, M.
    Barwick, S. W.
    Bay, R.
    Alba, J. L. Bazo
    Beattie, K.
    Beatty, J. J.
    Bechet, S.
    Becker, J. K.
    Becker, K. -H
    Benabderrahmane, M. L.
    Berdermann, J.
    Berghaus, P.
    Berley, D.
    Bernardini, E.
    Bertrand, D.
    Besson, D. Z.
    Bissok, M.
    Blaufuss, E.
    Boersma, D. J.
    Bohm, C.
    Bolmont, J.
    Botner, O.
    Bradley, L.
    Braun, J.
    Breder, D.
    Castermans, T.
    Chirkin, D.
    Christy, B.
    Clem, J.
    Cohen, S.
    Cowen, D. F.
    D'Agostino, M. V.
    Danninger, M.
    Day, C. T.
    De Clercq, C.
    Demiroers, L.
    Depaepe, O.
    Descamps, F.
    Desiati, P.
    de Vries-Uiterweerd, G.
    DeYoung, T.
    Diaz-Velez, J. C.
    Dreyer, J.
    Dumm, J. P.
    Duvoort, M. R.
    Edwards, W. R.
    Ehrlich, R.
    Eisch, J.
    Ellsworth, R. W.
    Engdegard, O.
    Euler, S.
    Evenson, P. A.
    Fadiran, O.
    Fazely, A. R.
    Feusels, T.
    Filimonov, K.
    Finley, C.
    Foerster, M. M.
    Fox, B. D.
    Franckowiak, A.
    Franke, R.
    Gaisser, T. K.
    Gallagher, J.
    Ganugapati, R.
    Gerhardt, L.
    Gladstone, L.
    Goldschmidt, A.
    Goodman, J. A.
    Gozzini, R.
    Grant, D.
    Griesel, T.
    Gross, A.
    Grullon, S.
    Gunasingha, R. M.
    Gurtner, M.
    Ha, C.
    Hallgren, A.
    Halzen, F.
    Han, K.
    Hanson, K.
    Hasegawa, Y.
    Heise, J.
    Helbing, K.
    Herquet, P.
    Hickford, S.
    Hill, G. C.
    Hoffman, K. D.
    Hoshina, K.
    Hubert, D.
    Huelsnitz, W.
    Huelss, J. -P
    Hulth, P. O.
    Hultqvist, K.
    Hussain, S.
    Imlay, R. L.
    Inaba, M.
    Ishihara, A.
    Jacobsen, J.
    Japaridze, G. S.
    Johansson, H.
    Joseph, J. M.
    Kampert, K. -H
    Kappes, A.
    Karg, T.
    Karle, A.
    Kelley, J. L.
    Kenny, P.
    Kiryluk, J.
    Kislat, F.
    Klein, S. R.
    Knops, S.
    Kohnen, G.
    Kolanoski, H.
    Koepke, L.
    Kowalski, M.
    Kowarik, T.
    Krasberg, M.
    Kuehn, K.
    Kuwabara, T.
    Labare, M.
    Lafebre, S.
    Laihem, K.
    Landsman, H.
    Lauer, R.
    Lennarz, D.
    Lucke, A.
    Lundberg, J.
    Luenemann, J.
    Madsen, J.
    Majumdar, P.
    Maruyama, R.
    Mase, K.
    Matis, H. S.
    McParland, C. P.
    Meagher, K.
    Merck, M.
    Meszaros, P.
    Middell, E.
    Milke, N.
    Miyamoto, H.
    Mohr, A.
    Montaruli, T.
    Morse, R.
    Movit, S. M.
    Muenich, K.
    Nahnhauer, R.
    Nam, J. W.
    Niessen, P.
    Nygren, D. R.
    Odrowski, S.
    Olivas, A.
    Olivo, M.
    Ono, M.
    Panknin, S.
    Patton, S.
    de los Heros, C. Perez
    Petrovic, J.
    Piegsa, A.
    Pieloth, D.
    Pohl, Arvid
    Högskolan i Kalmar, Naturvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Porrata, R.
    Potthoff, N.
    Price, P. B.
    Prikockis, M.
    Przybylski, G. T.
    Rawlins, K.
    Redl, P.
    Resconi, E.
    Rhode, W.
    Ribordy, M.
    Rizzo, A.
    Rodrigues, J. P.
    Roth, P.
    Rothmaier, F.
    Rott, C.
    Roucelle, C.
    Rutledge, D.
    Ryckbosch, D.
    Sander, H. -G
    Sarkar, S.
    Schlenstedt, S.
    Schmidt, T.
    Schneider, D.
    Schukraft, A.
    Schulz, O.
    Schunck, M.
    Seckel, D.
    Semburg, B.
    Seo, S. H.
    Sestayo, Y.
    Seunarine, S.
    Silvestri, A.
    Slipak, A.
    Spiczak, G. M.
    Spiering, C.
    Stamatikos, M.
    Stanev, T.
    Stephens, G.
    Stezelberger, T.
    Stokstad, R. G.
    Stoufer, M. C.
    Stoyanov, S.
    Strahler, E. A.
    Straszheim, T.
    Sulanke, K. -H
    Sullivan, G. W.
    Swillens, Q.
    Taboada, I.
    Tamburro, A.
    Tarasova, O.
    Tepe, A.
    Ter-Antonyan, S.
    Terranova, C.
    Tilav, S.
    Toale, P. A.
    Tosi, D.
    Turcan, D.
    van Eijndhoven, N.
    Vandenbroucke, J.
    Van Overloop, A.
    Voigt, B.
    Walck, C.
    Waldenmaier, T.
    Walter, M.
    Wendt, C.
    Westerhoff, S.
    Whitehorn, N.
    Wiebusch, C. H.
    Wiedemann, A.
    Wikstrom, G.
    Williams, D. R.
    Wischnewski, R.
    Wissing, H.
    Woschnagg, K.
    Xu, X. W.
    Yodh, G.
    Yoshida, S.
    SEARCH FOR HIGH-ENERGY MUON NEUTRINOS FROM THE "NAKED-EYE" GRB 080319B WITH THE IceCube NEUTRINO TELESCOPE2009Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 701, nr 2, s. 1721-1731Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We report on a search with the IceCube detector for high-energy muon neutrinos from GRB 080319B, one of the brightest gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) ever observed. The fireball model predicts that a mean of 0.1 events should be detected by IceCube for a bulk Lorentz boost of the jet of 300. In both the direct on-time window of 66 s and an extended window of about 300 s around the GRB, no excess was found above background. The 90% CL upper limit on the number of track-like events from the GRB is 2.7, corresponding to a muon neutrino fluence limit of 9.5 x 10(-3) erg cm(-2) in the energy range between 120 TeV and 2.2 PeV, which contains 90% of the expected events.

  • 3.
    Abdalla, H.
    et al.
    North West Univ, South Africa.
    Aharonian, F.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany;Dublin Inst Adv Studies, Ireland;Natl Acad Sci Republ Armenia, Armenia.
    Benkhali, F. Ait
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Anguner, E. O.
    Aix Marseille Univ, France.
    Arakawa, M.
    Rikkyo Univ, Japan.
    Arcaro, C.
    North West Univ, South Africa.
    Armand, C.
    Univ Savoie Mont Blanc, France.
    Arrieta, M.
    PSL Res Univ, France.
    Backes, M.
    North West Univ, South Africa;Univ Namibia, Namibia.
    Barnard, M.
    North West Univ, South Africa.
    Becherini, Yvonne
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för fysik och elektroteknik (IFE).
    Tjus, J. Becker
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Inst Theoret Phys Lehrstuhl Weltraum & Astrophys, D-44780 Bochum, Germany..
    Berge, D.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Bernhard, S.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Bernloehr, K.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Blackwell, R.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Bottcher, M.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Boisson, C.
    PSL Res Univ, CNRS, Univ Paris Diderot, LUTH,Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Bolmont, J.
    UPMC Univ Paris 06, Univ Paris Diderot, LPNHE, Sorbonne Univ,CNRS,Sorbonne Paris Cite, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris 5, France..
    Bonnefoy, S.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Bordas, P.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Bregeon, J.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, CC72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Brun, F.
    Univ Bordeaux, Ctr Etud Nucl Bordeaux Gradignan, CNRS, IN2P3, F-33175 Gradignan, France..
    Brun, P.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Bryan, M.
    Univ Amsterdam, Anton Pannekoek Inst Astron, GRAPPA, Sci Pk 904, NL-1098 XH Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Buechele, M.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Bulik, T.
    Univ Warsaw, Astron Observ, Al Ujazdowskie 4, PL-00478 Warsaw, Poland..
    Bylund, Tomas
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för fysik och elektroteknik (IFE).
    Capasso, M.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Caroff, S.
    Ecole Polytech, Lab Leprince Ringuet, CNRS, IN2P3, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Carosi, A.
    Univ Savoie Mont Blanc, Lab Annecy le Vieux Phys Particules, CNRS, IN2P3, F-74941 Annecy Le Vieux, France..
    Cerruti, M.
    UPMC Univ Paris 06, Univ Paris Diderot, LPNHE, Sorbonne Univ,CNRS,Sorbonne Paris Cite, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris 5, France..
    Chakraborty, N.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Chandra, S.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Chaves, R. C. G.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, CC72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Chen, A.
    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Colafrancesco, S.
    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Condon, B.
    Univ Bordeaux, Ctr Etud Nucl Bordeaux Gradignan, CNRS, IN2P3, F-33175 Gradignan, France..
    Davids, I. D.
    Univ Namibia, Dept Phys, Private Bag 13301, Windhoek, Namibia..
    Deil, C.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Devin, J.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, CC72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    deWilt, P.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Dirson, L.
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany..
    Djannati-Atai, A.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Observ Paris, IN2P3, CNRS,APC,CEA Irfu,AstroParticule & Cosmol,Sorbonn, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Dmytriiev, A.
    PSL Res Univ, CNRS, Univ Paris Diderot, LUTH,Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Donath, A.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Doroshenko, V
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Drury, L. O ' C
    Dyks, J.
    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
    Egberts, K.
    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany..
    Emery, G.
    UPMC Univ Paris 06, Univ Paris Diderot, LPNHE, Sorbonne Univ,CNRS,Sorbonne Paris Cite, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris 5, France..
    Ernenwein, J-P
    Aix Marseille Univ, CNRS, IN2P3, CPPM, Marseille, France..
    Eschbach, S.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Fegan, S.
    Ecole Polytech, Lab Leprince Ringuet, CNRS, IN2P3, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Fiasson, A.
    Univ Savoie Mont Blanc, Lab Annecy le Vieux Phys Particules, CNRS, IN2P3, F-74941 Annecy Le Vieux, France..
    Fontaine, G.
    Ecole Polytech, Lab Leprince Ringuet, CNRS, IN2P3, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Funk, S.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Fuessling, M.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Gabici, S.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Observ Paris, IN2P3, CNRS,APC,CEA Irfu,AstroParticule & Cosmol,Sorbonn, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Gallant, Y. A.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, CC72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
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    Univ Savoie Mont Blanc, Lab Annecy le Vieux Phys Particules, CNRS, IN2P3, F-74941 Annecy Le Vieux, France..
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    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
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    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
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    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
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    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
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    Univ Bordeaux, Ctr Etud Nucl Bordeaux Gradignan, CNRS, IN2P3, F-33175 Gradignan, France..
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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
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    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
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    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany..
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    Univ Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, IPAG, F-38000 Grenoble, France..
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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
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    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany..
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    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
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    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
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    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany..
    Huber, D.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
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    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Toshima Ku, 3-34-1 Nishi Ikebukuro, Tokyo 1718501, Japan..
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    UPMC Univ Paris 06, Univ Paris Diderot, LPNHE, Sorbonne Univ,CNRS,Sorbonne Paris Cite, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris 5, France..
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    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astronomiczne, Ul Orla 171, PL-30244 Krakow, Poland..
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    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
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    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
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    Univ Paris Diderot, Observ Paris, IN2P3, CNRS,APC,CEA Irfu,AstroParticule & Cosmol,Sorbonn, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
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    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
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    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany..
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    Univ Tokyo, Kavli IPMU, UTIAS, 5-1-5 Kashiwa No Ha, Kashiwa, Chiba 2778583, Japan..
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    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
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    UPMC Univ Paris 06, Univ Paris Diderot, LPNHE, Sorbonne Univ,CNRS,Sorbonne Paris Cite, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris 5, France..
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    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Toshima Ku, 3-34-1 Nishi Ikebukuro, Tokyo 1718501, Japan..
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    Univ Paris Diderot, Observ Paris, IN2P3, CNRS,APC,CEA Irfu,AstroParticule & Cosmol,Sorbonn, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
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    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
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    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
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    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa..
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    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
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    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Inst Theoret Phys Lehrstuhl Weltraum & Astrophys, D-44780 Bochum, Germany..
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    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
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    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
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    Univ Savoie Mont Blanc, Lab Annecy le Vieux Phys Particules, CNRS, IN2P3, F-74941 Annecy Le Vieux, France..
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    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
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    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
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    Univ Paris Diderot, Observ Paris, IN2P3, CNRS,APC,CEA Irfu,AstroParticule & Cosmol,Sorbonn, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
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    Univ Bordeaux, Ctr Etud Nucl Bordeaux Gradignan, CNRS, IN2P3, F-33175 Gradignan, France..
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    UPMC Univ Paris 06, Univ Paris Diderot, LPNHE, Sorbonne Univ,CNRS,Sorbonne Paris Cite, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris 5, France..
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    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany..
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    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Lorentz, M.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Lopez-Coto, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Lypova, I
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
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    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
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    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, CC72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Mariaud, C.
    Ecole Polytech, Lab Leprince Ringuet, CNRS, IN2P3, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Marti-Devesa, G.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Marx, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Maurin, G.
    Univ Savoie Mont Blanc, Lab Annecy le Vieux Phys Particules, CNRS, IN2P3, F-74941 Annecy Le Vieux, France..
    Meintjes, P. J.
    Univ Free State, Dept Phys, POB 339, ZA-9300 Bloemfontein, South Africa..
    Mitchell, A. M. W.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
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    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
    Mohamed, M.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
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    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
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    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
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    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
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    RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 3510198, Japan..
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    Ecole Polytech, Lab Leprince Ringuet, CNRS, IN2P3, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
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    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
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    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
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    Inst Fizyki Jadrowej PAN, Ul Radzikowskiego 152, PL-31342 Krakow, Poland..
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    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
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    Univ Leicester, Dept Phys & Astron, Univ Rd, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, England..
    Odaka, H.
    Univ Tokyo, Dept Phys, Bunkyo Ku, 7-3-1 Hongo, Tokyo 1130033, Japan..
    Ohm, S.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
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    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astronomiczne, Ul Orla 171, PL-30244 Krakow, Poland..
    Oya, I
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
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    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, CC72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Panter, M.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
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    UPMC Univ Paris 06, Univ Paris Diderot, LPNHE, Sorbonne Univ,CNRS,Sorbonne Paris Cite, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris 5, France..
    Petrucci, P-O
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, IPAG, F-38000 Grenoble, France..
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    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Piel, Q.
    Univ Savoie Mont Blanc, Lab Annecy le Vieux Phys Particules, CNRS, IN2P3, F-74941 Annecy Le Vieux, France..
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    Univ Paris Diderot, Observ Paris, IN2P3, CNRS,APC,CEA Irfu,AstroParticule & Cosmol,Sorbonn, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
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    Univ Savoie Mont Blanc, Lab Annecy le Vieux Phys Particules, CNRS, IN2P3, F-74941 Annecy Le Vieux, France..
    Noel, A. Priyana
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astronomiczne, Ul Orla 171, PL-30244 Krakow, Poland..
    Prokhorov, D.
    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Prokoph, H.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Puehlhofer, G.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Punch, Michael
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för fysik och elektroteknik (IFE). Univ Paris Diderot, France.
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    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Raab, S.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Rauth, R.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Reimer, A.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Reimer, O.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
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    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, CC72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany.;ITA Univ Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Rinchiuso, L.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Romoli, C.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Rowell, G.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Rudak, B.
    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
    Ruiz-Velasco, E.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Sahakian, V
    Natl Acad Sci Republ Armenia, Marshall Baghramian Ave 24, Yerevan 0019, Armenia.;Yerevan Phys Inst, Yerevan 375036, Armenia..
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    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Toshima Ku, 3-34-1 Nishi Ikebukuro, Tokyo 1718501, Japan..
    Sanchez, D. A.
    Univ Savoie Mont Blanc, Lab Annecy le Vieux Phys Particules, CNRS, IN2P3, F-74941 Annecy Le Vieux, France..
    Santangelo, A.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Sasaki, M.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Schlickeiser, R.
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Inst Theoret Phys Lehrstuhl Weltraum & Astrophys, D-44780 Bochum, Germany..
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    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
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    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Schwanke, U.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Schwemmer, S.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Seglar-Arroyo, M.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Senniappan, Mohanraj
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för fysik och elektroteknik (IFE).
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    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
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    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Shilon, I
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Shiningayamwe, K.
    Univ Namibia, Dept Phys, Private Bag 13301, Windhoek, Namibia..
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    Univ Amsterdam, Anton Pannekoek Inst Astron, GRAPPA, Sci Pk 904, NL-1098 XH Amsterdam, Netherlands..
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    Univ Paris Diderot, Observ Paris, IN2P3, CNRS,APC,CEA Irfu,AstroParticule & Cosmol,Sorbonn, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
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    PSL Res Univ, CNRS, Univ Paris Diderot, LUTH,Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
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    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
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    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
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    Univ Paris Diderot, Observ Paris, IN2P3, CNRS,APC,CEA Irfu,AstroParticule & Cosmol,Sorbonn, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
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    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astronomiczne, Ul Orla 171, PL-30244 Krakow, Poland..
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    Univ Namibia, Dept Phys, Private Bag 13301, Windhoek, Namibia..
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    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.;Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany..
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    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany..
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    Univ Tokyo, Kavli IPMU, UTIAS, 5-1-5 Kashiwa No Ha, Kashiwa, Chiba 2778583, Japan..
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    UPMC Univ Paris 06, Univ Paris Diderot, LPNHE, Sorbonne Univ,CNRS,Sorbonne Paris Cite, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris 5, France..
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    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
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    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
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    Univ Paris Diderot, Observ Paris, IN2P3, CNRS,APC,CEA Irfu,AstroParticule & Cosmol,Sorbonn, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
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    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
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    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany..
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    Ecole Polytech, Lab Leprince Ringuet, CNRS, IN2P3, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
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    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Toshima Ku, 3-34-1 Nishi Ikebukuro, Tokyo 1718501, Japan..
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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
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    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Toshima Ku, 3-34-1 Nishi Ikebukuro, Tokyo 1718501, Japan..
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    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
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    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
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    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
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    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
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    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
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    UPMC Univ Paris 06, Univ Paris Diderot, LPNHE, Sorbonne Univ,CNRS,Sorbonne Paris Cite, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris 5, France..
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    Univ Amsterdam, Anton Pannekoek Inst Astron, GRAPPA, Sci Pk 904, NL-1098 XH Amsterdam, Netherlands..
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    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
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    Univ Savoie Mont Blanc, Lab Annecy le Vieux Phys Particules, CNRS, IN2P3, F-74941 Annecy Le Vieux, France..
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    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
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    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
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    Inst Fizyki Jadrowej PAN, Ul Radzikowskiego 152, PL-31342 Krakow, Poland..
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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
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    Ecole Polytech, Lab Leprince Ringuet, CNRS, IN2P3, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
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    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
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    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
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    PSL Res Univ, CNRS, Univ Paris Diderot, LUTH,Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
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    Ecole Polytech, Lab Leprince Ringuet, CNRS, IN2P3, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
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    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Zorn, J.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
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    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astronomiczne, Ul Orla 171, PL-30244 Krakow, Poland..
    The 2014TeV gamma-Ray Flare of Mrk 501 Seen with HESS: Temporal and Spectral Constraints on Lorentz Invariance Violation2019Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 870, nr 2, artikel-id 93Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The blazar Mrk 501 (z = 0.034) was observed at very-high-energy (VHE, E greater than or similar to 100 GeV) gamma-ray wavelengths during a bright flare on the night of 2014 June 23-24 (MJD 56832) with the H.E.S.S. phase-II array of Cherenkov telescopes. Data taken that night by H.E.S.S. at large zenith angle reveal an exceptional number of gamma-ray photons at multi-TeV energies, with rapid flux variability and an energy coverage extending significantly up to 20 TeV. This data set is used to constrain Lorentz invariance violation (LIV) using two independent channels: a temporal approach considers the possibility of an energy dependence in the arrival time of gamma-rays, whereas a spectral approach considers the possibility of modifications to the interaction of VHE gamma-rays with extragalactic background light (EBL) photons. The non-detection of energy-dependent time delays and the non-observation of deviations between the measured spectrum and that of a supposed power-law intrinsic spectrum with standard EBL attenuation are used independently to derive strong constraints on the energy scale of LIV (E-QG) in the subluminal scenario for linear and quadratic perturbations in the dispersion relation of photons. For the case of linear perturbations, the 95% confidence level limits obtained are E-QG,E-1 > 3.6 x 10(17) GeV using the temporal approach and E-QG,E-1 > 2.6 x 10(19) GeV using the spectral approach. For the case of quadratic perturbations, the limits obtained are E-QG,E-2 > 8.5 x 10(10) GeV using the temporal approach and E-QG,E-2 > 7.8 x 10(11) GeV using the spectral approach.

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    Ciprini, S.
    Claus, R.
    Cohen-Tanugi, J.
    Colafrancesco, S.
    Cominsky, L. R.
    Conrad, J.
    Costamante, L.
    Dermer, C. D.
    de Angelis, A.
    de Palma, F.
    Digel, S. W.
    Donato, D.
    Silva, E. D. E.
    Drell, P. S.
    Dubois, R.
    Dumora, D.
    Farnier, C.
    Favuzzi, C.
    Finke, J.
    Focke, W. B.
    Frailis, M.
    Fukazawa, Y.
    Funk, S.
    Fusco, P.
    Gargano, F.
    Georganopoulos, M.
    Germani, S.
    Giebels, B.
    Giglietto, N.
    Giordano, F.
    Glanzman, T.
    Grenier, I. A.
    Grondin, M. H.
    Grove, J. E.
    Guillemot, L.
    Guiriec, S.
    Hanabata, Y.
    Harding, A. K.
    Hartman, R. C.
    Hayashida, M.
    Hays, E.
    Hughes, R. E.
    Johannesson, G.
    Johnson, A. S.
    Johnson, R. P.
    Johnson, W. N.
    Kadler, M.
    Kamae, T.
    Kanai, Y.
    Katagiri, H.
    Kataoka, J.
    Kawai, N.
    Kerr, M.
    Knodlseder, J.
    Kuehn, F.
    Kuss, M.
    Latronico, L.
    Lemoine-Goumard, M.
    Longo, F.
    Loparco, F.
    Lott, B.
    Lovellette, M. N.
    Lubrano, P.
    Madejski, G. M.
    Makeev, A.
    Mazziotta, M. N.
    McEnery, J. E.
    Meurer, C.
    Michelson, P. F.
    Mitthumsiri, W.
    Mizuno, T.
    Moiseev, A.
    Monte, C.
    Monzani, M. E.
    Morselli, A.
    Moskalenko, I. V.
    Murgia, S.
    Nakamori, T.
    Nolan, L.
    Norris, J. P.
    Nuss, E.
    Ohsugi, T.
    Omodei, N.
    Orlando, E.
    Ormes, J. F.
    Paneque, D.
    Panetta, J. H.
    Parent, D.
    Pepe, M.
    Pesce-Rollins, M.
    Piron, F.
    Porter, T. A.
    Raino, S.
    Razzano, M.
    Reimer, A.
    Reimer, O.
    Reposeur, T.
    Ritz, S.
    Rodriguez, A. Y.
    Romani, R. W.
    Ryde, F.
    Sadrozinski, H. F. W.
    Sambruna, R.
    Sanchez, D.
    Sander, A.
    Sato, R.
    Parkinson, P. M. S.
    Sgro, C.
    Smith, D. A.
    Smith, P. D.
    Spandre, G.
    Spinelli, P.
    Starck, J. L.
    Strickman, M. S.
    Strong, A. W.
    Suson, D. J.
    Tajima, H.
    Takahashi, H.
    Takahashi, T.
    Tanaka, T.
    Taylor, G. B.
    Thayer, J. G.
    Thompson, D. J.
    Torres, D. F.
    Tosti, G.
    Uchiyama, Y.
    Usher, T. L.
    Vilchez, N.
    Vitale, V.
    Waite, A. P.
    Wood, K. S.
    Ylinen, T.
    Högskolan i Kalmar, Naturvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Ziegler, M.
    Aller, H. D.
    Aller, M. F.
    Kellermann, K. I.
    Kovalev, Y. Y.
    Kovalev, Y. A.
    Lister, M. L.
    Pushkarev, A. B.
    FERMI DISCOVERY OF GAMMA-RAY EMISSION FROM NGC 12752009Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 699, nr 1, s. 31-39Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We report the discovery of high-energy (E > 100 MeV) gamma-ray emission from NGC 1275, a giant elliptical galaxy lying at the center of the Perseus cluster of galaxies, based on observations made with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) of the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. The positional center of the gamma-ray source is only approximate to 3' away from the NGC 1275 nucleus, well within the 95% LAT error circle of approximate to 5'. The spatial distribution of gamma-ay photons is consistent with a point source. The average flux and power-law photon index measured with the LAT from 2008 August 4 to 2008 December 5 are F-gamma = (2.10 +/- 0.23) x 10(-7) ph (>100 MeV) cm(-2) s(-1) and Gamma = 2.17 +/- 0.05, respectively. The measurements are statistically consistent with constant flux during the four-month LAT observing period. Previous EGRET observations gave an upper limit of F-gamma < 3.72 x 10(-8) ph (>100 MeV) cm(-2) s(-1) to the gamma-ray flux from NGC 1275. This indicates that the source is variable on timescales of years to decades, and therefore restricts the fraction of emission that can be produced in extended regions of the galaxy cluster. Contemporaneous and historical radio observations are also reported. The broadband spectrum of NGC 1275 is modeled with a simple one-zone synchrotron/synchrotron self-Compton model and a model with a decelerating jet flow.

  • 5. Abdo, A. A.
    et al.
    Ackermann, M.
    Ajello, M.
    Atwoo, W. B.
    Baldini, L.
    Ballet, J.
    Barbiellini, G.
    Bastieri, D.
    Bechtol, K.
    Bellazzini, R.
    Berenji, B.
    Blandford, R. D.
    Bonamente, E.
    Borgland, A. W.
    Bottacini, E.
    Bouvier, A.
    Bregeon, J.
    Brigida, M.
    Bruel, P.
    Buehler, R.
    Buson, S.
    Caliandro, G. A.
    Cameron, R. A.
    Caraveo, P. A.
    Casandjian, J. M.
    Cecchi, C.
    Charles, E.
    Chekhtman, A.
    Chiang, J.
    Ciprini, S.
    Claus, R.
    Cohen-Tanugi, J.
    Conrad, J.
    Cutini, S.
    D’Ammando, F.
    de Angelis, A.
    de Palma, F.
    Dermer, C. D.
    Digel, S. W.
    Silva, E. d. C. e.
    Drell, P. S.
    Drlica-Wagner, A.
    Dubois, R.
    Favuzzi, C.
    Fegan, S. J.
    Focke, W. B.
    Fortin, P.
    Fukazawa, Y.
    Funk, S.
    Fusco, P.
    Gargano, F.
    Gehrels, N.
    Germani, S.
    Giglietto, N.
    Giommi, P.
    Giordano, F.
    Giroletti, M.
    Glanzman, T.
    Godfrey, G.
    Gomez-Vargas, G. A.
    Grenier, I. A.
    Grove, J. E.
    Guiriec, S.
    Hadasch, D.
    Hays, E.
    Hill, A. B.
    Horan, D.
    Hou, X.
    Hughes, R. E.
    Iafrate, G.
    Jackson, M. S.
    Jóhannesson, G.
    Johnson, A. S.
    Kamae, T.
    Katagiri, H.
    Kataoka, J.
    Knödlseder, J.
    Kuss, M.
    Lande, J.
    Larsson, S.
    Latronico, L.
    Lemoine-Goumard, M.
    Longo, F.
    Loparco, F.
    Lott, B.
    Lovellette, M. N.
    Lubrano, P.
    Mazziotta, M. N.
    McEnery, J. E.
    Mehault, J.
    Michelson, P. F.
    Mitthumsiri, W.
    Mizuno, T.
    Moiseev, A. A.
    Monte, C.
    Monzani, M. E.
    Morselli, A.
    Moskalenko, I. V.
    Murgia, S.
    Naumann-Godo, M.
    Nolan, P. L.
    Norris, J. P.
    Nuss, E.
    Ohno, M.
    Ohsugi, T.
    Okumura, A.
    Omodei, N.
    Orienti, M.
    Orlando, E.
    Ormes, J. F.
    Ozaki, M.
    Paneque, D.
    Panetta, J. H.
    Parent, D.
    Pesce-Rollins, M.
    Pierbattista, M.
    Piron, F.
    Pivato, G.
    Poon, H.
    Porter, T. A.
    Prokhorov, Dmitry
    Stanford Univ, USA.
    Rainò, S.
    Rando, R.
    Razzano, M.
    Razzaque, S.
    Reimer, A.
    Reimer, O.
    Reposeur, T.
    Rochester, L. S.
    Roth, M.
    Sadrozinski, H. F. -W
    Sanchez, D. A.
    Sbarra, C.
    Schalk, T. L.
    Sgrò, C.
    Share, G. H.
    Siskind, E. J.
    Spandre, G.
    Spinelli, P.
    Stawarz, \L.
    Takahashi, H.
    Tanaka, T.
    Thayer, J. G.
    Thayer, J. B.
    Thompson, D. J.
    Tibaldo, L.
    Tinivella, M.
    Torres, D. F.
    Tosti, G.
    Troja, E.
    Uchiyama, Y.
    Usher, T. L.
    Vandenbroucke, J.
    Vasileiou, V.
    Vianello, G.
    Vitale, V.
    Waite, A. P.
    Wang, P.
    Winer, B. L.
    Wood, D. L.
    Wood, K. S.
    Yang, Z.
    Zimmer, S.
    Fermi Observations of γ-Ray Emission from the Moon2012Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 758, nr 2, artikel-id 140Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We report on the detection of high-energy gamma-ray emission from the Moon during the first 24 months of observations by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). This emission comes from particle cascades produced by cosmic-ray (CR) nuclei and electrons interacting with the lunar surface. The differential spectrum of the Moon is soft and can be described as a log-parabolic function with an effective cutoff at 2-3 GeV, while the average integral flux measured with the LAT from the beginning of observations in 2008 August to the end of 2010 August is F(> 100 MeV) = (1.04 +/- 0.01 [statistical error] +/- 0.1 [systematic error]) x 10(-6) cm(-2) s(-1). This flux is about a factor 2-3 higher than that observed between 1991 and 1994 by the EGRET experiment on boardthe Compton Gamma Ray Observatory, F(> 100 MeV) approximate to 5 x 10(-7) cm-2 s-1, when solar activity was relatively high. The higher gamma-ray flux measured by Fermi is consistent with the deep solar minimum conditions during the first 24 months of the mission, which reduced effects of heliospheric modulation, and thus increased the heliospheric flux of Galactic CRs. A detailed comparison of the light curve with McMurdo Neutron Monitor rates suggests a correlation of the trends. The Moon and the Sun are so far the only known bright emitters of gamma-rays with fast celestial motion. Their paths across thesky are projected onto the Galactic center and high Galactic latitudes as well as onto other areas crowded with high-energy gamma-ray sources. Analysis ofthe lunar and solar emission may thus be important for studies of weak and transient sources near the ecliptic.

  • 6. Abdo, A. A.
    et al.
    Ackermann, M.
    Ajello, M.
    Atwood, W. B.
    Axelsson, M.
    Baldini, L.
    Ballet, J.
    Barbiellini, G.
    Baring, M. G.
    Bastieri, D.
    Baughman, B. M.
    Bechtol, K.
    Bellazzini, R.
    Berenji, B.
    Bloom, E. D.
    Bonamente, E.
    Borgland, A. W.
    Bregeon, J.
    Brez, A.
    Brigida, M.
    Bruel, P.
    Caliandro, G. A.
    Cameron, R. A.
    Camilo, F.
    Caraveo, P. A.
    Casandjian, J. M.
    Cecchi, C.
    Chekhtman, A.
    Cheung, C. C.
    Chiang, J.
    Ciprini, S.
    Claus, R.
    Cognard, I.
    Cohen-Tanugi, J.
    Conrad, J.
    de Angelis, A.
    de Palma, F.
    Dormody, M.
    Silva, E. D. E.
    Drell, P. S.
    Dubois, R.
    Dumora, D.
    Farnier, C.
    Favuzzi, C.
    Frailis, M.
    Freire, P. C. C.
    Fukazawa, Y.
    Funk, S.
    Fusco, P.
    Gargano, F.
    Gehrels, N.
    Germani, S.
    Giebels, B.
    Giglietto, N.
    Giordano, F.
    Glanzman, T.
    Godfrey, G.
    Grenier, I. A.
    Grondin, M. H.
    Grove, J. E.
    Guillemot, L.
    Guiriec, S.
    Halpern, J.
    Hanabata, Y.
    Harding, A. K.
    Hayashida, M.
    Hays, E.
    Hobbs, G.
    Hughes, R. E.
    Johannesson, G.
    Johnson, A. S.
    Johnson, R. P.
    Johnson, T. J.
    Johnson, W. N.
    Johnston, S.
    Kamae, T.
    Katagiri, H.
    Kataoka, J.
    Kawai, N.
    Kerr, M.
    Knodlseder, J.
    Kocian, M. L.
    Kramer, M.
    Kuehn, F.
    Kuss, M.
    Lande, J.
    Latronico, L.
    Lemoine-Goumard, M.
    Longo, F.
    Loparco, F.
    Lott, B.
    Lovellette, M. N.
    Lubrano, P.
    Lyne, A. G.
    Makeev, A.
    Manchester, R. N.
    Marelli, M.
    Mazziotta, M. N.
    McEnery, J. E.
    Meurer, C.
    Michelson, P. F.
    Mitthumsiri, W.
    Mizuno, T.
    Moiseev, A. A.
    Monte, C.
    Monzani, M. E.
    Morselli, A.
    Moskalenko, I. V.
    Murgia, S.
    Nolan, P. L.
    Norris, J. P.
    Noutsos, A.
    Nuss, E.
    Ohsugi, T.
    Omodei, N.
    Orlando, E.
    Ormes, J. F.
    Ozaki, M.
    Paneque, D.
    Panetta, J. H.
    Parent, D.
    Pepe, M.
    Pesce-Rollins, M.
    Piron, F.
    Porter, T. A.
    Raino, S.
    Rando, R.
    Ransom, S. M.
    Razzano, M.
    Reimer, A.
    Reimer, O.
    Reposeur, T.
    Rochester, L. S.
    Rodriguez, A. Y.
    Romani, R. W.
    Roth, M.
    Ryde, F.
    Sadrozinski, H. F. W.
    Sanchez, D.
    Sander, A.
    Parkinson, P. M. S.
    Scargle, J. D.
    Sgro, C.
    Siskind, E. J.
    Smith, D. A.
    Smith, P. D.
    Spandre, G.
    Spinelli, P.
    Stappers, B. W.
    Strickman, M. S.
    Suson, D. J.
    Tajima, H.
    Takahashi, H.
    Tanaka, T.
    Thayer, J. B.
    Thayer, J. G.
    Theureau, G.
    Thompson, D. J.
    Thorsett, S. E.
    Tibaldo, L.
    Torres, D. F.
    Tosti, G.
    Uchiyama, Y.
    Usher, T. L.
    Van Etten, A.
    Vilchez, N.
    Vitale, V.
    Waite, A. P.
    Wang, P.
    Wang, N.
    Watters, K.
    Weltevrede, P.
    Winer, B. L.
    Wood, K. S.
    Ylinen, T.
    Högskolan i Kalmar, Naturvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Ziegler, M.
    FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE DETECTION OF PULSED gamma-RAYS FROM THE VELA-LIKE PULSARS PSR J1048-5832 AND PSR J2229+61142009Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 706, nr 2, s. 1331-1340Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We report the detection of gamma-ray pulsations (>= 0.1GeV) from PSR J2229+ 6114 and PSR J1048-5832, the latter having been detected as a low-significance pulsar by EGRET. Data in the gamma-ray band were acquired by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) aboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, while the radio rotational ephemerides used to fold the gamma-ray light curves were obtained using the Green Bank Telescope, the Lovell telescope at Jodrell Bank, and the Parkes Telescope. The two young radio pulsars, located within the error circles of the previously unidentified EGRET sources 3EG J1048-5840 and 3EG J2227+6122, present spin-down characteristics similar to the Vela pulsar. PSR J1048-5832 shows two sharp peaks at phases 0.15 +/- 0.01 and 0.57 +/- 0.01 relative to the radio pulse confirming the EGRET light curve, while PSR J2229+ 6114 presents a very broad peak at phase 0.49 +/- 0.01. The gamma-ray spectra above 0.1 GeV of both pulsars are fit with power laws having exponential cutoffs near 3 GeV, leading to integral photon fluxes of (2.19 +/- 0.22 +/- 0.32) x 10(-7) cm(-2) s(-1) for PSR J1048-5832 and (3.77 +/- 0.22 +/- 0.44) x 10(-7) cm(-2) s(-1) for PSR J2229+6114. The first uncertainty is statistical and the second is systematic. PSR J1048-5832 is one of the two LAT sources whichwere entangled together as 3EG J1048-5840. These detections add to the growing number of young gamma-ray pulsars that make up the dominant population of GeV gamma-ray sources in the Galactic plane.

  • 7. Abdo, A. A.
    et al.
    Ackermann, M.
    Ajello, M.
    Atwood, W. B.
    Axelsson, M.
    Baldini, L.
    Ballet, J.
    Barbiellini, G.
    Baring, M. G.
    Bastieri, D.
    Bechtol, K.
    Bellazzini, R.
    Berenji, B.
    Bloom, E. D.
    Bonamente, E.
    Borgland, A. W.
    Bregeon, J.
    Brez, A.
    Brigida, M.
    Bruel, P.
    Burnett, T. H.
    Caliandro, G. A.
    Cameron, R. A.
    Caraveo, P. A.
    Casandjian, J. M.
    Cavazzuti, E.
    Cecchi, C.
    Celik, O.
    Chekhtman, A.
    Cheung, C. C.
    Chiang, J.
    Ciprini, S.
    Claus, R.
    Cohen-Tanugi, J.
    Cominsky, L. R.
    Conrad, J.
    Cutini, S.
    de Angelis, A.
    de Palma, F.
    di Bernardo, G.
    Silva, E. D. E.
    Drell, P. S.
    Drlica-Wagner, A.
    Dubois, R.
    Dumora, D.
    Farnier, C.
    Favuzzi, C.
    Fegan, S. J.
    Finke, J.
    Focke, W. B.
    Fortin, P.
    Foschini, L.
    Frailis, M.
    Fukazawa, Y.
    Funk, S.
    Fusco, P.
    Gargano, F.
    Gasparrini, D.
    Gehrels, N.
    Germani, S.
    Giavitto, G.
    Giebels, B.
    Giglietto, N.
    Giommi, P.
    Giordano, F.
    Glanzman, T.
    Godfrey, G.
    Grenier, I. A.
    Grondin, M. H.
    Grove, J. E.
    Guillemot, L.
    Guiriec, S.
    Hanabata, Y.
    Hayashida, M.
    Hays, E.
    Horan, D.
    Hughes, R. E.
    Jackson, M. S.
    Johannesson, G.
    Johnson, A. S.
    Johnson, R. P.
    Johnson, W. N.
    Kamae, T.
    Katagiri, H.
    Kataoka, J.
    Kawai, N.
    Kerr, M.
    Knodlseder, J.
    Kocian, M. L.
    Kuss, M.
    Lande, J.
    Latronico, L.
    Lemoine-Goumard, M.
    Longo, F.
    Loparco, F.
    Lott, B.
    Lovellette, M. N.
    Lubrano, P.
    Madejski, G. M.
    Makeev, A.
    Mazziotta, M. N.
    McConville, W.
    McEnery, J. E.
    Meurer, C.
    Michelson, P. F.
    Mitthumsiri, W.
    Mizuno, T.
    Moiseev, A. A.
    Monte, C.
    Monzani, M. E.
    Morselli, A.
    Moskalenko, I. V.
    Murgia, S.
    Nolan, P. L.
    Norris, J. P.
    Nuss, E.
    Ohsugi, T.
    Omodei, N.
    Orlando, E.
    Ormes, J. F.
    Ozaki, M.
    Paneque, D.
    Panetta, J. H.
    Parent, D.
    Pelassa, V.
    Pepe, M.
    Pesce-Rollins, M.
    Piron, F.
    Porter, T. A.
    Raino, S.
    Rando, R.
    Razzano, M.
    Reimer, A.
    Reimer, O.
    Reposeur, T.
    Reyes, L. C.
    Ritz, S.
    Rochester, L. S.
    Rodriguez, A. Y.
    Roth, M.
    Ryde, F.
    Sadrozinski, H. F. W.
    Sanchez, D.
    Sander, A.
    Parkinson, P. M. S.
    Scargle, J. D.
    Schalk, T. L.
    Sellerholm, A.
    Sgro, C.
    Shaw, M. S.
    Siskind, E. J.
    Smith, D. A.
    Smith, P. D.
    Spandre, G.
    Spinelli, P.
    Strickman, M. S.
    Suson, D. J.
    Tajima, H.
    Takahashi, H.
    Takahashi, T.
    Tanaka, T.
    Tanaka, Y.
    Thayer, J. B.
    Thayer, J. G.
    Thompson, D. J.
    Tibaldo, L.
    Torres, D. F.
    Tosti, G.
    Tramacere, A.
    Uchiyama, Y.
    Usher, T. L.
    Vasileiou, V.
    Vilchez, N.
    Vitale, V.
    Waite, A. P.
    Wang, P.
    Winer, B. L.
    Wood, K. S.
    Ylinen, T.
    Högskolan i Kalmar, Naturvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Ziegler, M.
    FERMI OBSERVATIONS OF TeV-SELECTED ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI2009Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 707, nr 2, s. 1310-1333Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We report on observations of TeV-selected active galactic nuclei (AGNs) made during the first 5.5 months of observations with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on-board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi). In total, 96 AGNs were selected for study, each being either (1) a source detected at TeV energies (28 sources) or (2) an object that has been studied with TeV instruments and for which an upper limit has been reported (68 objects). The Fermi observations show clear detections of 38 of these TeV-selected objects, of which 21 are joint GeV-TeV sources, and 29 were not in the third EGRET catalog. For each of the 38 Fermi-detected sources, spectra and light curves are presented. Most can be described with a power law of spectral index harder than 2.0, with a spectral break generally required to accommodate the TeV measurements. Based on an extrapolation of the Fermi spectrum, we identify sources, not previously detected at TeV energies, which are promising targets for TeV instruments. Evidence for systematic evolution of the gamma-ray spectrum with redshift is presented and discussed in the context of interaction with the extragalactic background light.

  • 8. Abdo, A. A.
    et al.
    Ackermann, M.
    Ajello, M.
    Atwood, W. B.
    Axelsson, M.
    Baldini, L.
    Ballet, J.
    Barbiellini, G.
    Bastieri, D.
    Battelino, M.
    Baughman, B. M.
    Bechtol, K.
    Bellazzini, R.
    Berenji, B.
    Blandford, R. D.
    Bloom, E. D.
    Bonamente, E.
    Borgland, A. W.
    Bouvier, A.
    Bregeon, J.
    Brez, A.
    Brigida, M.
    Bruel, P.
    Burnett, T. H.
    Caliandro, G. A.
    Cameron, R. A.
    Caraveo, P. A.
    Casandjian, J. M.
    Cavazzuti, E.
    Cecchi, C.
    Charles, E.
    Chaty, S.
    Chekhtman, A.
    Cheung, C. C.
    Chiang, J.
    Ciprini, S.
    Claus, R.
    Cohen-Tanugi, J.
    Cominsky, L. R.
    Conrad, J.
    Costamante, L.
    Cutini, S.
    Dermer, C. D.
    de Angelis, A.
    de Palma, F.
    Digel, S. W.
    Silva, E. D. E.
    Donato, D.
    Drell, P. S.
    Dubois, R.
    Dumora, D.
    Farnier, C.
    Favuzzi, C.
    Focke, W. B.
    Foschini, L.
    Frailis, M.
    Fuhrmann, L.
    Fukazawa, Y.
    Funk, S.
    Fusco, P.
    Gargano, F.
    Gasparrini, D.
    Gehrels, N.
    Germani, S.
    Giebels, B.
    Giglietto, N.
    Giommi, P.
    Giordano, F.
    Glanzman, T.
    Godfrey, G.
    Grenier, I. A.
    Grondin, M. H.
    Grove, J. E.
    Guillemot, L.
    Guiriec, S.
    Hanabata, Y.
    Harding, A. K.
    Hartman, R. C.
    Hayashida, M.
    Hays, E.
    Hughes, R. E.
    Johannesson, G.
    Johnson, A. S.
    Johnson, R. P.
    Johnson, W. N.
    Kamae, T.
    Katagiri, H.
    Kataoka, J.
    Kawai, N.
    Kerr, M.
    Knodlseder, J.
    Kocian, M. L.
    Kuehn, F.
    Kuss, M.
    Latronico, L.
    Lee, S. H.
    Lemoine-Goumard, M.
    Longo, F.
    Loparco, F.
    Lott, B.
    Lovellette, M. N.
    Lubrano, P.
    Madejski, G. M.
    Makeev, A.
    Massaro, E.
    Mazziotta, M. N.
    McEnery, J. E.
    McGlynn, S.
    Meurer, C.
    Michelson, P. F.
    Mitthumsiri, W.
    Mizuno, T.
    Moiseev, A. A.
    Monte, C.
    Monzani, M. E.
    Morselli, A.
    Moskalenko, I. V.
    Murgia, S.
    Nolan, P. L.
    Norris, J. P.
    Nuss, E.
    Ohsugi, T.
    Omodei, N.
    Orlando, E.
    Ormes, J. F.
    Paneque, D.
    Panetta, J. H.
    Parent, D.
    Pelassa, V.
    Pepe, M.
    Pesce-Rollins, M.
    Piron, F.
    Porter, T. A.
    Raino, S.
    Rando, R.
    Razzano, M.
    Reimer, A.
    Reimer, O.
    Reposeur, T.
    Reyes, L. C.
    Ritz, S.
    Rochester, L. S.
    Rodriguez, A. Y.
    Rahoui, F.
    Ryde, F.
    Sadrozinski, H. F. W.
    Sambruna, R.
    Sanchez, D.
    Sander, A.
    Parkinson, P. M. S.
    Sgro, C.
    Shaw, M. S.
    Smith, D. A.
    Smith, P. D.
    Spandre, G.
    Spinelli, P.
    Starck, J. L.
    Strickman, M. S.
    Suson, D. J.
    Tajima, H.
    Takahashi, H.
    Takahashi, T.
    Tanaka, T.
    Thayer, J. B.
    Thayer, J. G.
    Thompson, D. J.
    Tibaldo, L.
    Torres, D. F.
    Tosti, G.
    Tramacere, A.
    Uchiyama, Y.
    Usher, T. L.
    Vilchez, N.
    Villata, M.
    Vitale, V.
    Waite, A. P.
    Winer, B. L.
    Wood, K. S.
    Ylinen, T.
    Högskolan i Kalmar, Naturvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Zensus, J. A.
    Ziegler, M.
    EARLY FERMI GAMMA-RAY SPACE TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS OF THE QUASAR 3C 454.32009Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 699, nr 1, s. 817-823Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This is the first report of Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope observations of the quasar 3C 454.3, which has been undergoing pronounced long-term outbursts since 2000. The data from the Large Area Telescope, covering 2008 July 7-October 6, indicate strong, highly variable.-ray emission with an average flux of similar to 3 x 10 (6) photons cm(-2) s(-1), for energies > 100 MeV. The gamma-ray flux is variable, with strong, distinct, symmetrically shaped flares for which the flux increases by a factor of several on a timescale of about 3 days. This variability indicates a compact emission region, and the requirement that the source is optically thin to pair production implies relativistic beaming with Doppler factor delta > 8, consistent with the values inferred from Very Long Baseline Interferometry observations of superluminal expansion (delta similar to 25). The observed gamma-ray spectrum is not consistent with a simple power law, but instead steepens strongly above similar to 2 GeV, and is well described by a broken power law with photon indices of similar to 2.3 and similar to 3.5 below and above the break, respectively. This is the first direct observation of a break in the spectrum of a high-luminosity blazar above 100 MeV, and it is likely direct evidence for an intrinsic break in the energy distribution of the radiating particles. Alternatively, the spectral softening above 2 GeV could be due to gamma-ray absorption via photon-photon pair production on the soft X-ray photon field of the host active galactic nucleus, but such an interpretation would require the dissipation region to be located very close (less than or similar to 100 gravitational radii) to the black hole, which would be inconsistent with the X-ray spectrum of the source.

  • 9. Abdo, A. A.
    et al.
    Ackermann, M.
    Ajello, M.
    Atwood, W. B.
    Axelsson, M.
    Baldini, L.
    Ballet, J.
    Barbiellini, G.
    Bastieri, D.
    Baughman, B. M.
    Bechtol, K.
    Bellazzini, R.
    Berenji, B.
    Bloom, E. D.
    Bonamente, E.
    Borgland, A. W.
    Bregeon, J.
    Brez, A.
    Brigida, M.
    Bruel, P.
    Burnett, T. H.
    Caliandro, G. A.
    Cameron, R. A.
    Caraveo, P. A.
    Carlson, P.
    Casandjian, J. M.
    Cecchi, C.
    Celik, O.
    Chekhtman, A.
    Cheung, C. C.
    Ciprini, S.
    Claus, R.
    Cohen-Tanugi, J.
    Conrad, J.
    Cutini, S.
    Dermer, C. D.
    de Angelis, A.
    de Palma, F.
    Digel, S. W.
    Silva, E. D. E.
    Drell, P. S.
    Dubois, R.
    Dumora, D.
    Farnier, C.
    Favuzzi, C.
    Fegan, S. J.
    Focke, W. B.
    Frailis, M.
    Fukazawa, Y.
    Funk, S.
    Fusco, P.
    Gargano, F.
    Gasparrini, D.
    Gehrels, N.
    Germani, S.
    Giebels, B.
    Giglietto, N.
    Giordano, F.
    Glanzman, T.
    Godfrey, G.
    Grenier, I. A.
    Grondin, M. H.
    Grove, J. E.
    Guillemot, L.
    Guiriec, S.
    Hanabata, Y.
    Harding, A. K.
    Hayashida, M.
    Hays, E.
    Hughes, R. E.
    Johannesson, G.
    Johnson, A. S.
    Johnson, R. P.
    Johnson, W. N.
    Kamae, T.
    Katagiri, H.
    Kawai, N.
    Kerr, M.
    Knodlseder, J.
    Kocian, M. L.
    Kuehn, F.
    Kuss, M.
    Lande, J.
    Latronico, L.
    Lemoine-Goumard, M.
    Longo, F.
    Loparco, F.
    Lott, B.
    Lovellette, M. N.
    Lubrano, P.
    Makeev, A.
    Mazziotta, M. N.
    McEnery, J. E.
    Meurer, C.
    Michelson, P. F.
    Mitthumsiri, W.
    Mizuno, T.
    Moiseev, A. A.
    Monte, C.
    Monzani, M. E.
    Morselli, A.
    Moskalenko, I. V.
    Murgia, S.
    Nolan, P. L.
    Norris, J. P.
    Nuss, E.
    Ohsugi, T.
    Okumura, A.
    Omodei, N.
    Orlando, E.
    Ormes, J. F.
    Ozaki, M.
    Paneque, D.
    Panetta, J. H.
    Parent, D.
    Pepe, M.
    Pesce-Rollins, M.
    Piron, F.
    Pohl, M.
    Porter, T. A.
    Raino, S.
    Rando, R.
    Razzano, M.
    Reimer, A.
    Reimer, O.
    Reposeur, T.
    Ritz, S.
    Rochester, L. S.
    Rodriguez, A. Y.
    Ryde, F.
    Sadrozinski, H. F. W.
    Sanchez, D.
    Sander, A.
    Parkinson, P. M. S.
    Schalk, T. L.
    Sellerholm, A.
    Sgro, C.
    Smith, D. A.
    Smith, P. D.
    Spandre, G.
    Spinelli, P.
    Starck, J. L.
    Stecker, F. W.
    Strickman, M. S.
    Strong, A. W.
    Suson, D. J.
    Tajima, H.
    Takahashi, H.
    Takahashi, T.
    Tanaka, T.
    Thayer, J. B.
    Thayer, J. G.
    Thompson, D. J.
    Tibaldo, L.
    Torres, D. F.
    Tosti, G.
    Tramacere, A.
    Uchiyama, Y.
    Usher, T. L.
    Vasileiou, V.
    Vilchez, N.
    Vitale, V.
    Waite, A. P.
    Wang, P.
    Winer, B. L.
    Wood, K. S.
    Ylinen, T.
    Högskolan i Kalmar, Naturvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Ziegler, M.
    FERMI LAT OBSERVATION OF DIFFUSE GAMMA RAYS PRODUCED THROUGH INTERACTIONS BETWEEN LOCAL INTERSTELLAR MATTER AND HIGH-ENERGY COSMIC RAYS2009Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 703, nr 2, s. 1249-1256Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Observations by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi mission of diffuse gamma-rays in a mid-latitude region in the third quadrant (Galactic longitude l from 200 degrees to 260 degrees and latitude vertical bar b vertical bar from 22 degrees to 60 degrees) are reported. The region contains no known large molecular cloud and most of the atomic hydrogen is within 1 kpc of the solar system. The contributions of gamma-ray point sources and inverse Compton scattering are estimated and subtracted. The residual gamma-ray intensity exhibits a linear correlation with the atomic gas column density in energy from 100 MeV to 10 GeV. The measured integrated gamma-ray emissivity is (1.63 +/- 0.05) x 10(-26) photons s(-1)sr(-1) H-atom(-1) and (0.66 +/- 0.02) x 10(-26) photons s(-1)sr(-1) H-atom(-1) above 100 MeV and above 300 MeV, respectively, with an additional systematic error of similar to 10%. The differential emissivity from 100 MeV to 10 GeV agrees with calculations based on cosmic ray spectra consistent with those directly measured, at the 10% level. The results obtained indicate that cosmic ray nuclei spectra within 1 kpc from the solar system in regions studied are close to the local interstellar spectra inferred from direct measurements at the Earth within similar to 10%.

  • 10. Abdo, A. A.
    et al.
    Ackermann, M.
    Ajello, M.
    Atwood, W. B.
    Axelsson, M.
    Baldini, L.
    Ballet, J.
    Barbiellini, G.
    Bastieri, D.
    Baughman, B. M.
    Bechtol, K.
    Bellazzini, R.
    Blandford, R. D.
    Bloom, E. D.
    Bonamente, E.
    Borgland, A. W.
    Bouvier, A.
    Bregeon, J.
    Brez, A.
    Brigida, M.
    Bruel, P.
    Burnett, T. H.
    Caliandro, G. A.
    Cameron, R. A.
    Caraveo, P. A.
    Casandjian, J. M.
    Cavazzuti, E.
    Cecchi, C.
    Charles, E.
    Chekhtman, A.
    Chen, A. W.
    Cheung, C. C.
    Chiang, J.
    Ciprini, S.
    Claus, R.
    Cohen-Tanugi, J.
    Colafrancesco, S.
    Collmar, W.
    Cominsky, L. R.
    Conrad, J.
    Costamante, L.
    Cutini, S.
    Dermer, C. D.
    de Angelis, A.
    de Palma, F.
    Digel, S. W.
    Silva, E. D. E.
    Drell, P. S.
    Dubois, R.
    Dumora, D.
    Farnier, C.
    Favuzzi, C.
    Fegan, S. J.
    Ferrara, E. C.
    Finke, J.
    Focke, W. B.
    Foschini, L.
    Frailis, M.
    Fuhrmann, L.
    Fukazawa, Y.
    Funk, S.
    Fusco, P.
    Gargano, F.
    Gasparrini, D.
    Gehrels, N.
    Germani, S.
    Giebels, B.
    Giglietto, N.
    Giommi, P.
    Giordano, F.
    Giroletti, M.
    Glanzman, T.
    Godfrey, G.
    Grenier, I. A.
    Grondin, M. H.
    Grove, J. E.
    Guillemot, L.
    Guiriec, S.
    Hanabata, Y.
    Harding, A. K.
    Hartman, R. C.
    Hayashida, M.
    Hays, E.
    Healey, S. E.
    Horan, D.
    Hughes, R. E.
    Johannesson, G.
    Johnson, A. S.
    Johnson, R. P.
    Johnson, T. J.
    Johnson, W. N.
    Kadler, M.
    Kamae, T.
    Katagiri, H.
    Kataoka, J.
    Kerr, M.
    Knodlseder, J.
    Kocian, M. L.
    Kuehn, F.
    Kuss, M.
    Lande, J.
    Latronico, L.
    Lemoine-Goumard, M.
    Longo, F.
    Loparco, F.
    Lott, B.
    Lovellette, M. N.
    Lubrano, P.
    Madejski, G. M.
    Makeev, A.
    Massaro, E.
    Mazziotta, M. N.
    McConville, W.
    McEnery, J. E.
    McGlynn, S.
    Meurer, C.
    Michelson, P. F.
    Mitthumsiri, W.
    Mizuno, T.
    Moiseev, A. A.
    Monte, C.
    Monzani, M. E.
    Moretti, E.
    Morselli, A.
    Moskalenko, I. V.
    Murgia, S.
    Nolan, P. L.
    Norris, J. P.
    Nuss, E.
    Ohsugi, T.
    Omodei, N.
    Orlando, E.
    Ormes, J. F.
    Ozaki, M.
    Paneque, D.
    Panetta, J. H.
    Parent, D.
    Pelassa, V.
    Pepe, M.
    Pesce-Rollins, M.
    Piron, F.
    Porter, T. A.
    Raino, S.
    Rando, R.
    Razzano, M.
    Razzaque, S.
    Reimer, A.
    Reimer, O.
    Reposeur, T.
    Reyes, L. C.
    Ritz, S.
    Rochester, L. S.
    Rodriguez, A. Y.
    Romani, R. W.
    Ryde, F.
    Sadrozinski, H. F. W.
    Sanchez, D.
    Sander, A.
    Parkinson, P. M. S.
    Scargle, J. D.
    Schalk, T. L.
    Sellerholm, A.
    Sgro, C.
    Shaw, M. S.
    Smith, D. A.
    Smith, P. D.
    Spandre, G.
    Spinelli, P.
    Starck, J. L.
    Strickman, M. S.
    Suson, D. J.
    Tajima, H.
    Takahashi, H.
    Takahashi, T.
    Tanaka, T.
    Taylor, G. B.
    Thayer, J. B.
    Thayer, J. G.
    Thompson, D. J.
    Tibaldo, L.
    Torres, D. F.
    Tosti, G.
    Tramacere, A.
    Uchiyama, Y.
    Usher, T. L.
    Vilchez, N.
    Villata, M.
    Vitale, V.
    Waite, A. P.
    Winer, B. L.
    Wood, K. S.
    Ylinen, T.
    Högskolan i Kalmar, Naturvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Ziegler, M.
    BRIGHT ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI SOURCE LIST FROM THE FIRST THREE MONTHS OF THE FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE ALL-SKY SURVEY2009Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 700, nr 1, s. 597-622Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The first three months of sky-survey operation with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) onboard the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope reveal 132 bright sources at |b| > 10 degrees with test statistic greater than 100 ( corresponding to about 10 sigma). Two methods, based on the CGRaBS, CRATES, and BZCat catalogs, indicate high-confidence associations of 106 of these sources with known active galactic nuclei (AGNs). This sample is referred to as the LAT Bright AGN Sample (LBAS). It contains two radio galaxies, namely, Centaurus A and NGC 1275, and 104 blazars consisting of 58 flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs), 42 BL Lac objects, and 4 blazars with unknown classification. Four new blazars were discovered on the basis of the LAT detections. Remarkably, the LBAS includes 10 high-energy-peaked BL Lacs (HBLs), sources which were previously difficult to detect in the GeV range. Another 10 lower-confidence associations are found. Only 33 of the sources, plus two at |b| < 10 degrees, were previously detected with Energetic Gamma-Ray Experiment Telescope( EGRET), probably due to variability. The analysis of the gamma-ray properties of the LBAS sources reveals that the average GeV spectra of BL Lac objects are significantly harder than the spectra of FSRQs. No significant correlation between radio and peak gamma-ray fluxes is observed. Blazar log N-log S distributions and luminosity functions are constructed to investigate the evolution of the different blazar classes, with positive evolution indicated for FSRQs but none for BL Lacs. The contribution of LAT blazars to the total extragalactic gamma-ray intensity is estimated.

  • 11. Abdo, A. A.
    et al.
    Ackermann, M.
    Ajello, M.
    Atwood, W. B.
    Axelsson, M.
    Baldini, L.
    Ballet, J.
    Barbiellini, G.
    Bastieri, D.
    Bechtol, K.
    Bellazzini, R.
    Berenji, B.
    Blandford, R. D.
    Bloom, E. D.
    Bonamente, E.
    Borgland, A. W.
    Bregeon, J.
    Brez, A.
    Brigida, M.
    Bruel, P.
    Burnett, T. H.
    Caliandro, G. A.
    Cameron, R. A.
    Cannon, A.
    Caraveo, P. A.
    Casandjian, J. M.
    Cavazzuti, E.
    Cecchi, C.
    Celik, O.
    Charles, E.
    Cheung, C. C.
    Chiang, J.
    Ciprini, S.
    Claus, R.
    Cohen-Tanugi, J.
    Colafrancesco, S.
    Conrad, J.
    Costamante, L.
    Cutini, S.
    Davis, D. S.
    Dermer, C. D.
    de Angelis, A.
    de Palma, F.
    Digel, S. W.
    Donato, D.
    Silva, E. D. E.
    Drell, P. S.
    Dubois, R.
    Dumora, D.
    Edmonds, Y.
    Farnier, C.
    Favuzzi, C.
    Fegan, S. J.
    Finke, J.
    Focke, W. B.
    Fortin, P.
    Frailis, M.
    Fukazawa, Y.
    Funk, S.
    Fusco, P.
    Gargano, F.
    Gasparrini, D.
    Gehrels, N.
    Georganopoulos, M.
    Germani, S.
    Giebels, B.
    Giglietto, N.
    Giommi, P.
    Giordano, F.
    Giroletti, M.
    Glanzman, T.
    Godfrey, G.
    Grenier, I. A.
    Grondin, M. H.
    Grove, J. E.
    Guillemot, L.
    Guiriec, S.
    Hanabata, Y.
    Harding, A. K.
    Hayashida, M.
    Hays, E.
    Horan, D.
    Johannesson, G.
    Johnson, A. S.
    Johnson, R. P.
    Johnson, T. J.
    Johnson, W. N.
    Kamae, T.
    Katagiri, H.
    Kataoka, J.
    Kawai, N.
    Kerr, M.
    Knodlseder, J.
    Kocian, M. L.
    Kuss, M.
    Lande, J.
    Latronico, L.
    Lemoine-Goumard, M.
    Longo, F.
    Loparco, F.
    Lott, B.
    Lovellette, M. N.
    Lubrano, P.
    Madejski, G. M.
    Makeev, A.
    Mazziotta, M. N.
    McConville, W.
    McEnery, J. E.
    Meurer, C.
    Michelson, P. F.
    Mitthumsiri, W.
    Mizuno, T.
    Moiseev, A. A.
    Monte, C.
    Monzani, M. E.
    Morselli, A.
    Moskalenko, I. V.
    Murgia, S.
    Nolan, P. L.
    Norris, J. P.
    Nuss, E.
    Ohsugi, T.
    Omodei, N.
    Orlando, E.
    Ormes, J. F.
    Ozaki, M.
    Paneque, D.
    Panetta, J. H.
    Parent, D.
    Pelassa, V.
    Pepe, M.
    Pesce-Rollins, M.
    Piron, F.
    Porter, T. A.
    Raino, S.
    Rando, R.
    Razzano, M.
    Reimer, A.
    Reimer, O.
    Reposeur, T.
    Ritz, S.
    Rochester, L. S.
    Rodriguez, A. Y.
    Romani, R. W.
    Roth, M.
    Ryde, F.
    Sadrozinski, H. F. W.
    Sambruna, R.
    Sanchez, D.
    Sander, A.
    Parkinson, P. M. S.
    Scargle, J. D.
    Sgro, C.
    Shaw, M. S.
    Smith, D. A.
    Smith, P. D.
    Spandre, G.
    Spinelli, P.
    Strickman, M. S.
    Suson, D. J.
    Tajima, H.
    Takahashi, H.
    Tanaka, T.
    Taylor, G. B.
    Thayer, J. B.
    Thompson, D. J.
    Tibaldo, L.
    Torres, D. F.
    Tosti, G.
    Tramacere, A.
    Uchiyama, Y.
    Usher, T. L.
    Vasileiou, V.
    Vilchez, N.
    Waite, A. P.
    Wang, P.
    Winer, B. L.
    Wood, K. S.
    Ylinen, T.
    Högskolan i Kalmar, Naturvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Ziegler, M.
    Harris, D. E.
    Massaro, F.
    Stawarz, L.
    FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE GAMMA-RAY DETECTION OF THE RADIO GALAXY M872009Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 707, nr 1, s. 55-60Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We report the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) discovery of high-energy (MeV/GeV) gamma-ray emission positionally consistent with the center of the radio galaxy M87, at a source significance of over 10 sigma in 10 months of all-sky survey data. Following the detections of Cen A and Per A, this makes M87 the third radio galaxy seen with the LAT. The faint point-like gamma-ray source has a >100 MeV flux of 2.45 (+/-0.63) x 10(-8) photons cm(-2) s(-1) (photon index = 2.26 +/- 0.13) with no significant variability detected within the LAT observation. This flux is comparable with the previous EGRET upper limit (<2.18 x 10-8 photons cm(-2) s(-1), 2 sigma), thus there is no evidence for a significant MeV/GeV flare on decade timescales. Contemporaneous Chandra and Very Long Baseline Array data indicate low activity in the unresolved X-ray and radio core relative to previous observations, suggesting M87 is in a quiescent overall level over the first year of Fermi-LAT observations. The LAT gamma-ray spectrum is modeled as synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) emission from the electron population producing the radio-to-X-ray emission in the core. The resultant SSC spectrum extrapolates smoothly from the LAT band to the historical-minimum TeV emission. Alternative models for the core and possible contributions from the kiloparsec-scale jet in M87 are considered, and cannot be excluded.

  • 12. Abdo, A. A.
    et al.
    Ackermann, M.
    Ajello, M.
    Atwood, W. B.
    Baldini, L.
    Ballet, J.
    Barbiellini, G.
    Bastieri, D.
    Battelino, M.
    Baughman, B. M.
    Bechtol, K.
    Bellazzini, R.
    Berenji, B.
    Bloom, E. D.
    Bogaert, G.
    Borgland, A. W.
    Bregeon, J.
    Brez, A.
    Brigida, M.
    Bruel, P.
    Burnett, T. H.
    Caliandro, G. A.
    Cameron, R. A.
    Camilo, F.
    Caraveo, P. A.
    Casandjian, J. M.
    Cecchi, C.
    Charles, E.
    Chekhtman, A.
    Chen, A. W.
    Cheung, C. C.
    Chiang, J.
    Ciprini, S.
    Cognard, I.
    Cohen-Tanugi, J.
    Cominsky, L. R.
    Conrad, J.
    Cutini, S.
    Demorest, P.
    Dermer, C. D.
    de Angelis, A.
    de Luca, A.
    de Palma, F.
    Digel, S. W.
    Dormody, M.
    Silva, E. D. E.
    Drell, P. S.
    Dubois, R.
    Dumora, D.
    Espinoza, C.
    Farnier, C.
    Favuzzi, C.
    Focke, W. B.
    Frailis, M.
    Freire, P. C. C.
    Fukazawa, Y.
    Funk, S.
    Fusco, P.
    Gargano, F.
    Gasparrini, D.
    Gehrels, N.
    Germani, S.
    Giebels, B.
    Giglietto, N.
    Giordano, F.
    Glanzman, T.
    Godfrey, G.
    Grenier, I. A.
    Grondin, M. H.
    Grove, J. E.
    Guillemot, L.
    Guiriec, S.
    Hanabata, Y.
    Harding, A. K.
    Hayashida, M.
    Hays, E.
    Hughes, R. E.
    Johannesson, G.
    Johnson, A. S.
    Johnson, R. P.
    Johnson, T. J.
    Johnson, W. N.
    Johnston, S.
    Kamae, T.
    Katagiri, H.
    Kataoka, J.
    Kawai, N.
    Kerr, M.
    Kiziltan, B.
    Knodlseder, J.
    Komin, N.
    Kramer, M.
    Kuehn, F.
    Kuss, M.
    Lande, J.
    Latronico, L.
    Lee, S. H.
    Lemoine-Goumard, M.
    Longo, F.
    Loparco, F.
    Lott, B.
    Lovellette, M. N.
    Lubrano, P.
    Lyne, A. G.
    Makeev, A.
    Manchester, R. N.
    Marelli, M.
    Mazziotta, M. N.
    McConville, W.
    McEnery, J. E.
    McLaughlin, M. A.
    Meurer, C.
    Michelson, P. F.
    Mitthumsiri, W.
    Mizuno, T.
    Moiseev, A. A.
    Monte, C.
    Monzani, M. E.
    Morselli, A.
    Moskalenko, I. V.
    Murgia, S.
    Nolan, P. L.
    Noutsos, A.
    Nuss, E.
    Ohsugi, T.
    Omodei, N.
    Orlando, E.
    Ormes, J. F.
    Ozaki, M.
    Paneque, D.
    Panetta, J. H.
    Parent, D.
    Pepe, M.
    Pesce-Rollins, M.
    Piron, F.
    Porter, T. A.
    Raino, S.
    Rando, R.
    Ransom, S. M.
    Razzano, M.
    Reimer, A.
    Reimer, O.
    Reposeur, T.
    Ritz, S.
    Rochester, L. S.
    Rodriguez, A. Y.
    Romani, R. W.
    Ryde, F.
    Sadrozinski, H. F. W.
    Sanchez, D.
    Parkinson, P. M. S.
    Sgro, C.
    Sierpowska-Bartosik, A.
    Siskind, E. J.
    Smith, D. A.
    Smith, P. D.
    Spandre, G.
    Spinelli, P.
    Stappers, B. W.
    Starck, J. L.
    Strickman, M. S.
    Suson, D. J.
    Tajima, H.
    Takahashi, H.
    Takahashi, T.
    Tanaka, T.
    Thayer, J. B.
    Thayer, J. G.
    Theureau, G.
    Thompson, D. J.
    Thorsett, S. E.
    Tibaldo, L.
    Torres, D. F.
    Tosti, G.
    Tramacere, A.
    Uchiyama, Y.
    Usher, T. L.
    Van Etten, A.
    Vilchez, N.
    Vitale, V.
    Waite, A. P.
    Wallace, E.
    Watters, K.
    Weltevrede, P.
    Wood, K. S.
    Ylinen, T.
    Högskolan i Kalmar, Naturvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Ziegler, M.
    PULSED GAMMA-RAYS FROM PSR J2021+3651 WITH THE FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE2009Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 700, nr 2, s. 1059-1066Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We report the detection of pulsed gamma-rays from the young, spin-powered radio pulsar PSR J2021+3651 using data acquired with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (formerly GLAST). The light curve consists of two narrow peaks of similar amplitude separated by 0.468 +/- 0.002 in phase. The first peak lags the maximum of the 2 GHz radio pulse by 0.162 +/- 0.004 +/- 0.01 in phase. The integral gamma-ray photon flux above 100 MeV is (56 +/- 3 +/- 11) x 10(-8) cm(-2) s(-1). The photon spectrum is well described by an exponentially cut-off power law of the form dF/dE = kE(-Gamma)e((-E/Ec)), where the energy E is expressed in GeV. The photon index is Gamma = 1.5 +/- 0.1 +/- 0.1 and the exponential cut-off is E-c = 2.4 +/- 0.3 +/- 0.5 GeV. The first uncertainty is statistical and the second is systematic. The integral photon flux of the bridge is approximately 10% of the pulsed emission, and the upper limit on off-pulse gamma-ray emission from a putative pulsar wind nebula is < 10% of the pulsed emission at the 95% confidence level. Radio polarization measurements yield a rotation measure of RM = 524 +/- 4 rad m(-2) but a poorly constrained magnetic geometry. Re-analysis of Chandra X-ray Observatory data enhanced the significance of the weak X-ray pulsations, and the first peak is roughly phase aligned with the first gamma-ray peak. We discuss the emission region and beaming geometry based on the shape and spectrum of the gamma-ray light curve combined with radio and X-ray measurements, and the implications for the pulsar distance. Gamma-ray emission from the polar cap region seems unlikely for this pulsar.

  • 13. Abdo, A. A.
    et al.
    Ackermann, M.
    Ajello, M.
    Axelsson, M.
    Baldini, L.
    Ballet, J.
    Barbiellini, G.
    Bastieri, D.
    Battelino, M.
    Baughman, B. M.
    Bechtol, K.
    Bellazzini, R.
    Bloom, E. D.
    Bonamente, E.
    Borgland, A. W.
    Bregeon, J.
    Brez, A.
    Brigida, M.
    Bruel, P.
    Caliandro, G. A.
    Cameron, R. A.
    Caraveo, P. A.
    Casandjian, J. M.
    Cavazzuti, E.
    Cecchi, C.
    Chekhtman, A.
    Cheung, C. C.
    Chiang, J.
    Ciprini, S.
    Claus, R.
    Cohen-Tanugi, J.
    Collmar, W.
    Conrad, J.
    Costamante, L.
    Dermer, C. D.
    de Angelis, A.
    de Palma, F.
    Digel, S. W.
    Silva, E. D. E.
    Drell, P. S.
    Dubois, R.
    Dumora, D.
    Farnier, C.
    Favuzzi, C.
    Focke, W. B.
    Foschini, L.
    Frailis, M.
    Fuhrmann, L.
    Fukazawa, Y.
    Funk, S.
    Fusco, P.
    Gargano, F.
    Gehrels, N.
    Germani, S.
    Giebels, B.
    Giglietto, N.
    Giordano, F.
    Giroletti, M.
    Glanzman, T.
    Grenier, I. A.
    Grondin, M. H.
    Grove, J. E.
    Guillemot, L.
    Guiriec, S.
    Hanabata, Y.
    Harding, A. K.
    Hartman, R. C.
    Hayashida, M.
    Hays, E.
    Hughes, R. E.
    Johannesson, G.
    Johnson, A. S.
    Johnson, R. P.
    Johnson, W. N.
    Kamae, T.
    Katagiri, H.
    Kataoka, J.
    Kerr, M.
    Knodlseder, J.
    Kuehn, F.
    Kuss, M.
    Lande, J.
    Latronico, L.
    Lemoine-Goumard, M.
    Longo, F.
    Loparco, F.
    Lott, B.
    Lovellette, M. N.
    Lubrano, P.
    Madejski, G. M.
    Makeev, A.
    Max-Moerbeck, W.
    Mazziotta, M. N.
    McConville, W.
    McEnery, J. E.
    Meurer, C.
    Michelson, P. F.
    Mitthumsiri, W.
    Mizuno, T.
    Monte, C.
    Monzani, M. E.
    Morselli, A.
    Moskalenko, I. V.
    Murgia, S.
    Nolan, P. L.
    Norris, J. P.
    Nuss, E.
    Ohsugi, T.
    Omodei, N.
    Orlando, E.
    Ormes, J. F.
    Paneque, D.
    Panetta, J. H.
    Parent, D.
    Pavlidou, V.
    Pearson, T. J.
    Pepe, M.
    Pesce-Rollins, M.
    Piron, F.
    Porter, T. A.
    Raino, S.
    Rando, R.
    Razzano, M.
    Readhead, A.
    Reimer, A.
    Reimer, O.
    Reposeur, T.
    Richards, J. L.
    Ritz, S.
    Rodriguez, A. Y.
    Romani, R. W.
    Ryde, F.
    Sadrozinski, H. F. W.
    Sambruna, R.
    Sanchez, D.
    Sander, A.
    Parkinson, P. M. S.
    Scargle, J. D.
    Schalk, T. L.
    Sgro, C.
    Smith, D. A.
    Spandre, G.
    Spinelli, P.
    Starck, J. L.
    Stevenson, M.
    Strickman, M. S.
    Suson, D. J.
    Tagliaferri, G.
    Takahashi, H.
    Tanaka, T.
    Thayer, J. G.
    Thompson, D. J.
    Tibaldo, L.
    Tibolla, O.
    Torres, D. F.
    Tosti, G.
    Tramacere, A.
    Uchiyama, Y.
    Usher, T. L.
    Vilchez, N.
    Vitale, V.
    Waite, A. P.
    Winer, B. L.
    Wood, K. S.
    Ylinen, T.
    Högskolan i Kalmar, Naturvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Zensus, J. A.
    Ziegler, M.
    Ghisellini, G.
    Maraschi, L.
    Tavecchio, F.
    Angelakis, E.
    FERMI/LARGE AREA TELESCOPE DISCOVERY OF GAMMA-RAY EMISSION FROM A RELATIVISTIC JET IN THE NARROW-LINE QUASAR PMN J0948+00222009Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 699, nr 2, s. 976-984Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We report the discovery by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) onboard the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope of high-energy. gamma-ray emission from the peculiar quasar PMN J0948+0022 (z = 0.5846). The optical spectrum of this object exhibits rather narrow H beta (FWHM(H beta) similar to 1500 km s(-1)), weak forbidden lines, and is therefore classified as a narrow-line type I quasar. This class of objects is thought to have relatively small black hole mass and to accrete at a high Eddington ratio. The radio loudness and variability of the compact radio core indicate the presence of a relativistic jet. Quasi-simultaneous radio/optical/X-ray and gamma-ray observations are presented. Both radio and gamma-ray emissions (observed over five months) are strongly variable. The simultaneous optical and X-ray data from Swift show a blue continuum attributed to the accretion disk and a hard X-ray spectrum attributed to the jet. The resulting broadband spectral energy distribution (SED) and, in particular, the gamma-ray spectrum measured by Fermi are similar to those of more powerful Flat-Spectrum Radio Quasars (FSRQs). A comparison of the radio and gamma-ray characteristics of PMN J0948+0022 with the other blazars detected by LAT shows that this source has a relatively low radio and gamma-ray power with respect to other FSRQs. The physical parameters obtained from modeling the SED also fall at the low power end of the FSRQ parameter region discussed in Celotti & Ghisellini. We suggest that the similarity of the SED of PMN J0948+0022 to that of more massive and more powerful quasars can be understood in a scenario in which the SED properties depend on the Eddington ratio rather than on the absolute power.

  • 14. Abdo, A. A.
    et al.
    Ackermann, M.
    Ajello, M.
    Axelsson, M.
    Baldini, L.
    Ballet, J.
    Barbiellini, G.
    Bastieri, D.
    Baughman, B. M.
    Bechtol, K.
    Bellazzini, R.
    Berenji, B.
    Bloom, E. D.
    Bonamente, E.
    Borgland, A. W.
    Bregeon, J.
    Brez, A.
    Brigida, M.
    Bruel, P.
    Burnett, T. H.
    Caliandro, G. A.
    Cameron, R. A.
    Caraveo, P. A.
    Casandjian, J. M.
    Cavazzuti, E.
    Cecchi, C.
    Celik, O.
    Celotti, A.
    Chekhtman, A.
    Chiang, J.
    Ciprini, S.
    Claus, R.
    Cohen-Tanugi, J.
    Collmar, W.
    Conrad, J.
    Costamante, L.
    Cutini, S.
    de Angelis, A.
    de Palma, F.
    Silva, E. D. E.
    Drell, P. S.
    Dumora, D.
    Farnier, C.
    Favuzzi, C.
    Fegan, S. J.
    Focke, W. B.
    Fortin, P.
    Foschini, L.
    Frailis, M.
    Fuhrmann, L.
    Fukazawa, Y.
    Funk, S.
    Fusco, P.
    Gargano, F.
    Gehrels, N.
    Germani, S.
    Giglietto, N.
    Giordano, F.
    Giroletti, M.
    Glanzman, T.
    Godfrey, G.
    Grenier, I. A.
    Grove, J. E.
    Guillemot, L.
    Guiriec, S.
    Hanabata, Y.
    Hays, E.
    Hughes, R. E.
    Jackson, M. S.
    Johannesson, G.
    Johnson, A. S.
    Johnson, W. N.
    Kadler, M.
    Kamae, T.
    Katagiri, H.
    Kataoka, J.
    Kawai, N.
    Kerr, M.
    Knodlseder, J.
    Kocian, M. L.
    Kuss, M.
    Lande, J.
    Latronico, L.
    Longo, F.
    Loparco, F.
    Lott, B.
    Lovellette, M. N.
    Lubrano, P.
    Madejski, G. M.
    Makeev, A.
    Max-Moerbeck, W.
    Mazziotta, M. N.
    McConville, W.
    McEnery, J. E.
    McGlynn, S.
    Meurer, C.
    Michelson, P. F.
    Mitthumsiri, W.
    Mizuno, T.
    Moiseev, A. A.
    Monte, C.
    Monzani, M. E.
    Morselli, A.
    Moskalenko, I. V.
    Nestoras, I.
    Nolan, P. L.
    Norris, J. P.
    Nuss, E.
    Ohsugi, T.
    Omodei, N.
    Orlando, E.
    Ormes, J. F.
    Paneque, D.
    Parent, D.
    Pavlidou, V.
    Pelassa, V.
    Pepe, M.
    Pesce-Rollins, M.
    Piron, F.
    Porter, T. A.
    Raino, S.
    Rando, R.
    Razzano, M.
    Readhead, A.
    Reimer, O.
    Reposeur, T.
    Richards, J. L.
    Rodriguez, A. Y.
    Roth, M.
    Ryde, F.
    Sadrozinski, H. F. W.
    Sanchez, D.
    Sander, A.
    Parkinson, P. M. S.
    Scargle, J. D.
    Sgro, C.
    Shaw, M. S.
    Smith, P. D.
    Spandre, G.
    Spinelli, P.
    Strickman, M. S.
    Suson, D. J.
    Tagliaferri, G.
    Tajima, H.
    Takahashi, H.
    Tanaka, T.
    Thayer, J. B.
    Thayer, J. G.
    Thompson, D. J.
    Tibaldo, L.
    Tibolla, O.
    Torres, D. F.
    Tosti, G.
    Tramacere, A.
    Uchiyama, Y.
    Usher, T. L.
    Vasileiou, V.
    Vilchez, N.
    Vitale, V.
    Waite, A. P.
    Wang, P.
    Wehrle, A. E.
    Winer, B. L.
    Wood, K. S.
    Ylinen, T.
    Högskolan i Kalmar, Naturvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Zensus, J. A.
    Ziegler, M.
    Angelakis, E.
    Bailyn, C.
    Bignall, H.
    Blanchard, J.
    Bonning, E. W.
    Buxton, M.
    Canterna, R.
    Carraminana, A.
    Carrasco, L.
    Colomer, F.
    Doi, A.
    Ghisellini, G.
    Hauser, M.
    Hong, X.
    Isler, J.
    Kino, M.
    Kovalev, Y. Y.
    Kovalev, Y. A.
    Krichbaum, T. P.
    Kutyrev, A.
    Lahteenmaki, A.
    van Langevelde, H. J.
    Lister, M. L.
    Macomb, D.
    Maraschi, L.
    Marchili, N.
    Nagai, H.
    Paragi, Z.
    Phillips, C.
    Pushkarev, A. B.
    Recillas, E.
    Roming, P.
    Sekido, M.
    Stark, M. A.
    Szomoru, A.
    Tammi, J.
    Tavecchio, F.
    Tornikoski, M.
    Tzioumis, A. K.
    Urry, C. M.
    Wagner, S.
    MULTIWAVELENGTH MONITORING OF THE ENIGMATIC NARROW-LINE SEYFERT 1 PMN J0948+0022 IN 2009 MARCH-JULY2009Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 707, nr 1, s. 727-737Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Following the recent discovery of gamma rays from the radio-loud narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy PMN J0948+0022 (z = 0.5846), we started a multiwavelength campaign from radio to gamma rays, which was carried out between the end of 2009 March and the beginning of July. The source displayed activity at all the observed wavelengths: a general decreasing trend from optical to gamma-ray frequencies was followed by an increase of radio emission after less than two months from the peak of the gamma-ray emission. The largest flux change, about a factor of about 4, occurred in the X-ray band. The smallest was at ultraviolet and near-infrared frequencies, where the rate of the detected photons dropped by a factor 1.6-1.9. At optical wavelengths, where the sampling rate was the highest, it was possible to observe day scale variability, with flux variations up to a factor of about 3. The behavior of PMN J0948+0022 observed in this campaign and the calculated power carried out by its jet in the form of protons, electrons, radiation, and magnetic field are quite similar to that of blazars, specifically of flat-spectrum radio quasars. These results confirm the idea that radio-loud narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies host relativistic jets with power similar to that of average blazars.

  • 15. Abdo, A. A.
    et al.
    Ackermann, M.
    Asano, K.
    Atwood, W. B.
    Axelsson, M.
    Baldini, L.
    Ballet, J.
    Band, D. L.
    Barbiellini, G.
    Bastieri, D.
    Bechtol, K.
    Bellazzini, R.
    Berenji, B.
    Bhat, P. N.
    Bissaldi, E.
    Bloom, E. D.
    Bonamente, E.
    Borgland, A. W.
    Bouvier, A.
    Bregeon, J.
    Brez, A.
    Briggs, M. S.
    Brigida, M.
    Bruel, P.
    Burnett, T. H.
    Caliandro, G. A.
    Cameron, R. A.
    Caraveo, P. A.
    Casandjian, J. M.
    Cecchi, C.
    Chaplin, V.
    Chekhtman, A.
    Cheung, C. C.
    Chiang, J.
    Ciprini, S.
    Claus, R.
    Cohen-Tanugi, J.
    Cominsky, L. R.
    Connaughton, V.
    Conrad, J.
    Cutini, S.
    Dermer, C. D.
    de Angelis, A.
    de Palma, F.
    Digel, S. W.
    Silva, E. D. E.
    Drell, P. S.
    Dubois, R.
    Dumora, D.
    Farnier, C.
    Favuzzi, C.
    Focke, W. B.
    Frailis, M.
    Fukazawa, Y.
    Fusco, P.
    Gargano, F.
    Gasparrini, D.
    Gehrels, N.
    Germani, S.
    Gibby, L.
    Giebels, B.
    Giglietto, N.
    Giordano, F.
    Glanzman, T.
    Godfrey, G.
    Goldstein, A.
    Granot, J.
    Grenier, I. A.
    Grondin, M. H.
    Grove, J. E.
    Guillemot, L.
    Guiriec, S.
    Hanabata, Y.
    Harding, A. K.
    Hayashida, M.
    Hays, E.
    Hughes, R. E.
    Johannesson, G.
    Johnson, A. S.
    Johnson, W. N.
    Kamae, T.
    Katagiri, H.
    Kataoka, J.
    Kawai, N.
    Kerr, M.
    Knodlseder, J.
    Kocevski, D.
    Komin, N.
    Kouveliotou, C.
    Kuehn, F.
    Kuss, M.
    Latronico, L.
    Longo, F.
    Loparco, F.
    Lott, B.
    Lovellette, M. N.
    Lubrano, P.
    Makeev, A.
    Mazziotta, M. N.
    McBreen, S.
    McEnery, J. E.
    McGlynn, S.
    Meegan, C.
    Meurer, C.
    Michelson, P. F.
    Mitthumsiri, W.
    Mizuno, T.
    Monte, C.
    Monzani, M. E.
    Moretti, E.
    Morselli, A.
    Moskalenko, I. V.
    Murgia, S.
    Nakamori, T.
    Nolan, P. L.
    Norris, J. P.
    Nuss, E.
    Ohno, M.
    Ohsugi, T.
    Omodei, N.
    Orlando, E.
    Ormes, J. F.
    Ozaki, M.
    Paciesas, W. S.
    Paneque, D.
    Panetta, J. H.
    Parent, D.
    Pelassa, V.
    Pepe, M.
    Pesce-Rollins, M.
    Piron, F.
    Porter, T. A.
    Preece, R.
    Raino, S.
    Rando, R.
    Razzano, M.
    Razzaque, S.
    Reimer, O.
    Reposeur, T.
    Ritz, S.
    Rochester, L. S.
    Rodriguez, A. Y.
    Roth, M.
    Ryde, F.
    Sadrozinski, H. F. W.
    Sanchez, D.
    Sander, A.
    Parkinson, P. M. S.
    Scargle, J. D.
    Sgro, C.
    Siskind, E. J.
    Smith, D. A.
    Smith, P. D.
    Spandre, G.
    Spinelli, P.
    Stamatikos, M.
    Strickman, M. S.
    Suson, D. J.
    Tajima, H.
    Takahashi, H.
    Tanaka, T.
    Thayer, J. B.
    Thayer, J. G.
    Tibaldo, L.
    Torres, D. F.
    Tosti, G.
    Tramacere, A.
    Uchiyama, Y.
    Usher, T. L.
    van der Horst, A. J.
    Vasileiou, V.
    Vilchez, N.
    Vitale, V.
    von Kienlin, A.
    Waite, A. P.
    Wang, P.
    Wilson-Hodge, C.
    Winer, B. L.
    Wood, K. S.
    Ylinen, T.
    Högskolan i Kalmar, Naturvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Ziegler, M.
    FERMI OBSERVATIONS OF HIGH-ENERGY GAMMA-RAY EMISSION FROM GRB 080825C2009Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 707, nr 1, s. 580-592Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has opened a new high-energy window in the study of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Here we present a thorough analysis of GRB 080825C, which triggered the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM), and was the first firm detection of a GRB by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). We discuss the LAT event selections, background estimation, significance calculations, and localization for Fermi GRBs in general and GRB 080825C in particular. We show the results of temporal and time-resolved spectral analysis of the GBM and LAT data. We also present some theoretical interpretation of GRB 080825C observations as well as some common features observed in other LAT GRBs.

  • 16. Abdo, A. A.
    et al.
    Ackermann, M.
    Atwood, W. B.
    Axelsson, M.
    Baldini, L.
    Ballet, J.
    Barbiellini, G.
    Bastieri, D.
    Battelino, M.
    Baughman, B. M.
    Bechtol, K.
    Bellazzini, R.
    Berenji, B.
    Bloom, E. D.
    Bonamente, E.
    Borgland, A. W.
    Bregeon, J.
    Brez, A.
    Brigida, M.
    Bruel, P.
    Burnett, T. H.
    Caliandro, G. A.
    Cameron, R. A.
    Caraveo, P. A.
    Casandjian, J. M.
    Cecchi, C.
    Charles, E.
    Chekhtman, A.
    Cheung, C. C.
    Chiang, J.
    Ciprini, S.
    Claus, R.
    Cognard, I.
    Cohen-Tanugi, J.
    Cominsky, L. R.
    Conrad, J.
    Cutini, S.
    Dermer, C. D.
    De Angelis, A.
    De Palma, F.
    Digel, S. W.
    Dormody, M.
    Silva, E. D. E.
    Drell, P. S.
    Dubois, R.
    Dumora, D.
    Farnier, C.
    Favuzzi, C.
    Focke, W. B.
    Frailis, M.
    Fukazawa, Y.
    Funk, S.
    Fusco, P.
    Gargano, F.
    Gasparrini, D.
    Gehrels, N.
    Germani, S.
    Giebels, B.
    Giglietto, N.
    Giordano, F.
    Glanzman, T.
    Godfrey, G.
    Grenier, I. A.
    Grondin, M. H.
    Grove, J. E.
    Guillemot, L.
    Guiriec, S.
    Hanabata, Y.
    Harding, A. K.
    Hayashida, M.
    Hays, E.
    Hughes, R. E.
    Johannesson, G.
    Johnson, A. S.
    Johnson, R. P.
    Johnson, T. J.
    Johnson, W. N.
    Kamae, T.
    Katagiri, H.
    Kataoka, J.
    Kawai, N.
    Kerr, M.
    Knodlseder, J.
    Kocian, M. L.
    Komin, N.
    Kuehn, F.
    Kuss, M.
    Lande, J.
    Latronico, L.
    Lee, S. H.
    Lemoine-Goumard, M.
    Longo, F.
    Loparco, F.
    Lott, B.
    Lovellette, M. N.
    Lubrano, P.
    Madejski, G. M.
    Makeev, A.
    Marelli, M.
    Mazziotta, M. N.
    McConville, W.
    McEnery, J. E.
    Meurer, C.
    Michelson, P. F.
    Mitthumsiri, W.
    Mizuno, T.
    Moiseev, A. A.
    Monte, C.
    Monzani, M. E.
    Morselli, A.
    Moskalenko, I. V.
    Murgia, S.
    Nolan, P. L.
    Nuss, E.
    Ohsugi, T.
    Omodei, N.
    Orlando, E.
    Ormes, J. F.
    Pancrazi, B.
    Paneque, D.
    Panetta, J. H.
    Parent, D.
    Pepe, M.
    Pesce-Rollins, M.
    Piron, F.
    Porter, T. A.
    Raino, S.
    Rando, R.
    Razzano, M.
    Reimer, A.
    Reimer, O.
    Reposeur, T.
    Ritz, S.
    Rochester, L. S.
    Rodriguez, A. Y.
    Romani, R. W.
    Ryde, F.
    Sadrozinski, H. F. W.
    Sanchez, D.
    Sander, A.
    Parkinson, P. M. S.
    Sgro, C.
    Siskind, E. J.
    Smith, D. A.
    Smith, P. D.
    Spandre, G.
    Spinelli, P.
    Starck, J. L.
    Strickman, M. S.
    Suson, D. J.
    Tajima, H.
    Takahashi, H.
    Tanaka, T.
    Thayer, J. B.
    Thayer, J. G.
    Theureau, G.
    Thompson, D. J.
    Tibaldo, L.
    Torres, D. F.
    Tosti, G.
    Tramacere, A.
    Uchiyama, Y.
    Usher, T. L.
    Van Etten, A.
    Vilchez, N.
    Vitale, V.
    Waite, A. P.
    Watters, K.
    Webb, N.
    Wood, K. S.
    Ylinen, T.
    Högskolan i Kalmar, Naturvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Ziegler, M.
    PULSED GAMMA RAYS FROM THE MILLISECOND PULSAR J0030+0451 WITH THE FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE2009Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 699, nr 2, s. 1171-1177Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We report the discovery of gamma-ray pulsations from the nearby isolated millisecond pulsar (MSP) PSR J0030+0451 with the Large Area Telescope on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (formerly GLAST). This discovery makes PSR J0030+0451 the second MSP to be detected in gamma rays after PSR J0218+4232, observed by the EGRET instrument on the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory. The spin-down power (E) over dot = 3.5 x 10(33) erg s(-1) is an order of magnitude lower than the empirical lower bound of previously known gamma-ray pulsars. The emission profile is characterized by two narrow peaks, 0.07 +/- 0.01 and 0.08 +/- 0.02 wide, respectively, separated by 0.44 +/- 0.02 in phase. The first gamma-ray peak falls 0.15 +/- 0.01 after the main radio peak. The pulse shape is similar to that of the "normal" gamma-ray pulsars. An exponentially cutoff power-law fit of the emission spectrum leads to an integral photon flux above 100 MeV of (6.76 +/- 1.05 +/- 1.35) x 10(-8) cm(-2) s(-1) with cutoff energy (1.7 +/- 0.4 +/- 0.5) GeV. Based on its parallax distance of (300 +/- 90) pc, we obtain a gamma-ray efficiency L-gamma/E similar or equal to 15% for the conversion of spin-down energy rate into gamma-ray radiation, assuming isotropic emission.

  • 17. Abdo, A. A.
    et al.
    Ackermann, M.
    Atwood, W. B.
    Axelsson, M.
    Baldini, L.
    Ballet, J.
    Barbiellini, G.
    Bastieri, D.
    Baughman, B. M.
    Bechtol, K.
    Bellazzini, R.
    Berenji, B.
    Blandford, R. D.
    Bloom, E. D.
    Bogaert, G.
    Bonamente, E.
    Borgland, A. W.
    Bregeon, J.
    Brez, A.
    Brigida, M.
    Bruel, P.
    Burnett, T. H.
    Caliandro, G. A.
    Cameron, R. A.
    Caraveo, P. A.
    Casandjian, J. M.
    Cavazzuti, E.
    Cecchi, C.
    Charles, E.
    Chekhtman, A.
    Cheung, C. C.
    Chiang, J.
    Ciprini, S.
    Claus, R.
    Cohen-Tanugi, J.
    Colafrancesco, S.
    Conrad, J.
    Costamante, L.
    Cutini, S.
    Dermer, C. D.
    de Angelis, A.
    de Palma, F.
    Digel, S. W.
    Silva, E. D. E.
    Drell, P. S.
    Dubois, R.
    Dumora, D.
    Edmonds, Y.
    Farnier, C.
    Favuzzi, C.
    Ferrara, E. C.
    Fleury, P.
    Focke, W. B.
    Foschini, L.
    Frailis, M.
    Fuhrmann, L.
    Fukazawa, Y.
    Funk, S.
    Fusco, P.
    Gargano, F.
    Gasparrini, D.
    Gehrels, N.
    Germani, S.
    Giebels, B.
    Giglietto, N.
    Giordano, F.
    Giroletti, M.
    Glanzman, T.
    Godfrey, G.
    Grenier, I. A.
    Grondin, M. H.
    Grove, J. E.
    Guillemot, L.
    Guiriec, S.
    Harding, A. K.
    Hartman, R. C.
    Hayashida, M.
    Hays, E.
    Healey, S. E.
    Hughes, R. E.
    Johannesson, G.
    Johnson, A. S.
    Johnson, R. P.
    Johnson, W. N.
    Kadler, M.
    Kamae, T.
    Katagiri, H.
    Kataoka, J.
    Kawai, N.
    Kerr, M.
    Knodlseder, J.
    Kocian, M. L.
    Kuehn, F.
    Kuss, M.
    Latronico, L.
    Lee, S. H.
    Lemoine-Goumard, M.
    Longo, F.
    Loparco, F.
    Lott, B.
    Lovellette, M. N.
    Lubrano, P.
    Madejski, G. M.
    Makeev, A.
    Marelli, M.
    Mazziotta, M. N.
    McEnery, J. E.
    McGlynn, S.
    Meurer, C.
    Michelson, P. F.
    Mitthumsiri, W.
    Mizuno, T.
    Moiseev, A. A.
    Monte, C.
    Monzani, M. E.
    Morselli, A.
    Moskalenko, I. V.
    Murgia, S.
    Nolan, P. L.
    Nuss, E.
    Ohno, M.
    Ohsugi, T.
    Ojha, R.
    Omodei, N.
    Orlando, E.
    Ormes, J. F.
    Paneque, D.
    Panetta, J. H.
    Parent, D.
    Pepe, M.
    Pesce-Rollins, M.
    Piron, F.
    Porter, T. A.
    Raino, S.
    Rando, R.
    Razzano, M.
    Reimer, A.
    Reimer, O.
    Reposeur, T.
    Reyes, L. C.
    Ritz, S.
    Rochester, L. S.
    Rodriguez, A. Y.
    Romani, R. W.
    Roth, M.
    Ryde, F.
    Sadrozinski, H. F. W.
    Sambruna, R.
    Sanchez, D.
    Sander, A.
    Parkinson, P. M. S.
    Sgro, C.
    Shaw, M. S.
    Siskind, E. J.
    Smith, D. A.
    Smith, P. D.
    Spandre, G.
    Spinelli, P.
    Starck, J. L.
    Strickman, M. S.
    Suson, D. J.
    Tajima, H.
    Takahashi, H.
    Tanaka, T.
    Thayer, J. B.
    Thayer, J. G.
    Thompson, D. J.
    Tibaldo, L.
    Tibolla, O.
    Torres, D. F.
    Tosti, G.
    Tramacere, A.
    Usher, T. L.
    Vilchez, N.
    Vitale, V.
    Waite, A. P.
    Wang, P.
    Winer, B. L.
    Wood, K. S.
    Ylinen, T.
    Högskolan i Kalmar, Naturvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Ziegler, M.
    Edwards, P. G.
    Chester, M. M.
    Burrows, D. N.
    Hauser, M.
    Wagner, S.
    FERMI/LARGE AREA TELESCOPE DISCOVERY OF GAMMA-RAY EMISSION FROM THE FLAT-SPECTRUM RADIO QUASAR PKS 1454-3542009Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 697, nr 1, s. 934-941Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We report the discovery by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) onboard the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope of high-energy gamma-ray (GeV) emission from the flat-spectrum radio quasar PKS 1454-354 (z = 1.424). On 2008 September 4, the source rose to a peak flux of (3.5 +/- 0.7) x 10(-6) ph cm(-2) s(-1) (E > 100 MeV) on a timescale of hours and then slowly dropped over the following 2 days. No significant spectral changes occurred during the flare. Fermi/LAT observations also showed that PKS 1454-354 is the most probable counterpart of the unidentified EGRET source 3EG J1500-3509. Multiwavelength measurements performed during the following days (7 September with Swift; 6-7 September with the ground-based optical telescope Automated Telescope for Optical Monitoring; 13 September with the Australia Telescope Compact Array) resulted in radio, optical, UV, and X-ray fluxes greater than archival data, confirming the activity of PKS 1454-354.

  • 18. Abdo, A. A.
    et al.
    Ackermann, M.
    Atwood, W. B.
    Bagagli, R.
    Baldini, L.
    Ballet, J.
    Band, D. L.
    Barbiellini, G.
    Baring, M. G.
    Bartelt, J.
    Bastieri, D.
    Baughman, B. M.
    Bechtol, K.
    Bellardi, F.
    Bellazzini, R.
    Berenji, B.
    Bisello, D.
    Blandford, R. D.
    Bloom, E. D.
    Bogart, J. R.
    Bonamente, E.
    Borgland, A. W.
    Bouvier, A.
    Bregeon, J.
    Brez, A.
    Brigida, M.
    Bruel, P.
    Burnett, T. H.
    Caliandro, G. A.
    Cameron, R. A.
    Camilo, F.
    Caraveo, P. A.
    Casandjian, J. M.
    Ceccanti, M.
    Cecchi, C.
    Charles, E.
    Chekhtman, A.
    Cheung, C. C.
    Chiang, J.
    Ciprini, S.
    Claus, R.
    Cognard, I.
    Cohen-Tanugi, J.
    Cominsky, L. R.
    Conrad, J.
    Corbet, R.
    Corucci, L.
    Cutini, S.
    Davis, D. S.
    DeKlotz, M.
    Dermer, C. D.
    de Angelis, A.
    de Palma, F.
    Digel, S. W.
    Dormody, M.
    Silva, E. D. E.
    Drell, P. S.
    Dubois, R.
    Dumora, D.
    Espinoza, C.
    Farnier, C.
    Favuzzi, C.
    Flath, D. L.
    Fleury, P.
    Focke, W. B.
    Frailis, M.
    Friere, P. C. C.
    Fukazawa, Y.
    Funk, S.
    Fusco, P.
    Gargano, F.
    Gasparrini, D.
    Gehrels, N.
    Germani, S.
    Giannitrapani, R.
    Giebels, B.
    Giglietto, N.
    Giordano, F.
    Glanzman, T.
    Godfrey, G.
    Gotthelf, E. V.
    Grenier, I. A.
    Grondin, M. H.
    Grove, J. E.
    Guillemot, L.
    Guiriec, S.
    Haller, G.
    Harding, A. K.
    Hart, P. A.
    Hartman, R. C.
    Hays, E.
    Hobbs, G.
    Hughes, R. E.
    Johannesson, G.
    Johnson, A. S.
    Johnson, R. P.
    Johnson, T. J.
    Johnson, W. N.
    Johnston, S.
    Kamae, T.
    Kanbach, G.
    Kaspi, V. M.
    Katagiri, H.
    Kataoka, J.
    Kavelaars, A.
    Kawai, N.
    Kelly, H.
    Kerr, M.
    Kiziltan, B.
    Klamra, W.
    Knodlseder, J.
    Kramer, M.
    Kuehn, F.
    Kuss, M.
    Lande, J.
    Landriu, D.
    Latronico, L.
    Lee, B.
    Lee, S. H.
    Lemoine-Goumard, M.
    Livingstone, M.
    Longo, F.
    Loparco, F.
    Lott, B.
    Lovellette, M. N.
    Lubrano, P.
    Lyne, A. G.
    Madejski, G. M.
    Makeev, A.
    Manchester, R. N.
    Marangelli, B.
    Marelli, M.
    Mazziotta, M. N.
    McEnery, J. E.
    McGlynn, S.
    McLaughlin, M. A.
    Menon, N.
    Meurer, C.
    Michelson, P. F.
    Mineo, T.
    Mirizzi, N.
    Mitthumsiri, W.
    Mizuno, T.
    Moiseev, A. A.
    Mongelli, M.
    Monte, C.
    Monzani, M. E.
    Moretti, E.
    Morselli, A.
    Moskalenko, I. V.
    Murgia, S.
    Nakamori, T.
    Nolan, P. L.
    Noutsos, A.
    Nuss, E.
    Ohsugi, T.
    Omodei, N.
    Orlando, E.
    Ormes, J. F.
    Ozaki, M.
    Paccagnella, A.
    Paneque, D.
    Panetta, J. H.
    Parent, D.
    Pearce, M.
    Pepe, M.
    Perchiazzi, M.
    Pesce-Rollins, M.
    Pieri, L.
    Pinchera, M.
    Piron, F.
    Porter, T. A.
    Raino, S.
    Rando, R.
    Ransom, S. M.
    Rapposelli, E.
    Razzano, M.
    Reimer, A.
    Reimer, O.
    Reposeur, T.
    Reyes, L. C.
    Ritz, S.
    Rochester, L. S.
    Rodriguez, A. Y.
    Romani, R. W.
    Roth, M.
    Ryde, F.
    Sacchetti, A.
    Sadrozinski, H. F. W.
    Saggini, N.
    Sanchez, D.
    Sander, A.
    Parkinson, P. M. S.
    Segal, K. N.
    Sellerholm, A.
    Sgro, C.
    Siskind, E. J.
    Smith, D. A.
    Smith, P. D.
    Spandre, G.
    Spinelli, P.
    Stamatikos, M.
    Starck, J. L.
    Stecker, F. W.
    Stephens, T. E.
    Strickman, M. S.
    Strong, A. W.
    Suson, D. J.
    Tajima, H.
    Takahashi, H.
    Takahashi, T.
    Tanaka, T.
    Tenze, A.
    Thayer, J. B.
    Thayer, J. G.
    Theureau, G.
    Thompson, D. J.
    Thorsett, S. E.
    Tibaldo, L.
    Tibolla, O.
    Torres, D. F.
    Tramacere, A.
    Turri, M.
    Usher, T. L.
    Vigiani, L.
    Vilchez, N.
    Vitale, V.
    Waite, A. P.
    Wang, P.
    Watters, K.
    Weltevrede, P.
    Winer, B. L.
    Wood, K. S.
    Ylinen, T.
    Högskolan i Kalmar, Naturvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Ziegler, M.
    FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS OF THE VELA PULSAR2009Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 696, nr 2, s. 1084-1093Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Vela pulsar is the brightest persistent source in the GeV sky and thus is the traditional first target for new gamma-ray observatories. We report here on initial Fermi Large Area Telescope observations during verification phase pointed exposure and early sky survey scanning. We have used the Vela signal to verify Fermi timing and angular resolution. The high-quality pulse profile, with some 32,400 pulsed photons at E >= 0.03 GeV, shows new features, including pulse structure as fine as 0.3 ms and a distinct third peak, which shifts in phase with energy. We examine the high-energy behavior of the pulsed emission; initial spectra suggest a phase-averaged power-law index of Gamma = 1.51(-0.04)(+0.05) with an exponential cutoff at E-c = 2.9 +/- 0.1 GeV. Spectral fits with generalized cutoffs of the form e(-(E/Ec)b) require b <= 1, which is inconsistent with magnetic pair attenuation, and thus favor outer-magnetosphere emission models. Finally, we report on upper limits to any unpulsed component, as might be associated with a surrounding pulsar wind nebula.

  • 19.
    Abeysekara, A. U.
    et al.
    University of Utah, USA.
    Archambault, S.
    McGill University, Canada.
    Archer, A.
    Washington University in St. Louis, USA.
    Benbow, W.
    Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, USA.
    Bird, R.
    University College Dublin, Ireland.
    Buchovecky, M.
    University of California Los Angeles, USA.
    Buckley, J. H.
    Washington University in St. Louis, USA.
    Bugaev, V.
    Washington University in St. Louis, USA.
    Byrum, K.
    Argonne National Laboratory, USA.
    Cerruti, M.
    Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, USA.
    Chen, X.
    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany.;DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Ciupik, L.
    Adler Planetarium & Astron Museum, Dept Astron, Chicago, IL 60605 USA..
    Cui, W.
    Purdue Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, W Lafayette, IN 47907 USA.;Tsinghua Univ, Dept Phys, Beijing 100084, Peoples R China.;Tsinghua Univ, Ctr Astrophys, Beijing 100084, Peoples R China..
    Dickinson, H. J.
    Iowa State Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, Ames, IA 50011 USA..
    Eisch, J. D.
    Iowa State Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, Ames, IA 50011 USA..
    Errando, M.
    Washington Univ, Dept Phys, St Louis, MO 63130 USA.;Columbia Univ, Barnard Coll, Dept Phys & Astron, New York, NY 10027 USA..
    Falcone, A.
    Penn State Univ, Davey Lab 525, Dept Astron & Astrophys, University Pk, PA 16802 USA..
    Feng, Q.
    Purdue Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, W Lafayette, IN 47907 USA..
    Finley, J. P.
    Purdue Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, W Lafayette, IN 47907 USA..
    Fleischhack, H.
    DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Fortson, L.
    Univ Minnesota, Sch Phys & Astron, Minneapolis, MN 55455 USA..
    Furniss, A.
    Calif State Univ East Bay, Dept Phys, Hayward, CA 94542 USA..
    Gillanders, G. H.
    Natl Univ Ireland Galway, Sch Phys, Univ Rd, Galway, Ireland..
    Griffin, S.
    McGill Univ, Dept Phys, Montreal, PQ H3A 2T8, Canada..
    Grube, J.
    Adler Planetarium & Astron Museum, Dept Astron, Chicago, IL 60605 USA..
    Hutten, M.
    DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Hakansson, N.
    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany..
    Hanna, D.
    McGill Univ, Dept Phys, Montreal, PQ H3A 2T8, Canada..
    Holder, J.
    Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA.;Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA..
    Humensky, T. B.
    Columbia Univ, Dept Phys, 538 W 120th St, New York, NY 10027 USA..
    Johnson, C. A.
    Univ Calif Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz Inst Particle Phys, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 USA.;Univ Calif Santa Cruz, Dept Phys, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 USA..
    Kaaret, P.
    Univ Iowa, Dept Phys & Astron, Van Allen Hall, Iowa City, IA 52242 USA..
    Kar, P.
    Univ Utah, Dept Phys & Astron, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 USA..
    Kertzman, M.
    Depauw Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, Greencastle, IN 46135 USA..
    Kieda, D.
    Univ Utah, Dept Phys & Astron, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 USA..
    Krause, M.
    DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Krennrich, F.
    Iowa State Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, Ames, IA 50011 USA..
    Kumar, S.
    Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA.;Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA..
    Lang, M. J.
    Natl Univ Ireland Galway, Sch Phys, Univ Rd, Galway, Ireland..
    Maier, G.
    DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    McArthur, S.
    Purdue Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, W Lafayette, IN 47907 USA..
    McCann, A.
    McGill Univ, Dept Phys, Montreal, PQ H3A 2T8, Canada..
    Meagher, K.
    Georgia Inst Technol, Sch Phys, 837 State St NW, Atlanta, GA 30332 USA.;Georgia Inst Technol, Ctr Relativist Astrophys, 837 State St NW, Atlanta, GA 30332 USA..
    Moriarty, P.
    Natl Univ Ireland Galway, Sch Phys, Univ Rd, Galway, Ireland..
    Mukherjee, R.
    Columbia Univ, Barnard Coll, Dept Phys & Astron, New York, NY 10027 USA..
    Nguyen, T.
    Georgia Inst Technol, Sch Phys, 837 State St NW, Atlanta, GA 30332 USA.;Georgia Inst Technol, Ctr Relativist Astrophys, 837 State St NW, Atlanta, GA 30332 USA..
    Nieto, D.
    Columbia Univ, Dept Phys, 538 W 120th St, New York, NY 10027 USA..
    Ong, R. A.
    Univ Calif Los Angeles, Dept Phys & Astron, Los Angeles, CA 90095 USA..
    Otte, A. N.
    Georgia Inst Technol, Sch Phys, 837 State St NW, Atlanta, GA 30332 USA.;Georgia Inst Technol, Ctr Relativist Astrophys, 837 State St NW, Atlanta, GA 30332 USA..
    Park, N.
    Univ Chicago, Enrico Fermi Inst, 5640 S Ellis Ave, Chicago, IL 60637 USA..
    Pelassa, V.
    Harvard Smithsonian Ctr Astrophys, Fred Lawrence Whipple Observ, Amado, AZ 85645 USA..
    Pohl, M.
    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany.;DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Popkow, A.
    Univ Calif Los Angeles, Dept Phys & Astron, Los Angeles, CA 90095 USA..
    Pueschel, E.
    Univ Coll Dublin, Sch Phys, Dublin 4, Ireland..
    Quinn, J.
    Univ Coll Dublin, Sch Phys, Dublin 4, Ireland..
    Ragan, K.
    McGill Univ, Dept Phys, Montreal, PQ H3A 2T8, Canada..
    Reynolds, P. T.
    Cork Inst Technol, Dept Phys Sci, Cork, Ireland..
    Richards, G. T.
    Georgia Inst Technol, Sch Phys, 837 State St NW, Atlanta, GA 30332 USA.;Georgia Inst Technol, Ctr Relativist Astrophys, 837 State St NW, Atlanta, GA 30332 USA..
    Roache, E.
    Harvard Smithsonian Ctr Astrophys, Fred Lawrence Whipple Observ, Amado, AZ 85645 USA..
    Rulten, C.
    Univ Minnesota, Sch Phys & Astron, Minneapolis, MN 55455 USA..
    Santander, M.
    Columbia Univ, Barnard Coll, Dept Phys & Astron, New York, NY 10027 USA..
    Sembroski, G. H.
    Purdue Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, W Lafayette, IN 47907 USA..
    Shahinyan, K.
    Univ Minnesota, Sch Phys & Astron, Minneapolis, MN 55455 USA..
    Staszak, D.
    Univ Chicago, Enrico Fermi Inst, 5640 S Ellis Ave, Chicago, IL 60637 USA..
    Telezhinsky, I.
    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany.;DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Tucci, J. V.
    Purdue Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, W Lafayette, IN 47907 USA..
    Tyler, J.
    McGill Univ, Dept Phys, Montreal, PQ H3A 2T8, Canada..
    Wakely, S. P.
    Univ Chicago, Enrico Fermi Inst, 5640 S Ellis Ave, Chicago, IL 60637 USA..
    Weiner, O. M.
    Columbia Univ, Dept Phys, 538 W 120th St, New York, NY 10027 USA..
    Weinstein, A.
    Iowa State Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, Ames, IA 50011 USA..
    Wilhelm, A.
    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany.;DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Williams, D. A.
    Univ Calif Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz Inst Particle Phys, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 USA.;Univ Calif Santa Cruz, Dept Phys, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 USA..
    Fegan, S.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Leprince Ringuet,Ecole Polytech, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Giebels, B.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Leprince Ringuet,Ecole Polytech, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Horan, D.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Leprince Ringuet,Ecole Polytech, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Berdyugin, A.
    Univ Turku, Dept Phys & Astron, Tuorla Observ, Turku, Finland..
    Kuan, J.
    Columbia Univ, Dept Phys, 538 W 120th St, New York, NY 10027 USA..
    Lindfors, E.
    Univ Turku, Dept Phys & Astron, Tuorla Observ, Turku, Finland..
    Nilsson, K.
    Univ Turku, Finnish Ctr Astron ESO, Turku, Finland..
    Oksanen, A.
    Jyvaskylan Sirius Ry, Nyrola Observ, Palokka, Finland..
    Prokoph, Heike
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för fysik och elektroteknik (IFE).
    Reinthal, R.
    Univ Turku, Dept Phys & Astron, Tuorla Observ, Turku, Finland..
    Takalo, L.
    Univ Turku, Dept Phys & Astron, Tuorla Observ, Turku, Finland..
    Zefi, F.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Leprince Ringuet,Ecole Polytech, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    A Luminous and Isolated Gamma-Ray Flare from the Blazar B2 1215+302017Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 836, nr 2, artikel-id 205Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    B2 1215+30 is a BL-Lac-type blazar that was first detected at TeV energies by the MAGIC atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes and subsequently confirmed by the Very Energetic Radiation Imaging Telescope Array System (VERITAS) observatory with data collected between 2009 and 2012. In 2014 February 08, VERITAS detected a large-amplitude flare from B2. 1215+30 during routine monitoring observations of the blazar 1ES. 1218+304, located in the same field of view. The TeV flux reached 2.4 times the Crab Nebula flux with a variability timescale of <3.6 hr. Multiwavelength observations with Fermi-LAT, Swift, and the Tuorla Observatory revealed a correlated high GeV flux state and no significant optical counterpart to the flare, with a spectral energy distribution where the gamma-ray luminosity exceeds the synchrotron luminosity. When interpreted in the framework of a onezone leptonic model, the observed emission implies a high degree of beaming, with Doppler factor delta > 10, and an electron population with spectral index p < 2.3.

  • 20. Abramowski, A.
    et al.
    Acero, F.
    Aharonian, F.
    Akhperjanian, A. G.
    Anton, G.
    Balzer, A.
    Barnacka, A.
    Becherini, Yvonne
    Université Paris Diderot.
    Becker, J.
    Bernloehr, K.
    Birsin, E.
    Biteau, J.
    Bochow, A.
    Boisson, C.
    Bolmont, J.
    Bordas, P.
    Brucker, J.
    Brun, F.
    Brun, P.
    Bulik, T.
    Buesching, I.
    Carrigan, S.
    Casanova, S.
    Cerruti, M.
    Chadwick, P. M.
    Charbonnier, A.
    Chaves, R. C. G.
    Cheesebrough, A.
    Cologna, G.
    Conrad, J.
    Couturier, C.
    Dalton, M.
    Daniel, M. K.
    Davids, I. D.
    Degrange, B.
    Deil, C.
    Dickinson, H. J.
    Djannati-Atai, A.
    Domainko, W.
    Drury, L. O 'C.
    Dubus, G.
    Dutson, K.
    Dyks, J.
    Dyrda, M.
    Egberts, K.
    Eger, P.
    Espigat, P.
    Fallon, L.
    Fegan, S.
    Feinstein, F.
    Fernandes, M. V.
    Fiasson, A.
    Fontaine, G.
    Foerster, A.
    Fuessling, M.
    Gajdus, M.
    Gallant, Y. A.
    Garrigoux, T.
    Gast, H.
    Gerard, L.
    Giebels, B.
    Glicenstein, J. F.
    Glueck, B.
    Goering, D.
    Grondin, M. -H
    Haeffner, S.
    Hague, J. D.
    Hahn, J.
    Hampf, D.
    Harris, J.
    Hauser, M.
    Heinz, S.
    Heinzelmann, G.
    Henri, G.
    Hermann, G.
    Hillert, A.
    Hinton, J. A.
    Hofmann, W.
    Hofverberg, P.
    Holler, M.
    Horns, D.
    Jacholkowska, A.
    Jahn, C.
    Jamrozy, M.
    Jung, I.
    Kastendieck, M. A.
    Katarzynski, K.
    Katz, U.
    Kaufmann, S.
    Khelifi, B.
    Klochkov, D.
    Kluzniak, W.
    Kneiske, T.
    Komin, Nu
    Kosack, K.
    Kossakowski, R.
    Krayzel, F.
    Laffon, H.
    Lamanna, G.
    Lenain, J. -P
    Lennarz, D.
    Lohse, T.
    Lopatin, A.
    Lu, C. -C
    Marandon, V.
    Marcowith, A.
    Masbou, J.
    Maurin, G.
    Maxted, N.
    Mayer, M.
    McComb, T. J. L.
    Medina, M. C.
    Mehault, J.
    Moderski, R.
    Mohamed, M.
    Moulin, E.
    Naumann, C. L.
    Naumann-Godo, M.
    de Naurois, M.
    Nedbal, D.
    Nekrassov, D.
    Nguyen, N.
    Nicholas, B.
    Niemiec, J.
    Nolan, S. J.
    Ohm, S.
    Wilhelmi, E. de Ona
    Opitz, B.
    Ostrowski, M.
    Oya, I.
    Panter, M.
    Arribas, M. Paz
    Pekeur, N. W.
    Pelletier, G.
    Perez, J.
    Petrucci, P. -O
    Peyaud, B.
    Pita, S.
    Puehlhofer, G.
    Punch, Michael
    Univ Paris Diderot, APC, AstroParticule & Cosmology, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu, Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris C, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France.
    Quirrenbach, A.
    Raue, M.
    Reimer, A.
    Reimer, O.
    Renaud, M.
    de los Reyes, R.
    Rieger, F.
    Ripken, J.
    Rob, L.
    Rosier-Lees, S.
    Rowell, G.
    Rudak, B.
    Rulten, C. B.
    Sahakian, V.
    Sanchez, D. A.
    Santangelo, A.
    Schlickeiser, R.
    Schulz, A.
    Schwanke, U.
    Schwarzburg, S.
    Schwemmer, S.
    Sheidaei, F.
    Skilton, J. L.
    Sol, H.
    Spengler, G.
    Stawarz, L.
    Steenkamp, R.
    Stegmann, C.
    Stinzing, F.
    Stycz, K.
    Sushch, I.
    Szostek, A.
    Tavernet, J. -P
    Terrier, R.
    Tluczykont, M.
    Valerius, K.
    van Eldik, C.
    Vasileiadis, G.
    Venter, C.
    Viana, A.
    Vincent, P.
    Voelk, H. J.
    Volpe, F.
    Vorobiov, S.
    Vorster, M.
    Wagner, S. J.
    Ward, M.
    White, R.
    Wierzcholska, A.
    Zacharias, M.
    Zajczyk, A.
    Zdziarski, A. A.
    Zech, A.
    Zechlin, H. -S
    Spectral Analysis and Interpretation of the γ-ray Emission from the Starburst Galaxy NGC 2532012Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 757, nr 2, s. 158-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Very high energy (VHE; E >= 100 GeV) and high-energy (HE; 100 MeV <= E <= 100 GeV) data from gamma-ray observations performed with the H. E. S. S. telescope array and the Fermi-LAT instrument, respectively, are analyzed in order to investigate the non-thermal processes in the starburst galaxy NGC 253. The VHE gamma-ray data can be described by a power law in energy with differential photon index Gamma = 2.14 +/- 0.18(stat) +/- 0.30(sys) and differential flux normalization at 1 TeV of F-0 = (9.6 +/- 1.5(stat)(+5.7, -2.9)(sys)) x 10(-14) TeV-1 cm(-2) s(-1). A power-law fit to the differential HE gamma-ray spectrum reveals a photon index of Gamma = 2.24 +/- 0.14(stat) +/- 0.03(sys) and an integral flux between 200 MeV and 200 GeV of F(0.2-200 GeV) = (4.9 +/- 1.0(stat) +/- 0.3(sys)) x 10(-9) cm(-2) s(-1). No evidence for a spectral break or turnover is found over the dynamic range of both the LAT instrument and the H.E.S.S. experiment: a combined fit of a power law to the HE and VHE gamma-ray data results in a differential photon index Gamma = 2.34 +/- 0.03 with a p-value of 30%. The gamma-ray observations indicate that at least about 20% of the energy of the cosmic rays (CRs) capable of producing hadronic interactions is channeled into pion production. The smooth alignment between the spectra in the HE and VHE gamma-ray domain suggests that the same transport processes dominate in the entire energy range. Advection is most likely responsible for charged particle removal from the starburst nucleus from GeV to multiple TeV energies. In a hadronic scenario for the gamma-ray production, the single overall power-law spectrum observed would therefore correspond to the mean energy spectrum produced by the ensemble of CR sources in the starburst region.

  • 21. Abramowski, A.
    et al.
    Acero, F.
    Aharonian, F.
    Akhperjanian, A. G.
    Anton, G.
    Balzer, A.
    Barnacka, A.
    de Almeida, U. Barres
    Bazer-Bachi, A. R.
    Becherini, Yvonne
    Becker, J.
    Behera, B.
    Bernloehr, K.
    Bochow, A.
    Boisson, C.
    Bolmont, J.
    Bordas, P.
    Borrel, V.
    Brucker, J.
    Brun, F.
    Brun, P.
    Bulik, T.
    Buesching, I.
    Carrigan, S.
    Casanova, S.
    Cerruti, M.
    Chadwick, P. M.
    Charbonnier, A.
    Chaves, R. C. G.
    Cheesebrough, A.
    Chounet, L-M
    Clapson, A. C.
    Coignet, G.
    Conrad, J.
    Dalton, M.
    Daniel, M. K.
    Davids, I. D.
    Degrange, B.
    Deil, C.
    Dickinson, H. J.
    Djannati-Atai, A.
    Domainko, W.
    Drury, L. O ' C
    Dubois, F.
    Dubus, G.
    Dyks, J.
    Dyrda, M.
    Egberts, K.
    Eger, P.
    Espigat, P.
    Fallon, L.
    Farnier, C.
    Fegan, S.
    Feinstein, F.
    Fernandes, M. V.
    Fiasson, A.
    Fontaine, G.
    Foerster, A.
    Fuessling, M.
    Gallant, Y. A.
    Gast, H.
    Gerard, L.
    Gerbig, D.
    Giebels, B.
    Glicenstein, J. F.
    Glueck, B.
    Goret, P.
    Goering, D.
    Haeffner, S.
    Hague, J. D.
    Hampf, D.
    Hauser, M.
    Heinz, S.
    Heinzelmann, G.
    Henri, G.
    Hermann, G.
    Hinton, J. A.
    Hoffmann, A.
    Hofmann, W.
    Hofverberg, P.
    Holler, M.
    Horns, D.
    Jacholkowska, A.
    de Jager, O. C.
    Jahn, C.
    Jamrozy, M.
    Jung, I.
    Kastendieck, M. A.
    Katarzynski, K.
    Katz, U.
    Kaufmann, S.
    Keogh, D.
    Khangulyan, D.
    Khelifi, B.
    Klochkov, D.
    Kluzniak, W.
    Kneiske, T.
    Komin, Nu
    Kosack, K.
    Kossakowski, R.
    Laffon, H.
    Lamanna, G.
    Lennarz, D.
    Lohse, T.
    Lopatin, A.
    Lu, C-C
    Marandon, V.
    Marcowith, A.
    Masbou, J.
    Maurin, D.
    Maxted, N.
    McComb, T. J. L.
    Medina, M. C.
    Mehault, J.
    Moderski, R.
    Moulin, E.
    Naumann, C. L.
    Naumann-Godo, M.
    de Naurois, M.
    Nedbal, D.
    Nekrassov, D.
    Nguyen, N.
    Nicholas, B.
    Niemiec, J.
    Nolan, S. J.
    Ohm, S.
    Olive, J-P
    Wilhelmi, E. de Ona
    Opitz, B.
    Ostrowski, M.
    Panter, M.
    Arribas, M. Paz
    Pedaletti, G.
    Pelletier, G.
    Petrucci, P-O
    Pita, S.
    Puehlhofer, G.
    Punch, Michael
    Univ Paris Diderot, APC, AstroParticule & Cosmology, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu, Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris C, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France.
    Quirrenbach, A.
    Raue, M.
    Rayner, S. M.
    Reimer, A.
    Reimer, O.
    Renaud, M.
    de los Reyes, R.
    Rieger, F.
    Ripken, J.
    Rob, L.
    Rosier-Lees, S.
    Rowell, G.
    Rudak, B.
    Rulten, C. B.
    Ruppel, J.
    Ryde, F.
    Sahakian, V.
    Santangelo, A.
    Schlickeiser, R.
    Schoeck, F. M.
    Schulz, A.
    Schwanke, U.
    Schwarzburg, S.
    Schwemmer, S.
    Sikora, M.
    Skilton, J. L.
    Sol, H.
    Spengler, G.
    Stawarz, L.
    Steenkamp, R.
    Stegmann, C.
    Stinzing, F.
    Stycz, K.
    Sushch, I.
    Szostek, A.
    Tavernet, J-P
    Terrier, R.
    Tibolla, O.
    Tluczykont, M.
    Valerius, K.
    van Eldik, C.
    Vasileiadis, G.
    Venter, C.
    Vialle, J. P.
    Viana, A.
    Vincent, P.
    Vivier, M.
    Voelk, H. J.
    Volpe, F.
    Vorobiov, S.
    Vorster, M.
    Wagner, S. J.
    Ward, M.
    Wierzcholska, A.
    Zacharias, M.
    Zajczyk, A.
    Zdziarski, A. A.
    Zech, A.
    Zechlin, H-S
    HESS Observations of the Globular Clusters NGC 6388 and M15 and Search for a Dark Matter Signal2011Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 735, nr 1, s. 12-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Observations of the globular clusters (GCs) NGC 6388 and M15 were carried out by the High Energy Stereoscopic System array of Cherenkov telescopes for a live time of 27.2 and 15.2 hr, respectively. No gamma-ray signal is found at the nominal target position of NGC 6388 and M15. In the primordial formation scenario, GCs are formed in a dark matter (DM) halo and DM could still be present in the baryon-dominated environment of GCs. This opens the possibility of observing a DM self-annihilation signal. The DM content of the GCs NGC 6388 and M15 is modeled taking into account the astrophysical processes that can be expected to influence the DM distribution during the evolution of the GC: the adiabatic contraction of DM by baryons, the adiabatic growth of a black hole in the DM halo, and the kinetic heating of DM by stars. Ninety-five percent confidence level exclusion limits on the DM particle velocity-weighted annihilation cross section are derived for these DM halos. In the TeV range, the limits on the velocity-weighted annihilation cross section are derived at the 10(-25) cm(3) s(-1) level and a few 10(-24) cm(3) s(-1) for NGC 6388 and M15, respectively.

  • 22. Abramowski, A.
    et al.
    Acero, F.
    Aharonian, F.
    Akhperjanian, A. G.
    Anton, G.
    Balzer, A.
    Barnacka, A.
    de Almeida, U. Barres
    Becherini, Yvonne
    Becker, J.
    Behera, B.
    Bernloehr, K.
    Birsin, E.
    Biteau, J.
    Bochow, A.
    Boisson, C.
    Bolmont, J.
    Bordas, P.
    Brucker, J.
    Brun, F.
    Brun, P.
    Bulik, T.
    Bueching, I.
    Carrigan, S.
    Casanova, S.
    Cerruti, M.
    Chadwick, P. M.
    Charbonnier, A.
    Chaves, R. C. G.
    Cheesebrough, A.
    Clapson, A. C.
    Coignet, G.
    Cologna, G.
    Conrad, J.
    Dalton, M.
    Daniel, M. K.
    Davids, I. D.
    Degrange, B.
    Deil, C.
    Dickinson, H. J.
    Djannati-Atai, A.
    Domainko, W.
    Drury, L. O 'C.
    Dubus, G.
    Dutson, K.
    Dyks, J.
    Dyrda, M.
    Egberts, K.
    Eger, P.
    Espigat, P.
    Fallon, L.
    Farnier, C.
    Fegan, S.
    Feinstein, F.
    Fernandes, M. V.
    Fiasson, A.
    Fontaine, G.
    Foerster, A.
    Fuessling, M.
    Gallant, Y. A.
    Gast, H.
    Gerard, L.
    Gerbig, D.
    Giebels, B.
    Glicenstein, J. F.
    Glueck, B.
    Goret, P.
    Goering, D.
    Haeffner, S.
    Hague, J. D.
    Hampf, D.
    Hauser, M.
    Heinz, S.
    Heinzelmann, G.
    Henri, G.
    Hermann, G.
    Hinton, J. A.
    Hoffmann, A.
    Hofmann, W.
    Hofverberg, P.
    Holler, M.
    Horns, D.
    Jacholkowska, A.
    de Jager, O. C.
    Jahn, C.
    Jamrozy, M.
    Jung, I.
    Kastendieck, M. A.
    Katarzynski, K.
    Katz, U.
    Kaufmann, S.
    Keogh, D.
    Khangulyan, D.
    Khelifi, B.
    Klochkov, D.
    Kluzniak, W.
    Kneiske, T.
    Komin, Nu
    Kosack, K.
    Kossakowski, R.
    Laffon, H.
    Lamanna, G.
    Lennarz, D.
    Lohse, T.
    Lopatin, A.
    Lu, C. -C
    Marandon, V.
    Marcowith, A.
    Masbou, J.
    Maurin, D.
    Maxted, N.
    Mayer, M.
    McComb, T. J. L.
    Medina, M. C.
    Mehault, J.
    Moderski, R.
    Moulin, E.
    Naumann, C. L.
    Naumann-Godo, M.
    de Naurois, M.
    Nedbal, D.
    Nekrassov, D.
    Nguyen, N.
    Nicholas, B.
    Niemiec, J.
    Nolan, S. J.
    Ohm, S.
    Wilhelmi, E. de Ona
    Opitz, B.
    Ostrowski, M.
    Oya, I.
    Panter, M.
    Arribas, M. Paz
    Pedaletti, G.
    Pelletier, G.
    Petrucci, P. -O
    Pita, S.
    Puehlhofer, G.
    Punch, Michael
    Univ Paris Diderot, APC, AstroParticule & Cosmology, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu, Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris C, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France.
    Quirrenbach, A.
    Raue, M.
    Rayner, S. M.
    Reimer, A.
    Reimer, O.
    Renaud, M.
    de los Reyes, R.
    Rieger, F.
    Ripken, J.
    Rob, L.
    Rosier-Lees, S.
    Rowell, G.
    Rudak, B.
    Rulten, C. B.
    Ruppel, J.
    Sahakian, V.
    Sanchez, D. A.
    Santangelo, A.
    Schlickeiser, R.
    Schoeck, F. M.
    Schulz, A.
    Schwanke, U.
    Schwarzburg, S.
    Schwemmer, S.
    Sheidaei, F.
    Skilton, J. L.
    Sol, H.
    Spengler, G.
    Stawarz, L.
    Steenkamp, R.
    Stegmann, C.
    Stinzing, F.
    Stycz, K.
    Sushch, I.
    Szostek, A.
    Tavernet, J. -P
    Terrier, R.
    Tluczykont, M.
    Valerius, K.
    van Eldik, C.
    Vasileiadis, G.
    Venter, C.
    Vialle, J. P.
    Viana, A.
    Vincent, P.
    Voelk, H. J.
    Volpe, F.
    Vorobiov, S.
    Vorster, M.
    Wagner, S. J.
    Ward, M.
    White, R.
    Wierzcholska, A.
    Zacharias, M.
    Zajczyk, A.
    Zdziarski, A. A.
    Zech, A.
    Zechlin, H. -S
    Search for dark matter annihilation signals from the Fornax galaxy cluster with H.E.S.S.2012Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 750, nr 2, artikel-id 123Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Fornax galaxy cluster was observed with the High Energy Stereoscopic System for a total live time of 14.5 hr, searching for very high energy (VHE; E > 100GeV) gamma-rays from dark matter (DM) annihilation. No significant signal was found in searches for point-like and extended emissions. Using several models of the DM density distribution, upper limits on the DM velocity-weighted annihilation cross-section <sigma upsilon > as a function of the DM particle mass are derived. Constraints are derived for different DM particle models, such as those arising from Kaluza-Klein and supersymmetric models. Various annihilation final states are considered. Possible enhancements of the DM annihilation gamma-ray flux, due to DM substructures of the DM host halo, or from the Sommerfeld effect, are studied. Additional gamma-ray contributions from internal bremsstrahlung and inverse Compton radiation are also discussed. For a DM particle mass of 1 TeV, the exclusion limits at 95% of confidence level reach values of <sigma upsilon >(95% C.L.) similar to 10(-23) cm(3) s(-1), depending on the DM particle model and halo properties. Additional contribution from DM substructures can improve the upper limits on <sigma upsilon > by more than two orders of magnitude. At masses around 4.5 TeV, the enhancement by substructures and the Sommerfeld resonance effect results in a velocity-weighted annihilation cross-section upper limit at the level of <sigma upsilon >(95% C.L.) similar to 10(-26) cm(3) s(-1).

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    Dyks, J.
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    Eger, P.
    Espigat, P.
    Fallon, L.
    Farnier, C.
    Fegan, S.
    Feinstein, F.
    Fernandes, M. V.
    Fiasson, A.
    Fontaine, G.
    Foerster, A.
    Fuessling, M.
    Gallant, Y. A.
    Gast, H.
    Gerard, L.
    Gerbig, D.
    Giebels, B.
    Glicenstein, J. F.
    Glueck, B.
    Goret, P.
    Goering, D.
    Haeffner, S.
    Hague, J. D.
    Hampf, D.
    Hauser, M.
    Heinz, S.
    Heinzelmann, G.
    Henri, G.
    Hermann, G.
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    Hoffmann, A.
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    Holler, M.
    Horns, D.
    Jacholkowska, A.
    de Jager, O. C.
    Jahn, C.
    Jamrozy, M.
    Jung, I.
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    Katarzynski, K.
    Katz, U.
    Kaufmann, S.
    Keogh, D.
    Khangulyan, D.
    Khelifi, B.
    Klochkov, D.
    Kluzniak, W.
    Kneiske, T.
    Komin, Nu.
    Kosack, K.
    Kossakowski, R.
    Laffon, H.
    Lamanna, G.
    Lennarz, D.
    Lohse, T.
    Lopatin, A.
    Lu, C. -C
    Marandon, V.
    Marcowith, A.
    Masbou, J.
    Maurin, D.
    Maxted, N.
    Mayer, M.
    McComb, T. J. L.
    Medina, M. C.
    Mehault, J.
    Moderski, R.
    Moulin, E.
    Naumann, C. L.
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    de Naurois, M.
    Nedbal, D.
    Nekrassov, D.
    Nguyen, N.
    Nicholas, B.
    Niemiec, J.
    Nolan, S. J.
    Ohm, S.
    Wilhelmi, E. de Ona
    Opitz, B.
    Ostrowski, M.
    Oya, I.
    Panter, M.
    Arribas, M. Paz
    Pedaletti, G.
    Pelletier, G.
    Petrucci, P. -O
    Pita, S.
    Puehlhofer, G.
    Punch, Michael
    Univ Paris Diderot, APC, AstroParticule & Cosmology, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu, Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris C, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France.
    Quirrenbach, A.
    Raue, M.
    Rayner, S. M.
    Reimer, A.
    Reimer, O.
    Renaud, M.
    de los Reyes, R.
    Rieger, F.
    Ripken, J.
    Rob, L.
    Rosier-Lees, S.
    Rowell, G.
    Rudak, B.
    Rulten, C. B.
    Ruppel, J.
    Sahakian, V.
    Sanchez, D. A.
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    Schlickeiser, R.
    Schoeck, F. M.
    Schulz, A.
    Schwanke, U.
    Schwarzburg, S.
    Schwemmer, S.
    Sheidaei, F.
    Skilton, J. L.
    Sol, H.
    Spengler, G.
    Stawarz, L.
    Steenkamp, R.
    Stegmann, C.
    Stinzing, F.
    Stycz, K.
    Sushch, I.
    Szostek, A.
    Tavernet, J. -P
    Terrier, R.
    Tluczykont, M.
    Valerius, K.
    van Eldik, C.
    Vasileiadis, G.
    Venter, C.
    Vialle, J. P.
    Viana, A.
    Vincent, P.
    Voelk, H. J.
    Volpe, F.
    Vorobiov, S.
    Vorster, M.
    Wagner, S. J.
    Ward, M.
    White, R.
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    Prokoph, Heike
    Ragan, K.
    Reyes, L. C.
    Reynolds, P. T.
    Roache, E.
    Rose, H. J.
    Schroedter, M.
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    Thibadeau, S.
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    The 2010 very high energy gamma-RAY flare and 10 years of multi-wavelength observations of M 872012Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 746, nr 2, s. 151-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The giant radio galaxy M 87 with its proximity (16 Mpc), famous jet, and very massive black hole ((3-6) x 10(9) M-circle dot) provides a unique opportunity to investigate the origin of very high energy (VHE; E > 100 GeV) gamma-ray emission generated in relativistic outflows and the surroundings of supermassive black holes. M 87 has been established as a VHE gamma-ray emitter since 2006. The VHE gamma-ray emission displays strong variability on timescales as short as a day. In this paper, results from a joint VHE monitoring campaign on M 87 by the MAGIC and VERITAS instruments in 2010 are reported. During the campaign, a flare at VHE was detected triggering further observations at VHE (H.E.S.S.), X-rays (Chandra), and radio (43 GHz Very Long Baseline Array, VLBA). The excellent sampling of the VHE gamma-ray light curve enables one to derive a precise temporal characterization of the flare: the single, isolated flare is well described by a two-sided exponential function with significantly different flux rise and decay times of tau(rise)(d) = (1.69 +/- 0.30) days and tau(decay)(d) = (0.611 +/- 0.080) days, respectively. While the overall variability pattern of the 2010 flare appears somewhat different from that of previous VHE flares in 2005 and 2008, they share very similar timescales (similar to day), peak fluxes (Phi(>0.35 TeV) similar or equal to (1-3) x 10(-11) photons cm(-2) s(-1)), and VHE spectra. VLBA radio observations of 43 GHz of the inner jet regions indicate no enhanced flux in 2010 in contrast to observations in 2008, where an increase of the radio flux of the innermost core regions coincided with a VHE flare. On the other hand, Chandra X-ray observations taken similar to 3 days after the peak of the VHE gamma-ray emission reveal an enhanced flux from the core (flux increased by factor similar to 2; variability timescale <2 days). The long-term (2001-2010) multi-wavelength (MWL) light curve of M 87, spanning from radio to VHE and including data from Hubble Space Telescope, Liverpool Telescope, Very Large Array, and European VLBI Network, is used to further investigate the origin of the VHE gamma-ray emission. No unique, common MWL signature of the three VHE flares has been identified. In the outer kiloparsec jet region, in particular in HST-1, no enhanced MWL activity was detected in 2008 and 2010, disfavoring it as the origin of the VHE flares during these years. Shortly after two of the three flares (2008 and 2010), the X-ray core was observed to be at a higher flux level than its characteristic range (determined from more than 60 monitoring observations: 2002-2009). In 2005, the strong flux dominance of HST-1 could have suppressed the detection of such a feature. Published models for VHE gamma-ray emission from M 87 are reviewed in the light of the new data.

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    Univ Hamburg, Germany.
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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys,Germany ; Dublin Inst Adv Studies, Ireland ; Natl Acad Sci Republ Armenia, Armenia.
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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys,Germany.
    Akhperjanian, A. G.
    Natl Acad Sci Republ Armenia, Armenia ; Yerevan Phys Inst, Armenia.
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    Humboldt Univ, Germany.
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    Univ Namibia, Namibia.
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    Univ Durham, UK.
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    Univ Amsterdam, Netherlands.
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    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Poland.
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    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för fysik och elektroteknik (IFE).
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    Mayer, M.
    McComb, T. J. L.
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    Meintjes, P. J.
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    Mitchell, A. M. W.
    Moderski, R.
    Mohamed, M.
    Mora, K.
    Moulin, E.
    Murach, T.
    de Naurois, M.
    Niemiec, J.
    Nolan, S. J.
    Oakes, L.
    Odaka, H.
    Ohm, S.
    Opitz, B.
    Ostrowski, M.
    Oya, I.
    Panter, M.
    Parsons, R. D.
    Arribas, M. Paz
    Pekeur, N. W.
    Pelletier, G.
    Perez, J.
    Petrucci, P. -O
    Peyaud, B.
    Pita, S.
    Poon, H.
    Puehlhofer, G.
    Punch, Michael
    Univ Paris Diderot, APC, AstroParticule & Cosmology, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu, Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris C, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France.
    Quirrenbach, A.
    Raab, S.
    Reichardt, I.
    Reimer, A.
    Reimer, O.
    Renaud, M.
    Reyes, R. de Los
    Rieger, F.
    Rob, L.
    Romoli, C.
    Rosier-Lees, S.
    Rowell, G.
    Rudak, B.
    Rulten, C. B.
    Sahakian, V.
    Salek, D.
    Sanchez, D. A.
    Santangelo, A.
    Schlickeiser, R.
    Schuessler, F.
    Schulz, A.
    Schwanke, U.
    Schwarzburg, S.
    Schwemmer, S.
    Sol, H.
    Spanier, F.
    Spengler, G.
    Spies, F.
    Stawarz, L.
    Steenkamp, R.
    Stegmann, C.
    Stinzing, F.
    Stycz, K.
    Sushch, I.
    Tavernet, J. -P
    Tavernier, T.
    Taylor, A. M.
    Terrier, R.
    Tluczykont, M.
    Trichard, C.
    Valerius, K.
    van Eldik, C.
    van Soelen, B.
    Vasileiadis, G.
    Veh, J.
    Venter, C.
    Viana, A.
    Vincent, P.
    Vink, J.
    Voelk, H. J.
    Volpe, F.
    Vorster, M.
    Vuillaume, T.
    Wagner, P.
    Wagner, R. M.
    Ward, M.
    Weidinger, M.
    Weitzel, Q.
    White, R.
    Wierzcholska, A.
    Willmann, P.
    Woernlein, A.
    Wouters, D.
    Yang, R.
    Zabalza, V.
    Zaborov, D.
    Zacharias, M.
    Zdziarski, A. A.
    Zech, A.
    Zechlin, H. -S
    THE 2012 FLARE OF PG 1553+113 SEEN WITH HESS AND FERMI-LAT2015Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 802, nr 1, artikel-id 65Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Very high energy (VHE, E > 100 GeV)gamma-ray flaring activity of the high-frequency peaked BL Lac object PG 1553 + 113 has been detected by the H.E.S.S. telescopes. The flux of the source increased by a factor of 3 during the nights of 2012 April 26 and 27 with respect to the archival measurements with a hint of intra-night variability. No counterpart of this event has been detected in the Fermi-Large Area Telescope data. This pattern is consistent with VHE gamma(-)ray flaring being caused by the injection of ultrarelativistic particles, emitting.-rays at the highest energies. The dataset offers a unique opportunity to constrain the redshift of this source at z = 0.49 +/- 0.04 using a novel method based on Bayesian statistics. The indication of intra-night variability is used to introduce a novel method to probe for a possible Lorentz invariance violation (LIV), and to set limits on the energy scale at which Quantum Gravity (QG) effects causing LIV may arise. For the subluminal case, the derived limits are E-QG,E- 1 > 4.10 x 10(17) GeV and E-QG,E- 2 > 2.10 x 10(10) GeV for linear and quadratic LIV effects, respectively.

  • 25. Acciari, V. A.
    et al.
    Aliu, E.
    Araya, M.
    Arlen, T.
    Aune, T.
    Beilicke, M.
    Benbow, W.
    Bradbury, S. M.
    Buckley, J. H.
    Bugaev, V.
    Byrum, K.
    Cannon, A.
    Cesarini, A.
    Ciupik, L.
    Collins-Hughes, E.
    Cui, W.
    Dickherber, R.
    Duke, C.
    Falcone, A.
    Finley, J. P.
    Fortson, L.
    Furniss, A.
    Galante, N.
    Gall, D.
    Godambe, S.
    Griffin, S.
    Guenette, R.
    Gyuk, G.
    Hanna, D.
    Holder, J.
    Hughes, G.
    Hui, C. M.
    Humensky, T. B.
    Imran, A.
    Kaaret, P.
    Kertzman, M.
    Krawczynski, H.
    Krennrich, F.
    Madhavan, A. S.
    Maier, G.
    Majumdar, P.
    McArthur, S.
    Moriarty, P.
    Ong, R. A.
    Otte, A. N.
    Pandel, D.
    Park, N.
    Perkins, J. S.
    Pohl, M.
    Prokoph, Heike
    DESY, Germany .
    Quinn, J.
    Ragan, K.
    Reyes, L. C.
    Reynolds, P. T.
    Roache, E.
    Rose, H. J.
    Saxon, D. B.
    Sembroski, G. H.
    Sentürk, G. D.
    Smith, A. W.
    Te\v sić, G.
    Theiling, M.
    Thibadeau, S.
    Varlotta, A.
    Vincent, S.
    Vivier, M.
    Wakely, S. P.
    Ward, J. E.
    Weekes, T. C.
    Weinstein, A.
    Weisgarber, T.
    Weng, S.
    Williams, D. A.
    Wood, M.
    Zitzer, B.
    Gamma-Ray Observations of the Be/Pulsar Binary 1A 0535+262 During a Giant X-Ray Outburst2011Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 733, nr 2, artikel-id 96Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Giant X-ray outbursts, with luminosities of about 1037 erg s–1, are observed roughly every five years from the nearby Be/pulsar binary 1A 0535+262. In this article, we present observations of the source with VERITAS at very high energies (VHEs;E >100 GeV) triggered by the X-ray outburst in 2009 December. The observations started shortly after the onset of the outburst and provided comprehensive coverage of the episode, as well as the 111 day binary orbit. No VHE emission is evident at any time. We also examined data from the contemporaneous observations of 1A 0535+262 with the Fermi/Large Area Telescope at high-energy photons (E > 0.1 GeV) and failed to detect the source at GeV energies. The X-ray continua measured with theSwift/X-Ray Telescope and the RXTE/PCA can be well described by the combination of blackbody and Comptonized emission from thermal electrons. Therefore, the gamma-ray and X-ray observations suggest the absence of a significant population of non-thermal particles in the system. This distinguishes 1A 0535+262 from those Be X-ray binaries (such as PSR B1259-63 and LS I +61°303) that have been detected at GeV-TeV energies. We discuss the implications of the results on theoretical models.

  • 26. Acciari, V. A.
    et al.
    Aliu, E.
    Arlen, T.
    Aune, T.
    Beilicke, M.
    Benbow, W.
    Bradbury, S. M.
    Buckley, J. H.
    Bugaev, V.
    Byrum, K.
    Cannon, A.
    Cesarini, A.
    Christiansen, J. L.
    Ciupik, L.
    Collins-Hughes, E.
    Connolly, M. P.
    Cui, W.
    Duke, C.
    Errando, M.
    Falcone, A.
    Finley, J. P.
    Finnegan, G.
    Fortson, L.
    Furniss, A.
    Galante, N.
    Gall, D.
    Godambe, S.
    Griffin, S.
    Grube, J.
    Guenette, R.
    Gyuk, G.
    Hanna, D.
    Holder, J.
    Hughes, G.
    Hui, C. M.
    Humensky, T. B.
    Jackson, D. J.
    Kaaret, P.
    Karlsson, N.
    Kertzman, M.
    Kieda, D.
    Krawczynski, H.
    Krennrich, F.
    Lang, M. J.
    Madhavan, A. S.
    Maier, G.
    McArthur, S.
    McCann, A.
    Moriarty, P.
    Newbold, M. D.
    Ong, R. A.
    Orr, M.
    Otte, A. N.
    Park, N.
    Perkins, J. S.
    Pohl, M.
    Prokoph, Heike
    DESY, Germany.
    Quinn, J.
    Ragan, K.
    Reyes, L. C.
    Reynolds, P. T.
    Roache, E.
    Rose, H. J.
    Ruppel, J.
    Saxon, D. B.
    Schroedter, M.
    Sembroski, G. H.
    Sentürk, G. D.
    Smith, A. W.
    Staszak, D.
    Swordy, S. P.
    Te\v sić, G.
    Theiling, M.
    Thibadeau, S.
    Tsurusaki, K.
    Varlotta, A.
    Vassiliev, V. V.
    Vincent, S.
    Vivier, M.
    Wakely, S. P.
    Ward, J. E.
    Weekes, T. C.
    Weinstein, A.
    Weisgarber, T.
    Williams, D. A.
    Wood, M.
    VERITAS Observations of Gamma-Ray Bursts Detected by Swift2011Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 743, nr 1, artikel-id 62Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We present the results of 16 Swift-triggered Gamma-ray burst (GRB) follow-up observations taken with the Very Energetic Radiation Imaging Telescope Array System (VERITAS) telescope array from 2007 January to 2009 June. The median energy threshold and response time of these observations were 260 GeV and 320 s, respectively. Observations had an average duration of 90 minutes. Each burst is analyzed independently in two modes: over the whole duration of the observations and again over a shorter timescale determined by the maximum VERITAS sensitivity to a burst with a t –1.5 time profile. This temporal model is characteristic of GRB afterglows with high-energy, long-lived emission that have been detected by the Large Area Telescope on board the Fermi satellite. No significant very high energy (VHE) gamma-ray emission was detected and upper limits above the VERITAS threshold energy are calculated. The VERITAS upper limits are corrected for gamma-ray extinction by the extragalactic background light and interpreted in the context of the keV emission detected by Swift. For some bursts the VHE emission must have less power than the keV emission, placing constraints on inverse Compton models of VHE emission.

  • 27. Acciari, V. A.
    et al.
    Aliu, E.
    Arlen, T.
    Aune, T.
    Beilicke, M.
    Benbow, W.
    Bradbury, S. M.
    Buckley, J. H.
    Bugaev, V.
    Byrum, K.
    Cannon, A.
    Cesarini, A.
    Ciupik, L.
    Collins-Hughes, E.
    Connolly, M. P.
    Cui, W.
    Dickherber, R.
    Duke, C.
    Errando, M.
    Falcone, A.
    Finley, J. P.
    Finnegan, G.
    Fortson, L.
    Furniss, A.
    Galante, N.
    Gall, D.
    Gillanders, G. H.
    Godambe, S.
    Griffin, S.
    Grube, J.
    Guenette, R.
    Gyuk, G.
    Hanna, D.
    Holder, J.
    Hughes, G.
    Hui, C. M.
    Humensky, T. B.
    Kaaret, P.
    Karlsson, N.
    Kertzman, M.
    Kieda, D.
    Krawczynski, H.
    Krennrich, F.
    Lang, M. J.
    LeBohec, S.
    Maier, G.
    Majumdar, P.
    McArthur, S.
    McCann, A.
    Moriarty, P.
    Mukherjee, R.
    Ong, R. A.
    Orr, M.
    Otte, A. N.
    Park, N.
    Perkins, J. S.
    Pohl, M.
    Prokoph, Heike
    DESY, Germany .
    Quinn, J.
    Ragan, K.
    Reyes, L. C.
    Reynolds, P. T.
    Roache, E.
    Rose, H. J.
    Ruppel, J.
    Saxon, D. B.
    Schroedter, M.
    Sembroski, G. H.
    Senturk, G. D.
    Smith, A. W.
    Staszak, D.
    Tesić, G.
    Theiling, M.
    Thibadeau, S.
    Tsurusaki, K.
    Varlotta, A.
    Vassiliev, V. V.
    Vincent, S.
    Vivier, M.
    Wakely, S. P.
    Ward, J. E.
    Weekes, T. C.
    Weinstein, A.
    Weisgarber, T.
    Williams, D. A.
    Zitzer, B.
    VERITAS Observations of the TeV Binary LS I +61\deg 303 During 2008-20102011Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 738, nr 1, artikel-id 3Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We present the results of observations of the TeV binary LS I +61° 303 with the VERITAS telescope array between 2008 and 2010, at energies above 300 GeV. In the past, both ground-based gamma-ray telescopes VERITAS and MAGIC have reported detections of TeV emission near the apastron phases of the binary orbit. The observations presented here show no strong evidence for TeV emission during these orbital phases; however, during observations taken in late 2010, significant emission was detected from the source close to the phase of superior conjunction (much closer to periastron passage) at a 5.6 standard deviation (5.6σ) post-trials significance. In total, between 2008 October and 2010 December a total exposure of 64.5 hr was accumulated with VERITAS on LS I +61° 303, resulting in an excess at the 3.3σ significance level for constant emission over the entire integrated data set. The flux upper limits derived for emission during the previously reliably active TeV phases (i.e., close to apastron) are less than 5% of the Crab Nebula flux in the same energy range. This result stands in apparent contrast to previous observations by both MAGIC and VERITAS which detected the source during these phases at 10% of the Crab Nebula flux. During the two year span of observations, a large amount of X-ray data were also accrued on LS I +61° 303 by theSwift X-ray Telescope and the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer Proportional Counter Array. We find no evidence for a correlation between emission in the X-ray and TeV regimes during 20 directly overlapping observations. We also comment on data obtained contemporaneously by the Fermi Large Area Telescope.

  • 28.
    Acero, F.
    et al.
    CEA Saclay, France.
    Aloisio, R.
    Arcetri Observatory, Italy ; University of L'Aquila, Italy ; Gran Sasso Science Institute, Italy.
    Amans, J.
    Paris Observatory, France.
    Amato, E.
    Arcetri Observatory, Italy.
    Antonelli, L. A.
    Rome Observatory, Italy.
    Aramo, C.
    INFN Sezione di Napoli, Italy.
    Armstrong, T.
    Durham University, UK.
    Arqueros, F.
    Complutense University of Madrid, Spain.
    Asano, K.
    University of Tokyo, Japan.
    Ashley, M.
    University of New South Wales, Australia.
    Backes, M.
    Univ Namibia, Namibia.
    Balazs, C.
    Monash Univ, Australia.
    Balzer, A.
    Univ Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Bamba, A.
    Univ Tokyo, Japan.
    Barkov, M.
    RIKEN, Inst Phys & Chem Res, Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 3510198, Japan..
    Barrio, J. A.
    Univ Complutense Madrid, Grp Altas Energias, Av Complutense, Madrid, Spain..
    Benbow, W.
    Harvard Smithsonian Ctr Astrophys, 60 Garden St, Cambridge, MA 02180 USA..
    Bernloehr, K.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Saupfercheckweg 1, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Beshley, V.
    Inst Appl Problems Mech & Math, 3B Naukova St, Lvov, Ukraine..
    Bigongiari, C.
    Osserv Astron Torino, INAF, Corso Fiume 4, Turin, Italy..
    Biland, A.
    Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Inst Particle Phys, Schafmattstr 20, Zurich, Switzerland..
    Bilinsky, A.
    Ivan Franko Natl Univ Lviv, Astron Observ, 1 Univ Ska St, UA-79000 City Of Lviv, Ukraine..
    Bissaldi, E.
    Politecn Bari, Bari, Italy.;INFN Bari, Bari, Italy..
    Biteau, J.
    Univ Paris 11, IPNO, IN2P3, CNRS, 15 Rue Georges Clemenceau, Orsay, France.;Univ Paris 11, UMR 8608, 15 Rue Georges Clemenceau, Orsay, France..
    Blanch, O.
    IFAE, Barcelona Inst Sci & Technol, Campus UAB, Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain..
    Blasi, P.
    Osserv Astrofis Arcetri, Largo E Fermi 5, Florence, Italy..
    Blazek, J.
    Acad Sci Czech Republic, Inst Phys, Slovance, Prague 18221 8, Czech Republic..
    Boisson, C.
    Observ Paris, CNRS, LUTH, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, Meudon, France.;Observ Paris, CNRS, GEPI, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, Meudon, France..
    Bonanno, G.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Catania, Via S Sofia 78, Catania, Italy..
    Bonardi, A.
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, POB 9010, GL Nijmegen, Netherlands..
    Bonavolonta, C.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Napoli, Via Cintia,Ed G, Naples, Italy..
    Bonnoli, G.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Brera, Via Brera 28, Milan, Italy..
    Braiding, C.
    Univ New South Wales, Sch Phys, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia..
    Brau-Nogue, S.
    IRAP, 9 Ave Colonel Roche,BP 44346, Toulouse 4, France..
    Bregeon, J.
    Univ Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, Montpellier 5, France..
    Brown, A. M.
    Univ Durham, Dept Phys, South Rd, Durham DH1 3LE, UK;Univ Durham, Ctr Adv Instrumentat, South Rd, Durham DH1 3LE, UK.
    Bugaev, V.
    Washington Univ, Dept Phys, St Louis, MO 63130 USA..
    Bulgarelli, A.
    Ist Astrofis Spaziale & Fis Cosm Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 101, Bologna, Italy..
    Bulik, T.
    Univ Warsaw, Fac Phys, Ul Hoza 69, Warsaw, Poland..
    Burton, M.
    Univ New South Wales, Sch Phys, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia..
    Burtovoi, A.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Padova, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, Padua, Italy..
    Busetto, G.
    Univ Padua, Dipartimento Fis, Via Marzolo 8, Padua, Italy..
    Bottcher, M.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, Potchefstroom Campus, Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Cameron, R.
    Stanford Univ, Dept Phys, Kavli Inst Particle Astrophys & Cosmol, 2575 Sand Hill Rd, Menlo Pk, CA 94025 USA.;Stanford Univ, Dept Phys, SLAC Natl Accelerator Lab, 2575 Sand Hill Rd, Menlo Pk, CA 94025 USA..
    Capalbi, M.
    INAF Ist Astrofis Spaziale & Fis Cosm Palermo, Via U La Malfa 153, Palermo, Italy..
    Caproni, A.
    UCS, NAT, Rua Galvao Bueno 8687,Bloco B,Sala 16, Sao Paulo, Brazil..
    Caraveo, P.
    Ist Astrofis Spaziale & Fis Cosm, Via Bassini 15, Milan, Italy..
    Carosi, R.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Pisa, Largo Pontecorvo 3, Pisa, Italy..
    Cascone, E.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Brera, Via Brera 28, Milan, Italy..
    Cerruti, M.
    Harvard Smithsonian Ctr Astrophys, 60 Garden St, Cambridge, MA 02180 USA..
    Chaty, S.
    CEA Saclay, CEA, IRFU, SAp, Bat 709, Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Chen, A.
    Univ Witwatersrand, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Chen, X.
    Pontificia Univ Catolica Chile, Avda Libertador Bernardo OHiggins 340, Santiago, Chile..
    Chernyakova, M.
    Dublin City Univ, Dublin 9, Ireland..
    Chikawa, M.
    Kindai Univ, Dept Phys, Higashiosaka, Osaka 5778502, Japan..
    Chudoba, J.
    Acad Sci Czech Republic, Inst Phys, Slovance, Prague 18221 8, Czech Republic..
    Cohen-Tanugi, J.
    Univ Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, Montpellier 5, France..
    Colafrancesco, S.
    Univ Witwatersrand, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Conforti, V.
    Ist Astrofis Spaziale & Fis Cosm Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 101, Bologna, Italy..
    Contreras, J. L.
    Univ Complutense Madrid, Grp Altas Energias, Av Complutense, Madrid, Spain..
    Costa, A.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Catania, Via S Sofia 78, Catania, Italy..
    Cotter, G.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Phys, 1 Keble Rd, Oxford OX1 3NP, UK.
    Covino, S.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Brera, Via Brera 28, Milan, Italy..
    Covone, G.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Napoli, Via Cintia,Ed G, Naples, Italy..
    Cumani, P.
    IFAE, Barcelona Inst Sci & Technol, Campus UAB, Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain..
    Cusumano, G.
    INAF Ist Astrofis Spaziale & Fis Cosm Palermo, Via U La Malfa 153, Palermo, Italy..
    D'Ammando, F.
    INAF IRA, INAF, Ist Radioastron, Via Gobetti 101, Bologna, Italy..
    D'Urso, D.
    INFN, Sez Perugia, Via A Pascoli, Perugia, Italy..
    Daniel, M.
    Harvard Smithsonian Ctr Astrophys, 60 Garden St, Cambridge, MA 02180 USA..
    Dazzi, F.
    Cherenkov Telescope Array Observ, Saupfercheckweg 1, Heidelberg, Germany..
    De Angelis, A.
    Univ Padua, Dipartimento Fis, Via Marzolo 8, Padua, Italy..
    De Cesare, G.
    Ist Astrofis Spaziale & Fis Cosm Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 101, Bologna, Italy..
    De Franco, A.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Phys, 1 Keble Rd, Oxford OX1 3NP, UK.
    De Frondat, F.
    Observ Paris, CNRS, LUTH, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, Meudon, France.;Observ Paris, CNRS, GEPI, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, Meudon, France..
    Dal Pino, E. M. de Gouveia
    Univ Sao Paulo, Inst Astron Geofis & Ciencias Atmosfer, R Matao 1226, Sao Paulo, Brazil..
    De Lisio, C.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Napoli, Via Cintia,Ed G, Naples, Italy..
    Lopez, R. de los Reyes
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Saupfercheckweg 1, Heidelberg, Germany..
    De Lotto, B.
    Univ Udine, Via Sci 208, Udine, Italy.;INFN, Sez Trieste, Via Sci 208, Udine, Italy..
    de Naurois, M.
    Ecole Polytech, CNRS, UMR 7638, Lab Leprince Ringuet, Palaiseau, France..
    De Palma, F.
    INFN, Sez Bari, Via Orabona 4, Bari, Italy..
    Del Santo, M.
    INAF Ist Astrofis Spaziale & Fis Cosm Palermo, Via U La Malfa 153, Palermo, Italy..
    Delgado, C.
    CIEMAT, Avda Complutense 40, Madrid, Spain..
    della Volpe, D.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Phys Nucl & Corpusculaire, 24 Rue Gen Dufour, Geneva 4, Switzerland..
    Di Girolamo, T.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Napoli, Via Cintia,Ed G, Naples, Italy..
    Di Giulio, C.
    INFN, Sez Roma Tor Vergata, Via Ric Sci 1, Rome, Italy..
    Di Pierro, F.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Torino, Via P Giuria 1, Turin, Italy..
    Di Venere, L.
    Univ Bari, Bari, Italy.;INFN Bari, Bari, Italy..
    Doro, M.
    Univ Padua, Dipartimento Fis, Via Marzolo 8, Padua, Italy..
    Dournaux, J.
    Observ Paris, CNRS, LUTH, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, Meudon, France.;Observ Paris, CNRS, GEPI, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, Meudon, France..
    Dumas, D.
    Observ Paris, CNRS, LUTH, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, Meudon, France.;Observ Paris, CNRS, GEPI, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, Meudon, France..
    Dwarkadas, V.
    Univ Chicago, Enrico Fermi Inst, 5640 South Ellis Ave, Chicago, IL 60637 USA..
    Diaz, C.
    CIEMAT, Avda Complutense 40, Madrid, Spain..
    Ebr, J.
    Acad Sci Czech Republic, Inst Phys, Slovance, Prague 18221 8, Czech Republic..
    Egberts, K.
    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Golm, Germany..
    Einecke, S.
    TU Dortmund Univ, Dept Phys, Otto Hahn Str 4, Dortmund, Germany..
    Elsaesser, D.
    Univ Wurzburg, Inst Theoret Phys & Astrophys, Campus Hubland Nord,Emil Fischer Str 31, Wurzburg, Germany..
    Eschbach, S.
    Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Inst Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, Erlangen, Germany..
    Falceta-Goncalves, D.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Escola Arles Ciencias & Humanidades, Rua Arlindo Bettio 1000, Sao Paulo, Brazil..
    Fasola, G.
    Observ Paris, CNRS, LUTH, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, Meudon, France.;Observ Paris, CNRS, GEPI, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, Meudon, France..
    Fedorova, E.
    Taras Shevchenko Natl Univ Kyiv, Astron Observ, 60 Volodymyrska St, Kiev, Ukraine..
    Fernandez-Barral, A.
    IFAE, Barcelona Inst Sci & Technol, Campus UAB, Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain..
    Ferrand, G.
    RIKEN, Inst Phys & Chem Res, Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 3510198, Japan..
    Fesquet, M.
    CEA Saclay, CEA, IRFU, SEDI, Bat 141, Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Fiandrini, E.
    INFN, Sez Perugia, Via A Pascoli, Perugia, Italy..
    Fiasson, A.
    Univ Savoie, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Annecy le Vieux Phys Particules, 9 Chemin Bellevue BP 110, Annecy Le Vieux, France..
    Filipovic, M. D.
    Western Sydney Univ, Locked Bag 1797, Penrith, NSW 2751, Australia..
    Fioretti, V.
    Ist Astrofis Spaziale & Fis Cosm Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 101, Bologna, Italy..
    Font, L.
    Univ Autonoma Barcelona, Dept Fis, Unitat Fis Radiac, Bellaterra, Spain.;Univ Autonoma Barcelona, CERES IEEC, Bellaterra, Spain.;Edifici Cc,Campus UAB, Bellaterra, Spain..
    Fontaine, G.
    Ecole Polytech, CNRS, UMR 7638, Lab Leprince Ringuet, Palaiseau, France..
    Franco, F. J.
    Univ Complutense Madrid, Grp Elect, Ave Complutense Madrid, Spain..
    Freixas Coromina, L.
    CIEMAT, Avda Complutense 40, Madrid, Spain..
    Fujita, Y.
    Osaka Univ, Grad Sch Sci, Dept Earth & Space Sci, Toyonaka, Osaka 5600043, Japan..
    Fukui, Y.
    Nagoya Univ, Dept Phys & Astrophys, Chikusa Ku, Nagoya, Aichi 4648602, Japan..
    Funk, S.
    Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Inst Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, Erlangen, Germany..
    Forster, A.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Saupfercheckweg 1, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Gadola, A.
    Univ Zurich, Inst Phys, Winterthurerstr 190, Zurich, Switzerland..
    Lopez, R. Garcia
    Inst Astrofis Canarias, Via Lactea, Tenerife, Spain..
    Garczarczyk, M.
    DESY, Platanenallee 6, Zeuthen, Germany..
    Giglietto, N.
    Politecn Bari, Bari, Italy.;INFN Bari, Bari, Italy..
    Giordano, F.
    Univ Bari, Bari, Italy.;INFN Bari, Bari, Italy..
    Giuliani, A.
    Ist Astrofis Spaziale & Fis Cosm, Via Bassini 15, Milan, Italy..
    Glicenstein, J.
    CEA Saclay, CEA, IRFU, SPP, Bat 141, Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Gnatyk, R.
    Taras Shevchenko Natl Univ Kyiv, Astron Observ, 60 Volodymyrska St, Kiev, Ukraine..
    Goldoni, P.
    Univ Paris Diderot, APC, CNRS IN2P3, CEA Irfu,Obs Paris,Sorbonne Paris Cite, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, Paris 13, France..
    Grabarczyk, T.
    Acad Comp Ctr CYFRONET AGH, Ul Nawojki 11, Krakow, Poland..
    Graciani, R.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Dept Fis Quant & Astrofis, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona, Spain..
    Graham, J.
    Univ Durham, Dept Phys, South Rd, Durham DH1 3LE, UK;Univ Durham, Ctr Adv Instrumentat, South Rd, Durham DH1 3LE, UK.
    Grandi, P.
    Ist Astrofis Spaziale & Fis Cosm Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 101, Bologna, Italy..
    Granot, J.
    Open Univ Israel, Dept Nat Sci, 1 Univ Rd,POB 808, Raanana, Israel..
    Green, A. J.
    Univ Sydney, Sch Phys, Sydney Inst Astron, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia..
    Griffiths, S.
    IFAE, Barcelona Inst Sci & Technol, Campus UAB, Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain..
    Gunji, S.
    Yamagata Univ, Dept Phys, Yamagata, Yamagata 9908560, Japan..
    Hakobyan, H.
    Univ Tecn Federico Santa Maria, Ave Espana 1680, Valparaiso, Chile..
    Hara, S.
    Yamanashi Gakuin Univ, Fac Management Informat, Kofu, Yamanashi 4008575, Japan..
    Hassan, T.
    IFAE, Barcelona Inst Sci & Technol, Campus UAB, Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain..
    Hayashida, M.
    Univ Tokyo, Inst Cosm Ray Res, Kashi Wwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 2778582, Japan..
    Heller, M.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Phys Nucl & Corpusculaire, 24 Rue Gen Dufour, Geneva 4, Switzerland..
    Helo, J. C.
    Univ Tecn Federico Santa Maria, Ave Espana 1680, Valparaiso, Chile..
    Hinton, J.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Saupfercheckweg 1, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Hnatyk, B.
    Taras Shevchenko Natl Univ Kyiv, Astron Observ, 60 Volodymyrska St, Kiev, Ukraine..
    Huet, J.
    Observ Paris, CNRS, LUTH, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, Meudon, France.;Observ Paris, CNRS, GEPI, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, Meudon, France..
    Huetten, M.
    DESY, Platanenallee 6, Zeuthen, Germany..
    Humensky, T. B.
    Columbia Univ, Dept Phys, 538 West 120th St, New York, NY 10027 USA..
    Hussein, M.
    Univ Manitoba, 540 Machray Hall, Winnipeg, MB R3T 2N2, Canada..
    Horandel, J.
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, POB 9010, GL Nijmegen, Netherlands..
    Ikeno, Y.
    Tokai Univ, Dept Phys, Kita Kaname, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 2591292, Japan..
    Inada, T.
    Univ Tokyo, Inst Cosm Ray Res, Kashi Wwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 2778582, Japan..
    Inome, Y.
    Konan Univ, Dept Phys, Kobe, Hyogo 6588501, Japan..
    Inoue, S.
    RIKEN, Inst Phys & Chem Res, Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 3510198, Japan..
    Inoue, T.
    Natl Astron Observ Japan, Div Theoret Astron, Osawa Mitaka, Tokyo 1818588, Japan..
    Inoue, Y.
    Japan Aerosp Explorat Agcy, Inst Space & Astronaut Sci, Chuo Ku, Yoshinodai, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 2525210, Japan..
    Ioka, K.
    Kyoto Univ, Yukawa Inst Theoret Phys, Kyoto 6068502, Japan..
    Iori, M.
    INFN, Sez Roma La Sapienza, Ple Aldo Moro 2, Rome, Italy..
    Jacquemier, J.
    Univ Savoie, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Annecy le Vieux Phys Particules, 9 Chemin Bellevue BP 110, Annecy Le Vieux, France..
    Janecek, P.
    Acad Sci Czech Republic, Inst Phys, Slovance, Prague 18221 8, Czech Republic..
    Jankowsky, D.
    Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Inst Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, Erlangen, Germany..
    Jung, I.
    Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Inst Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, Erlangen, Germany..
    Kaaret, P.
    Univ Iowa, Dept Phys & Astron, Van Allen Hall, Iowa City, IA 52242 USA..
    Katagiri, H.
    Ibaraki Univ, Fac Sci, Mito, Ibaraki 3108512, Japan..
    Kimeswenger, S.
    Univ Catolica Norte, Ave Angamos 0610, Antofagasta, Chile..
    Kimura, S.
    Tokai Univ, Dept Phys, Kita Kaname, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 2591292, Japan..
    Knodlseder, J.
    IRAP, 9 Ave Colonel Roche,BP 44346, Toulouse 4, France..
    Koch, B.
    Pontificia Univ Catolica Chile, Avda Libertador Bernardo OHiggins 340, Santiago, Chile..
    Kocot, J.
    Acad Comp Ctr CYFRONET AGH, Ul Nawojki 11, Krakow, Poland..
    Kohri, K.
    KEK High Energy Accelerator Org, Inst Particle & Nucl Studies, Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 3050801, Japan..
    Komin, N.
    Univ Witwatersrand, 1 Jan Smuts Ave,Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Konno, Y.
    Kyoto Univ, Grad Sch Sci, Div Phys & Astron, Sakyo Ku, Kyoto 6068502, Japan..
    Kosack, K.
    CEA Saclay, CEA, IRFU, SAp, Bat 709, Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Koyama, S.
    Japan Aerosp Explorat Agcy, Inst Space & Astronaut Sci, Chuo Ku, Yoshinodai, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 2525210, Japan..
    Kraus, M.
    Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Inst Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, Erlangen, Germany..
    Kubo, H.
    Kyoto Univ, Grad Sch Sci, Div Phys & Astron, Sakyo Ku, Kyoto 6068502, Japan..
    Mezek, G. Kukec
    Univ Nova Gorica, Lab Astroparticle Phys, Vipayska 13, Nova Gorica 5000, Slovenia..
    Kushida, J.
    Tokai Univ, Dept Phys, Kita Kaname, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 2591292, Japan..
    La Palombara, N.
    Ist Astrofis Spaziale & Fis Cosm, Via Bassini 15, Milan, Italy..
    Lalik, K.
    Polish Acad Sci, Henryk Niewodniczanski Inst Nucl Phys, Ul Radzikowskiego 152, Krakow, Poland..
    Lamanna, G.
    Univ Savoie, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Annecy le Vieux Phys Particules, 9 Chemin Bellevue BP 110, Annecy Le Vieux, France..
    Landt, H.
    Univ Durham, Dept Phys, South Rd, Durham DH1 3LE, UK;Univ Durham, Ctr Adv Instrumentat, South Rd, Durham DH1 3LE, UK.
    Lapington, J.
    Univ Leicester, Dept Phys & Astron, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, UK.
    Laporte, P.
    Observ Paris, CNRS, LUTH, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, Meudon, France.;Observ Paris, CNRS, GEPI, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Lee, S.
    Japan Aerosp Explorat Agcy, Inst Space & Astronaut Sci, Chuo Ku, Yoshinodai, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 2525210, Japan..
    Lees, J.
    Univ Savoie, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Annecy le Vieux Phys Particules, 9 Chemin Bellevue BP 110, Annecy Le Vieux, France..
    Lefaucheur, J.
    Observ Paris, CNRS, LUTH, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, Meudon, France.;Observ Paris, CNRS, GEPI, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, Meudon, France..
    Lenain, J. -P
    Leto, G.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Catania, Via S Sofia 78, Catania, Italy..
    Lindfors, E.
    Univ Turku, Tuorla Observ, Piikkio, Finland..
    Lohse, T.
    Humboldt Univ, Dept Phys, Newtonstr 15, Berlin, Germany..
    Lombardi, S.
    Osserv Astron Roma, INAF, Via Frascati 33, Monte Porzio Catone, Italy..
    Longo, F.
    Univ Trieste, Trieste, Italy.;INFN, Sezione Trieste, Trieste, Italy..
    Lopez, M.
    Univ Complutense Madrid, Grp Altas Energias, Av Complutense S-N, Madrid, Spain..
    Lucarelli, F.
    Osserv Astron Roma, INAF, Via Frascati 33, Monte Porzio Catone, Italy..
    Luque-Escamilla, P. L.
    Univ Jaen, Escuela Politecn Super Jaen, Campus Las Lagunillas, Edif A3, Jaen, Spain..
    Lopez-Coto, R.
    IFAE, Barcelona Inst Sci & Technol, Campus UAB, Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain..
    Maccarone, M. C.
    INAF Ist Astrofis Spaziale & Fis Cosm Palermo, Via U La Malfa 153, Palermo, Italy..
    Maier, G.
    DESY, Platanenallee 6, Zeuthen, Germany..
    Malaguti, G.
    Ist Astrofis Spaziale & Fis Cosm Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 101, Bologna, Italy..
    Mandat, D.
    Acad Sci Czech Republic, Inst Phys, Slovance, Prague 18221 8, Czech Republic..
    Maneva, G.
    BAS, Inst Nucl Res & Nucl Energy, 72 Blvd Tsarigradsko Chaussee, Sofia 1784, Bulgaria..
    Mangano, S.
    CIEMAT, Avda Complutense 40, Madrid, Spain..
    Marcowith, A.
    Univ Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, Montpellier 5, France..
    Marti, J.
    Univ Jaen, Escuela Politecn Super Jaen, Campus Las Lagunillas,Edif A3, Jaen, Spain..
    Martinez, M.
    IFAE, Barcelona Inst Sci & Technol, Campus UAB,Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain..
    Martinez, G.
    CIEMAT, Avda Complutense 40, Madrid, Spain..
    Masuda, S.
    Kyoto Univ, Grad Sch Sci, Div Phys & Astron, Sakyo Ku, Kyoto 6068502, Japan..
    Maurin, G.
    Univ Savoie, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Annecy le Vieux Phys Particules, 9 Chemin Bellevue BP 110, Annecy Le Vieux, France..
    Maxted, N.
    Univ New South Wales, Sch Phys, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia..
    Melioli, C.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Inst Astron Geofis & Ciencias Atmosfer, R Matao 1226, Sao Paulo, Brazil..
    Mineo, T.
    INAF Ist Astrofis Spaziale & Fis Cosm Palermo, Via U La Malfa 153, Palermo, Italy..
    Mirabal, N.
    Univ Complutense Madrid, Grp Altas Energias, Av Complutense Madrid, Spain..
    Mizuno, T.
    Hiroshima Univ, Hiroshima Astrophys Sci Ctr, Hiroshima 7398526, Japan..
    Moderski, R.
    Polish Acad Sci, Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, Warsaw, Poland..
    Mohammed, M.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Montaruli, T.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Phys Nucl & Corpusculaire, 24 Rue Gen Dufour, Geneva 4, Switzerland..
    Moralejo, A.
    IFAE, Barcelona Inst Sci & Technol, Campus UAB, Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain..
    Mori, K.
    Miyazaki Univ, Dept Appl Phys, Gakuen Kibana Dai Nishi, Miyazaki 8892192, Japan..
    Morlino, G.
    Univ Aquila, Dipartimento Sci Fis & Chim, INFN, Via Vetoio 1, Laquila, Italy.;Gran Sasso Sci Inst, Via Vetoio 1, Laquila, Italy..
    Morselli, A.
    INFN, Sez Roma Tor Vergata, Via Ric Sci 1, Italy..
    Moulin, E.
    CEA Saclay, CEA, IRFU, SPP, Bat 141, Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Mukherjee, R.
    Columbia Univ, Dept Phys, 538 West 120th St, New York, NY 10027 USA..
    Mundell, C.
    Univ Bath, Bath BA2 7AY, Avon, UK.
    Muraishi, H.
    Kitasato Univ, Sch Allied Hlth Sci, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 2288555, Japan..
    Murase, K.
    Univ Tokyo, Inst Cosm Ray Res, Kashi Wwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 2778582, Japan..
    Nagataki, S.
    RIKEN, Inst Phys & Chem Res, Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 3510198, Japan..
    Nagayoshi, T.
    Saitama Univ, Grad Sch Sci & Engn, Sakura Ku, 255 Simo Ohkubo, Saitama City, Saitama 3388570, Japan..
    Naito, T.
    Yamanashi Gakuin Univ, Fac Management Informat, Kofu, Yamanashi 4008575, Japan..
    Nakajima, D.
    Univ Tokyo, Inst Cosm Ray Res, Kashi Wwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 2778582, Japan.;Max Planck Inst Phys & Astrophys, Fohringer Ring 6, Munich, Germany..
    Nakamori, T.
    Yamagata Univ, Dept Phys, Yamagata, Yamagata 9908560, Japan..
    Nemmen, R.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Inst Astron Geofis & Ciencias Atmosfer, R Matao 1226, Sao Paulo, Brazil..
    Niemiec, J.
    Polish Acad Sci, Henryk Niewodniczanski Inst Nucl Phys, Ul Radzikowskiego 152, Krakow, Poland..
    Nieto, D.
    Columbia Univ, Dept Phys, 538 West 120th St, New York, NY 10027 USA..
    Nievas-Rosillo, M.
    Univ Complutense Madrid, Grp Altas Energias, Av Complutense, Madrid, Spain..
    Nikolajuk, M.
    Univ Bialystok, Fac Phys, Ul K Ciolkowskiego 1L, Bialystok, Poland..
    Nishijima, K.
    Tokai Univ, Dept Phys, Kita Kaname, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 2591292, Japan..
    Noda, K.
    Univ Tokyo, Inst Cosm Ray Res, Kashi Wwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 2778582, Japan.;Max Planck Inst Phys & Astrophys, Fohringer Ring 6, Munich, Germany..
    Nogues, L.
    IFAE, Barcelona Inst Sci & Technol, Campus UAB, Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain..
    Nosek, D.
    Charles Univ Prague, Inst Particle & Nucl Phys, V Holesovickach 2, Prague 18000 8, Czech Republic..
    Novosyadlyj, B.
    Ivan Franko Natl Univ Lviv, Astron Observ, 1 Univ Ska St, City Of Lviv, Ukraine..
    Nozaki, S.
    Kyoto Univ, Grad Sch Sci, Div Phys & Astron, Sakyo Ku, Kyoto 6068502, Japan..
    Ohira, Y.
    Aoyama Gakuin Univ, Dept Math & Phys, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 2298558, Japan..
    Ohishi, M.
    Univ Tokyo, Inst Cosm Ray Res, Kashi Wwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 2778582, Japan..
    Ohm, S.
    DESY, Platanenallee 6, Zeuthen, Germany..
    Okumura, A.
    Nagoya Univ, Inst Space Earth Environm Res, Chikusa Ku, Nagoya, Aichi 4648601, Japan..
    Ong, R. A.
    Univ Calif Los Angeles, Dept Phys & Astron, Los Angeles, CA 90095 USA..
    Orito, R.
    Tokushima Univ, Grad Sch Sci & Technol, Tokushima 7708506, Japan..
    Orlati, A.
    INAF IRA, INAF, Ist Radioastron, Via Gobetti 101, Bologna, Italy..
    Ostrowski, M.
    Jagiellonian Univ, Fac Phys Astron & Appl Comp Sci, Ul Prof Stanislawa Lojasiewicza 11, Krakow, Poland..
    Oya, I.
    DESY, Platanenallee 6, Zeuthen, Germany..
    Padovani, M.
    Univ Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, Montpellier 5, France..
    Palacio, J.
    IFAE, Barcelona Inst Sci & Technol, Campus UAB, Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain..
    Palatka, M.
    Acad Sci Czech Republic, Inst Phys, Slovance, Prague 18221 8, Czech Republic..
    Paredes, J. M.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Dept Fis Quant & Astrofis, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona, Spain..
    Pavy, S.
    Ecole Polytech, CNRS, UMR 7638, Lab Leprince Ringuet, Palaiseau, France..
    Pe'er, A.
    Max Planck Inst Phys & Astrophys, Fohringer Ring 6, Munich, Germany..
    Persic, M.
    Univ Udine, Via Sci 208, Udine, Italy.;INFN, Sez Trieste, Via Sci 208, Udine, Italy.;Osserv Astron Trieste, Via Sci 208, Udine, Italy.;Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Trieste, Via Sci 208, Udine, Italy..
    Petrucci, P.
    Univ Joseph Fourier, INSU CNRS, Inst Planetol & Astrophys Grenoble, 621 Ave Cent,Domaine Univ, Grenoble 9, France..
    Petruk, O.
    Inst Appl Problems Mech & Math, 3B Naukova St, Lvov, Ukraine..
    Pisarski, A.
    Univ Bialystok, Fac Phys, Ul K Ciolkowskiego 1L, Bialystok, Poland..
    Pohl, M.
    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Karl Liebknecht Str, Golm, Germany..
    Porcelli, A.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Phys Nucl & Corpusculaire, 24 Rue Gen Dufour, Geneva 4, Switzerland..
    Prandini, E.
    Univ Geneva, Observ Geneva, ISDC Data Ctr Astrophys, Chemin Ecogia 16, Versoix, Switzerland..
    Prast, J.
    Univ Savoie, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Annecy le Vieux Phys Particules, 9 Chemin Bellevue BP 110, Annecy Le Vieux, France..
    Principe, G.
    Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Inst Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1,Erlangen, Germany..
    Prouza, M.
    Acad Sci Czech Republic, Inst Phys, Slovance, Prague 18221 8, Czech Republic..
    Pueschel, E.
    Univ Coll Dublin, Dublin 4, Ireland..
    Puelhofer, G.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, Tubingen, Germany..
    Quirrenbach, A.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Rameez, M.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Phys Nucl & Corpusculaire, 24 Rue Gen Dufour, Geneva 4, Switzerland..
    Reimer, O.
    Leopold Franzens Univ, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, Technikerstr , Innsbruck, Austria..
    Renaud, M.
    Univ Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, Montpellier 5, France..
    Ribo, M.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Dept Fis Quant & Astrofis, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona, Spain..
    Rico, J.
    IFAE, Barcelona Inst Sci & Technol, Campus UAB, Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain..
    Rizi, V.
    Univ Aquila, Dipartimento Sci Fis & Chim, INFN, Via Vetoio 1, Laquila, Italy.;Gran Sasso Sci Inst, Via Vetoio 1, Laquila, Italy..
    Rodriguez, J.
    CEA Saclay, CEA, IRFU, SAp, Bat 709, Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Fernandez, G. Rodriguez
    INFN, Sez Roma Tor Vergata, Via Ric Sci 1, Rome, Italy..
    Rodriguez Vazquez, J. J.
    CIEMAT, Avda Complutense 40, Madrid, Spain..
    Romano, P.
    INAF Ist Astrofis Spaziale & Fis Cosm Palermo, Via U La Malfa 153, Palermo, Italy..
    Romeo, G.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Catania, Via S Sofia 78, Catania, Italy..
    Rosado, J.
    Univ Complutense Madrid, Grp Altas Energias, Av Complutense, Madrid, Spain..
    Rousselle, J.
    Univ Calif Los Angeles, Dept Phys & Astron, Los Angeles, CA 90095 USA..
    Rowell, G.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Rudak, B.
    Polish Acad Sci, Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, Warsaw, Poland..
    Sadeh, I.
    DESY, Platanenallee 6, Zeuthen, Germany..
    Safi-Harb, S.
    Univ Manitoba, 540 Machray Hall, Winnipeg, MB R3T 2N2, Canada..
    Saito, T.
    Kyoto Univ, Grad Sch Sci, Div Phys & Astron, Sakyo Ku, Kyoto 6068502, Japan..
    Sakaki, N.
    Univ Tokyo, Inst Cosm Ray Res, Kashi Wwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 2778582, Japan..
    Sanchez, D.
    Univ Savoie, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Annecy le Vieux Phys Particules, 9 Chemin Bellevue BP 110, Annecy Le Vieux, France..
    Sangiorgi, P.
    INAF Ist Astrofis Spaziale & Fis Cosm Palermo, Via U La Malfa 153, Palermo, Italy..
    Sano, H.
    Nagoya Univ, Dept Phys & Astrophys, Chikusa Ku, Nagoya, Aichi 4648602, Japan..
    Santander, M.
    Columbia Univ, Dept Phys, 538 West 120th St, New York, NY 10027 USA..
    Sarkar, S.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Phys, 1 Keble Rd, Oxford OX1 3NP, UK.
    Sawada, M.
    Aoyama Gakuin Univ, Dept Math & Phys, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 2298558, Japan..
    Schioppa, E. J.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Phys Nucl & Corpusculaire, 24 Rue Gen Dufour, Geneva 4, Switzerland..
    Schoorlemmer, H.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Saupfercheckweg 1, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Schovanek, P.
    Acad Sci Czech Republic, Inst Phys, Slovance, Prague 18221 8, Czech Republic..
    Schussler, F.
    CEA Saclay, CEA, IRFU, SPP, Bat 141, Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Sergijenko, O.
    Ivan Franko Natl Univ Lviv, Astron Observ, 1 Univ Ska St, City Of Lviv, Ukraine..
    Servillat, M.
    Observ Paris, CNRS, LUTH, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, Meudon, France.;Observ Paris, CNRS, GEPI, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, Meudon, France..
    Shalchi, A.
    Univ Manitoba, 540 Machray Hall, Winnipeg, MB R3T 2N2, Canada..
    Shellard, R. C.
    Ctr Brasileiro Pesquisas Fis, Rua Xavier Sigaud 150, Rio De Janeiro, Brazil..
    Siejkowski, H.
    Acad Comp Ctr CYFRONET AGH, Ul Nawojki 11, Krakow, Poland..
    Sillanpaa, A.
    Univ Turku, Tuorla Observ, Piikkio, Finland..
    Simone, D.
    INFN, Sez Bari, Via Orabona 4, Bari, Italy..
    Sliusar, V.
    Univ Geneva, Observ Geneva, ISDC Data Ctr Astrophys, Chemin Ecogia 16, Versoix, Switzerland..
    Sol, H.
    Observ Paris, CNRS, LUTH, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, Meudon, France.;Observ Paris, CNRS, GEPI, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, Meudon, France..
    Stanic, S.
    Univ Nova Gorica, Lab Astroparticle Phys, Vipayska 13, Nova Gorica 5000, Slovenia..
    Starling, R.
    Univ Leicester, Dept Phys & Astron, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, UK.
    Stawarz, L.
    Jagiellonian Univ, Fac Phys Astron & Appl Comp Sci, Ul Prof Stanislawa Lojasiewicza 11, Krakow, Poland..
    Stefanik, S.
    Charles Univ Prague, Inst Particle & Nucl Phys, V Holesovickach 2, Prague 18000 8, Czech Republic..
    Stephan, M.
    Univ Amsterdam, Astron Inst Anton Pannekoek, Sci Pk 904, XH Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Stolarczyk, T.
    CEA Saclay, CEA, IRFU, SAp, Bat 709, Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Szanecki, M.
    Univ Lodz, Fac Phys & Appl Comp Sci, Ul Pomorska Lodz, Poland..
    Szepieniec, T.
    Acad Comp Ctr CYFRONET AGH, Ul Nawojki 11, Krakow, Poland..
    Tagliaferri, G.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Brera, Via Brera 28, Milan, Italy..
    Tajima, H.
    Nagoya Univ, Inst Space Earth Environm Res, Chikusa Ku, Nagoya, Aichi 4648601, Japan..
    Takahashi, M.
    Univ Tokyo, Inst Cosm Ray Res, Kashi Wwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 2778582, Japan..
    Takeda, J.
    Yamagata Univ, Dept Phys, Yamagata, Yamagata 9908560, Japan..
    Tanaka, M.
    KEK High Energy Accelerator Org, Inst Particle & Nucl Studies, Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 3050801, Japan..
    Tanaka, S.
    Konan Univ, Dept Phys, Kobe, Hyogo 6588501, Japan..
    Tejedor, L. A.
    Univ Complutense Madrid, Grp Altas Energias, Av Complutense, Madrid, Spain..
    Telezhinsky, I.
    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Karl Liebknecht Str, Golm, Germany..
    Temnikov, P.
    BAS, Inst Nucl Res & Nucl Energy, 72 Blvd Tsarigradsko Chaussee, Sofia 1784, Bulgaria..
    Terada, Y.
    Saitama Univ, Grad Sch Sci & Engn, Sakura Ku, 255 Simo Ohkubo, Saitama City, Saitama 3388570, Japan..
    Tescaro, D.
    Univ Padua, Dipartimento Fis, Via Marzolo 8, Padua, Italy..
    Teshima, M.
    Univ Tokyo, Inst Cosm Ray Res, Kashi Wwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 2778582, Japan.;Max Planck Inst Phys & Astrophys, Fohringer Ring 6, Munich, Germany..
    Testa, V.
    Osserv Astron Roma, INAF, Via Frascati 33, Monte Porzio Catone, Italy..
    Thoudam, Satyendra
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för fysik och elektroteknik (IFE).
    Tokanai, F.
    Yamagata Univ, Dept Phys, Yamagata, Yamagata 9908560, Japan..
    Torres, D. F.
    Inst Space Sci IEEC CSIC, Campus UAB,Caner Can Magrans Cerdanyola Del Valles, Spain.;ICREA, Campus UAB,Caner Can Magrans Cerdanyola Del Valles, Spain..
    Torresi, E.
    Ist Astrofis Spaziale & Fis Cosm Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 101, Bologna, Italy..
    Tosti, G.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Brera, Via Brera 28, Milan, Italy..
    Townsley, C.
    Cherenkov Telescope Array Observ, Saupfercheckweg 1, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Travnicek, P.
    Acad Sci Czech Republic, Inst Phys, Slovance Prague 18221 8, Czech Republic..
    Trichard, C.
    Aix Marseille Univ, CNRS, IN2P3, CPPM, 163 Ave Luminy, Marseille, France..
    Trifoglio, M.
    Ist Astrofis Spaziale & Fis Cosm Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 101, Bologna, Italy..
    Tsujimoto, S.
    Tokai Univ, Dept Phys, Kita Kaname, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 2591292, Japan..
    Vagelli, V.
    INFN, Sez Perugia, Via A Pascoli, Perugia, Italy..
    Vallania, P.