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  • 1. Abbasi, R.
    et al.
    Abdou, Y.
    Abu-Zayyad, T.
    Adams, J.
    Aguilar, J. A.
    Ahlers, M.
    Andeen, K.
    Auffenberg, J.
    Bai, X.
    Baker, M.
    Barwick, S. W.
    Bay, R.
    Alba, J. L. Bazo
    Beattie, K.
    Beatty, J. J.
    Bechet, S.
    Becker, J. K.
    Becker, K. -H
    Benabderrahmane, M. L.
    Berdermann, J.
    Berghaus, P.
    Berley, D.
    Bernardini, E.
    Bertrand, D.
    Besson, D. Z.
    Bissok, M.
    Blaufuss, E.
    Boersma, D. J.
    Bohm, C.
    Botner, O.
    Bradley, L.
    Braun, J.
    Buitink, S.
    Carson, M.
    Chirkin, D.
    Christy, B.
    Clem, J.
    Cohen, S.
    Colnard, C.
    Cowen, D. F.
    D'Agostino, M. V.
    Danninger, M.
    De Clercq, C.
    Demiroers, L.
    Depaepe, O.
    Descamps, F.
    Desiati, P.
    de Vries-Uiterweerd, G.
    DeYoung, T.
    Diaz-Velez, J. C.
    Dreyer, J.
    Dumm, J. P.
    Duvoort, M. R.
    Ehrlich, R.
    Eisch, J.
    Ellsworth, R. W.
    Engdegard, O.
    Euler, S.
    Evenson, P. A.
    Fadiran, O.
    Fazely, A. R.
    Feusels, T.
    Filimonov, K.
    Finley, C.
    Foerster, M. M.
    Fox, B. D.
    Franckowiak, A.
    Franke, R.
    Gaisser, T. K.
    Gallagher, J.
    Ganugapati, R.
    Geisler, M.
    Gerhardt, L.
    Gladstone, L.
    Goldschmidt, A.
    Goodman, J. A.
    Grant, D.
    Griesel, T.
    Gross, A.
    Grullon, S.
    Gunasingha, R. M.
    Gurtner, M.
    Ha, C.
    Hallgren, A.
    Halzen, F.
    Han, K.
    Hanson, K.
    Hasegawa, Y.
    Haugen, J.
    Helbing, K.
    Herquet, P.
    Hickford, S.
    Hill, G. C.
    Hoffman, K. D.
    Homeier, A.
    Hoshina, K.
    Hubert, D.
    Huelsnitz, W.
    Huelss, J. -P
    Hulth, P. O.
    Hultqvist, K.
    Hussain, S.
    Imlay, R. L.
    Inaba, M.
    Ishihara, A.
    Jacobsen, J.
    Japaridze, G. S.
    Johansson, H.
    Joseph, J. M.
    Kampert, K. -H
    Kappes, A.
    Karg, T.
    Karle, A.
    Kelley, J. L.
    Kemming, N.
    Kenny, P.
    Kiryluk, J.
    Kislat, F.
    Kitamura, N.
    Klein, S. R.
    Knops, S.
    Kohnen, G.
    Kolanoski, H.
    Koepke, L.
    Koskinen, D. J.
    Kowalski, M.
    Kowarik, T.
    Krasberg, M.
    Krings, T.
    Kroll, G.
    Kuehn, K.
    Kuwabara, T.
    Labare, M.
    Lafebre, S.
    Laihem, K.
    Landsman, H.
    Lauer, R.
    Laundrie, A.
    Lehmann, R.
    Lennarz, D.
    Luenemann, J.
    Madsen, J.
    Majumdar, P.
    Maruyama, R.
    Mase, K.
    Matis, H. S.
    Matusik, M.
    Meagher, K.
    Merck, M.
    Meszaros, P.
    Meures, T.
    Middell, E.
    Milke, N.
    Miyamoto, H.
    Montaruli, T.
    Morse, R.
    Movit, S. M.
    Nahnhauer, R.
    Nam, J. W.
    Naumann, U.
    Niessen, P.
    Nygren, D. R.
    Odrowski, S.
    Olivas, A.
    Olivo, M.
    Ono, M.
    Panknin, S.
    Paul, L.
    de los Heros, C. Perez
    Petrovic, J.
    Piegsa, A.
    Pieloth, D.
    Pohl, Arvid
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Computer Science, Physics and Mathematics.
    Porrata, R.
    Posselt, J.
    Price, P. B.
    Prikockis, M.
    Przybylski, G. T.
    Rawlins, K.
    Redl, P.
    Resconi, E.
    Rhode, W.
    Ribordy, M.
    Rizzo, A.
    Robl, P.
    Rodrigues, J. P.
    Roth, P.
    Rothmaier, F.
    Rott, C.
    Roucelle, C.
    Rutledge, D.
    Ruzybayev, B.
    Ryckbosch, D.
    Sander, H. -G
    Sandstrom, P.
    Sarkar, S.
    Schatto, K.
    Schlenstedt, S.
    Schmidt, T.
    Schneider, D.
    Schukraft, A.
    Schultes, A.
    Schulz, O.
    Schunck, M.
    Seckel, D.
    Semburg, B.
    Seo, S. H.
    Sestayo, Y.
    Seunarine, S.
    Silvestri, A.
    Slipak, A.
    Spiczak, G. M.
    Spiering, C.
    Stamatikos, M.
    Stanev, T.
    Stephens, G.
    Stezelberger, T.
    Stokstad, R. G.
    Stoyanov, S.
    Strahler, E. A.
    Straszheim, T.
    Sullivan, G. W.
    Swillens, Q.
    Taboada, I.
    Tamburro, A.
    Tarasova, O.
    Tepe, A.
    Ter-Antonyan, S.
    Terranova, C.
    Tilav, S.
    Toale, P. A.
    Tosi, D.
    Turcan, D.
    van Eijndhoven, N.
    Vandenbroucke, J.
    Van Overloop, A.
    van Santen, J.
    Voigt, B.
    Wahl, D.
    Walck, C.
    Waldenmaier, T.
    Wallraff, M.
    Walter, M.
    Wendt, C.
    Westerhoff, S.
    Whitehorn, N.
    Wiebe, K.
    Wiebusch, C. H.
    Wikstrom, G.
    Williams, D. R.
    Wischnewski, R.
    Wissing, H.
    Woschnagg, K.
    Xu, C.
    Xu, X. W.
    Yodh, G.
    Yoshida, S.
    Zarzhitsky, P.
    Calibration and characterization of the IceCube photomultiplier tube2010In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, ISSN 0168-9002, E-ISSN 1872-9576, Vol. 618, no 1-3, p. 139-152Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over 5000 PMTs are being deployed at the South Pole to compose the IceCube neutrino observatory. Many are placed deep in the ice to detect Cherenkov light emitted by the products of high-energy neutrino interactions, and others are frozen into tanks on the surface to detect particles from atmospheric cosmic ray showers. IceCube is using the 10-in. diameter R7081-02 made by Hamamatsu Photonics. This paper describes the laboratory characterization and calibration of these PMTs before deployment. PMTs were illuminated with pulses ranging from single photons to saturation level. Parameterizations are given for the single photoelectron charge spectrum and the saturation behavior. Time resolution, late pulses and afterpulses are characterized. Because the PMTs are relatively large, the cathode sensitivity uniformity was measured. The absolute photon detection efficiency was calibrated using Rayleigh-scattered photons from a nitrogen laser. Measured characteristics are discussed in the context of their relevance to IceCube event reconstruction and simulation efforts. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 2. Abbasi, R.
    et al.
    Ackermann, M.
    Adams, J.
    Ahlers, M.
    Ahrens, J.
    Andeen, K.
    Auffenberge, J.
    Bai, X.
    Baker, M.
    Barwick, S. W.
    Bay, R.
    Alba, J. L. Bazo
    Beattie, K.
    Becka, T.
    Becker, J. K.
    Becker, K-H
    Berghaus, P.
    Berley, D.
    Bernardini, E.
    Bertrand, D.
    Besson, D. Z.
    Bingham, B.
    Blaufuss, E.
    Boersma, D. J.
    Bohm, C.
    Bolmont, J.
    Boeser, S.
    Botner, O.
    Braun, J.
    Breeder, D.
    Burgess, T.
    Carithers, W.
    Castermans, T.
    Chen, H.
    Chirkin, D.
    Christy, B.
    Clem, J.
    Cowen, D. F.
    D'Agostino, M. V.
    Danninger, M.
    Davour, A.
    Day, C. T.
    Depaepe, O.
    De Clercq, C.
    Demiroers, L.
    Descamps, F.
    Desiati, P.
    de Vries-Uiterweerd, G.
    DeYoung, T.
    Diaz-Velez, J. C.
    Dreyer, J.
    Dumm, J. P.
    Duvoort, M. R.
    Edwards, W. R.
    Ehrlich, R.
    Eisch, J.
    Ellsworth, R. W.
    Engdegard, O.
    Euler, S.
    Evenson, P. A.
    Fadiran, O.
    Fazely, A. R.
    Feusels, T.
    Filimonov, K.
    Finley, C.
    Foerster, M. M.
    Fox, B. D.
    Franckowiak, A.
    Franke, R.
    Gaisser, T. K.
    Gallagher, J.
    Ganugapati, R.
    Gerhardt, L.
    Gladstone, L.
    Glowacki, D.
    Goldschmidt, A.
    Goodman, J. A.
    Gozzini, R.
    Grant, D.
    Griesel, T.
    Gross, A.
    Grullon, S.
    Gunasingha, R. M.
    Gurtner, M.
    Ha, C.
    Hallgren, A.
    Halzen, F.
    Han, K.
    Hanson, K.
    Hardtke, R.
    Hasegawa, Y.
    Haugen, J.
    Hays, D.
    Heise, J.
    Helbing, K.
    Hellwig, M.
    Herquet, P.
    Hickford, S.
    Hill, G. C.
    Hodges, J.
    Hoffman, K. D.
    Hoshina, K.
    Hubert, D.
    Huelsnitz, W.
    Hughey, B.
    Huss, J-P
    Hulth, P. O.
    Hultqvist, K.
    Hussain, S.
    Imlay, R. L.
    Inaba, M.
    Ishiharai, A.
    Jacobsen, J.
    Japaridze, G. S.
    Johansson, H.
    Jones, A.
    Joseph, J. M.
    Kampert, K-H
    Kappes, A.
    Karg, T.
    Karle, A.
    Kawai, H.
    Kelley, J. L.
    Kiryluk, J.
    Kislat, F.
    Klein, S. R.
    Kleinfelder, S.
    Klepser, S.
    Kohnen, G.
    Kolanoski, H.
    Koepke, L.
    Kowalski, M.
    Kowarik, T.
    Krasberg, M.
    Kuehn, K.
    Kujawski, E.
    Kuwabara, T.
    Labare, M.
    Laihem, K.
    Landsman, H.
    Lauer, R.
    Laundrie, A.
    Leich, H.
    Leier, D.
    Lewis, C.
    Lucke, A.
    Ludvig, J.
    Lundberg, J.
    Luenemann, J.
    Madsen, J.
    Maruyama, R.
    Mase, K.
    Matis, H. S.
    McParland, C. P.
    Meagher, K.
    Meli, A.
    Merck, M.
    Messarius, T.
    Meszaros, P.
    Minor, R. H.
    Miyamoto, H.
    Mohr, A.
    Mokhtarani, A.
    Montaruli, T.
    Morse, R.
    Movit, S. M.
    Muenich, K.
    Muratas, A.
    Nahnhauer, R.
    Nam, J. W.
    Niessen, P.
    Nygren, D. R.
    Odrowski, S.
    Olivas, A.
    Olivo, M.
    Ono, M.
    Panknin, S.
    Patton, S.
    de los Heros, C. Perez
    Petrovic, J.
    Piegsa, A.
    Pieloth, D.
    Pohl, Arvid
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Porrata, R.
    Potthoff, N.
    Pretz, J.
    Price, P. B.
    Przybylski, G. T.
    Rawlins, K.
    Razzaque, S.
    Redl, P.
    Resconi, E.
    Rhode, W.
    Ribordy, M.
    Rizzo, A.
    Robbins, W. J.
    Rodrigues, J. P.
    Roth, P.
    Rothmaier, F.
    Rott, C.
    Roucelle, C.
    Rutledge, D.
    Ryckbosch, D.
    Sander, H-G
    Sarkar, S.
    Satalecka, K.
    Sandstrom, P.
    Schlenstedt, S.
    Schmidt, T.
    Schneider, D.
    Schulz, O.
    Seckel, D.
    Semburg, B.
    Seo, S. H.
    Sestayo, Y.
    Seunarine, S.
    Silvestri, A.
    Smith, A. J.
    Song, C.
    Sopher, J. E.
    Spiczak, G. M.
    Spiering, C.
    Stanev, T.
    Stezelberger, T.
    Stokstad, R. G.
    Stoufer, M. C.
    Stoyanov, S.
    Strahler, E. A.
    Straszheim, T.
    Sulanke, K-H
    Sullivan, G. W.
    Swillenns, Q.
    Taboada, I.
    Tarasova, O.
    Tepe, A.
    Ter-Antonyan, S.
    Tilav, S.
    Tluczykont, M.
    Toale, P. A.
    Tosi, D.
    Turcan, D.
    van Eijndhoven, N.
    Vandenbroucke, J.
    Van Overloop, A.
    Viscomi, V.
    Vogt, C.
    Voigt, B.
    Vu, C. Q.
    Wahl, D.
    Walck, C.
    Waldenmaier, T.
    Waldmann, H.
    Walter, M.
    Wendt, C.
    Westerhof, S.
    Whitehorn, N.
    Wharton, D.
    Wiebusch, C. H.
    Wiedemann, C.
    Wikstroem, G.
    Williams, D. R.
    Wischnewski, R.
    Wissing, H.
    Woschnagg, K.
    Xu, X. W.
    Yodh, G.
    Yoshida, S.
    The IceCube data acquisition system: Signal capture, digitization, and timestamping2009In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, ISSN 0168-9002, E-ISSN 1872-9576, Vol. 601, no 3, p. 294-316Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    IceCube is a km-scale neutrino observatory under construction at the South Pole with sensors both in the deep ice (InIce) and on the surface (IceTop). The sensors, called Digital Optical Modules (DOMs). detect, digitize and timestamp the signals from optical Cherenkov-radiation photons. The DOM Main Board (MB) data acquisition subsystem is connected to the central DAQ in the IceCube Laboratory (ICL) by a single twisted copper wire-pair and transmits packetized data on demand. Time calibration is maintained throughout the array by regular transmission to the DOMs of precisely timed analog signals, synchronized to a central GPS-disciplined clock. The design goals and consequent features, functional capabilities, and initial performance of the DOM MB, and the operation of a combined array of DOMs as a system, are described here. Experience with the first InIce strings and the IceTop stations indicates that the system design and performance goals have been achieved. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 3. Adiels, L.
    et al.
    Backenstoss, G.
    Bergström, I.
    Carius, Staffan
    Research Institute of Physics, Stockholm.
    Charalambous, S.
    Cooper, M. D.
    Findeisen, C.
    Hatzifotiadou, D.
    Kerek, A.
    Papastefanou, K.
    Pavlopoulos, P.
    Repond, J.
    Tauscher, L.
    Tröster, D.
    Williams, M. C. S.
    Zioutas, K.
    A π0 and η spectrometer of lead glass and BGO for momenta up to 1 GeV/c1986In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, ISSN 0168-9002, E-ISSN 1872-9576, Vol. 244, no 3, p. 380-390Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A spectrometer consisting of two sets of bismuth germanium oxide (BGO) crystals and a lead-glass array has been used to measure the π0 and η momentum spectra produced from proton-antiproton annihilations at rest. We describe the test of the BGO sets in electron beams of energies from 50 to 450 MeV. We discuss the method of construction and calibration of the lead-glass array, as well as procedures to extract the energy and position resolutions for detected photons. A momentum resolution (σ) for π0's and η's of 4% and 3%, respectively has been achieved at momenta below 1 GeV/c. © 1986.

  • 4.
    Ageron, M.
    et al.
    Aix-Marseille University, France.
    Aguilar, J. A.
    University of Valencia, Spain.
    Al Samarai, I.
    Aix-Marseille University, France.
    Albert, A.
    University of Upper Alsace, France.
    Ameli, F.
    Istituto Nazionale Di Fisica Nucleare, Italy.
    Andre, M.
    Technical University of Catalonia, Spain.
    Anghinolfi, M.
    Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Italy.
    Anton, G.
    Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Germany.
    Anvar, S.
    French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission, France.
    Ardid, M.
    Polytechnic University of Valencia, Spain.
    Arnaud, K.
    Aslanides, E.
    Jesus, A. C. Assis
    Astraatmadja, T.
    Aubert, J. -J
    Auer, R.
    Barbarito, E.
    Baret, B.
    Basa, S.
    Bazzotti, M.
    Becherini, Yvonne
    Saclay Nuclear Research Centre, France.
    Beltramelli, J.
    Bersani, A.
    Bertin, V.
    Beurthey, S.
    Biagi, S.
    Bigongiari, C.
    Billault, M.
    Blaes, R.
    Bogazzi, C.
    de Botton, N.
    Bou-Cabo, M.
    Boudahef, B.
    Bouwhuis, M. C.
    Brown, A. M.
    Brunner, J.
    Busto, J.
    Caillat, L.
    Calzas, A.
    Camarena, F.
    Capone, A.
    Caponetto, L.
    Carloganu, C.
    Carminati, G.
    Carmona, E.
    Carr, J.
    Carton, P. H.
    Cassano, B.
    Castorina, E.
    Cecchini, S.
    Ceres, A.
    Chaleil, Th
    Charvis, Ph
    Chauchot, P.
    Chiarusi, T.
    Circella, M.
    Compere, C.
    Coniglione, R.
    Coppolani, X.
    Cosquer, A.
    Costantini, H.
    Cottini, N.
    Coyle, P.
    Cuneo, S.
    Curtil, C.
    D'Amato, C.
    Damy, G.
    van Dantzig, R.
    De Bonis, G.
    Decock, G.
    Decowski, M. P.
    Dekeyser, I.
    Delagnes, E.
    Desages-Ardellier, F.
    Deschamps, A.
    Destelle, J. -J
    Di Maria, F.
    Dinkespiler, B.
    Distefano, C.
    Dominique, J. -L
    Donzaud, C.
    Dornic, D.
    Dorosti, Q.
    Drogou, J. -F
    Drouhin, D.
    Druillole, F.
    Durand, D.
    Durand, R.
    Eberl, T.
    Emanuele, U.
    Engelen, J. J.
    Ernenwein, J. -P
    Escoffier, S.
    Falchini, E.
    Favard, S.
    Fehr, F.
    Feinstein, F.
    Ferri, M.
    Ferry, S.
    Fiorello, C.
    Flaminio, V.
    Folger, F.
    Fritsch, U.
    Fuda, J. -L
    Galata, S.
    Galeotti, S.
    Gay, P.
    Gensolen, F.
    Giacomelli, G.
    Gojak, C.
    Gomez-Gonzalez, J. P.
    Goret, Ph.
    Graf, K.
    Guillard, G.
    Halladjian, G.
    Hallewell, G.
    van Haren, H.
    Hartmann, B.
    Heijboer, A. J.
    Heine, E.
    Hello, Y.
    Henry, S.
    Hernandez-Rey, J. J.
    Herold, B.
    Hoessl, J.
    Hogenbirk, J.
    Hsu, C. C.
    Hubbard, J. R.
    Jaquet, M.
    Jaspers, M.
    de Jong, M.
    Jourde, D.
    Kadler, M.
    Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.
    Kalekin, O.
    Kappes, A.
    Karg, T.
    Karkar, S.
    Karolak, M.
    Katz, U.
    Keller, P.
    Kestener, P.
    Kok, E.
    Kok, H.
    Kooijman, P.
    Kopper, C.
    Kouchner, A.
    Kretschmer, W.
    Kruijer, A.
    Kuch, S.
    Kulikovskiy, V.
    Lachartre, D.
    Lafoux, H.
    Lagier, P.
    Lahmann, R.
    Lahonde-Hamdoun, C.
    Lamare, P.
    Lambard, G.
    Languillat, J-C
    Larosa, G.
    Lavalle, J.
    Le Guen, Y.
    Le Provost, H.
    LeVanSuu, A.
    Lefevre, D.
    Legou, T.
    Lelaizant, G.
    Leveque, C.
    Lim, G.
    Lo Presti, D.
    Loehner, H.
    Loucatos, S.
    Louis, F.
    Lucarelli, F.
    Lyashuk, V.
    Magnier, P.
    Mangano, S.
    Marcel, A.
    Marcelin, M.
    Margiotta, A.
    Martinez-Mora, J. A.
    Masullo, R.
    Mazeas, F.
    Mazure, A.
    Meli, A.
    Melissas, M.
    Migneco, E.
    Mongelli, M.
    Montaruli, T.
    Morganti, M.
    Moscoso, L.
    Motz, H.
    Musumeci, M.
    Naumann, C.
    Naumann-Godo, M.
    Neff, M.
    Niess, V.
    Nooren, G. J. L.
    Oberski, J. E. J.
    Olivetto, C.
    Palanque-Delabrouille, N.
    Patioselitis, D.
    Papaleo, R.
    Pavalas, G. E.
    Payet, K.
    Payre, P.
    Peek, H.
    Petrovic, J.
    Piattelli, P.
    Picot-Clemente, N.
    Picq, C.
    Piret, Y.
    Poinsignon, J.
    Popa, V.
    Pradier, T.
    Presani, E.
    Prono, G.
    Racca, C.
    Raia, G.
    van Randwijk, J.
    Real, D.
    Reed, C.
    Rethore, F.
    Rewiersma, P.
    Riccobene, G.
    Richardt, C.
    Richter, R.
    Ricol, J. S.
    Rigaud, V.
    Roca, V.
    Roensch, K.
    Rolin, J. -F
    Rostovtsev, A.
    Rottura, A.
    Roux, J.
    Rujoiu, M.
    Ruppi, M.
    Russo, G. V.
    Salesa, F.
    Salomon, K.
    Sapienza, P.
    Schmitt, F.
    Schoeck, F.
    Schuller, J. -P
    Schuessler, F.
    Sciliberto, D.
    Shanidze, R.
    Shirokov, E.
    Simeone, F.
    Sottoriva, A.
    Spies, A.
    Spona, T.
    Spurio, M.
    Steijger, J. J. M.
    Stolarczyk, Th
    Streeb, K.
    Sulak, L.
    Taiuti, M.
    Tamburini, C.
    Tao, C.
    Tasca, L.
    Terreni, G.
    Tezier, D.
    Toscano, S.
    Urbano, F.
    Valdy, P.
    Vallage, B.
    Van Elewyck, V.
    Vannoni, G.
    Vecchi, M.
    Venekamp, G.
    Verlaat, B.
    Vernin, P.
    Virique, E.
    de Vries, G.
    van Wijk, R.
    Wijnker, G.
    Wobbe, G.
    de Wolf, E.
    Yakovenko, Y.
    Yepes, H.
    Zaborov, D.
    Zaccone, H.
    Zornoza, J. D.
    Zuniga, J.
    ANTARES: The first undersea neutrino telescope2011In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, ISSN 0168-9002, E-ISSN 1872-9576, Vol. 656, no 1, p. 11-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ANTARES Neutrino Telescope was completed in May 2008 and is the first operational Neutrino Telescope in the Mediterranean Sea. The main purpose of the detector is to perform neutrino astronomy and the apparatus also offers facilities for marine and Earth sciences. This paper describes the design, the construction and the installation of the telescope in the deep sea, offshore from Toulon in France. An illustration of the detector performance is given. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 5. Ageron, M.
    et al.
    Aguilar, J. A.
    Albert, A.
    Ameli, F.
    Anghinolfi, M.
    Anton, G.
    Anvar, S.
    Ardellier-Desages, F.
    Aslanides, E.
    Aubert, J. J.
    Auer, R.
    Barbarito, E.
    Basa, S.
    Battaglieri, M.
    Bazzotti, M.
    Becherini, Yvonne
    Università e Sezione INFN, Italy.
    Bethoux, N.
    Beltramelli, J.
    Bertin, V.
    Bigi, A.
    Billault, M.
    Blaes, R.
    de Botton, N.
    Bouwhuis, M. C.
    Bruijn, R.
    Brunner, J.
    Burgio, G. F.
    Busto, J.
    Cafagna, F.
    Caillat, L.
    Calzas, A.
    Capone, A.
    Caponetto, L.
    Carmona, E.
    Carr, J.
    Castel, D.
    Castorina, E.
    Cavasinni, V.
    Ceechini, S.
    Ceres, A.
    Charvis, P.
    Chauchot, P.
    Chiarusi, T.
    Circella, M.
    Coail, J. Y.
    Colnard, C.
    Compere, C.
    Coniglione, R.
    Cottini, N.
    Coyle, P.
    Cuneo, S.
    Cussatlegras, A. -S
    Damy, G.
    van Dantzig, R.
    DeBonis, G.
    De Marzo, C.
    De Vita, R.
    Dekeyser, I.
    Delagnes, E.
    Denans, D.
    Deschamps, A.
    Dessa, J. -X
    Destelle, J. -J
    Dinkespieler, B.
    Distefano, C.
    Donzaud, C.
    Drogou, J-F
    Druillole, F.
    Durand, D.
    Ernenwein, J. -P
    Escoffier, S.
    Falchini, E.
    Favard, S.
    Fehr, F.
    Feinstein, F.
    Florello, C.
    Flaminio, V.
    Fratini, K.
    Fuda, J. -L
    Galeotti, S.
    Gallone, J. -M
    Giacomelli, G.
    Girard, N.
    Gojak, C.
    Goret, Ph.
    Graf, K.
    Guilloux, F.
    Hallewell, G.
    Harakeh, M. N.
    Hartmann, B.
    Heijboer, A.
    Heine, E.
    Hello, Y.
    Hernandez-Rey, J. J.
    Hoessl, J.
    Hoffman, C.
    Hogenbirk, J.
    Hubbard, J. R.
    Jaquet, M.
    Jaspers, M.
    de Jong, M.
    Jouvenot, F.
    Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.
    Kappes, A.
    Karg, T.
    Katz, U.
    Keller, P.
    Kneib, J. P.
    Kok, E.
    Kok, H.
    Kooijman, P.
    Kopper, C.
    Kouchner, A.
    Kretschmer, W.
    Kruijer, A.
    Kuch, S.
    Lagier, P.
    Lahmann, R.
    Lamanna, G.
    Lamare, P.
    Lambard, G.
    Languillat, J. C.
    Laschinsky, H.
    Lavalle, J.
    Le Guen, Y.
    Le Provost, H.
    Van Suu, A. Le
    Lefevre, D.
    Legou, T.
    Lelaizant, G.
    Lim, G.
    Lo Presti, D.
    Loaec, G.
    Loehner, H.
    Loucatos, S.
    Louis, F.
    Lucarelli, F.
    Lyashuk, V.
    Mangano, S.
    Marcelin, M.
    Margiotta, A.
    Masullo, R.
    Mazeas, F.
    Mazure, A.
    Megna, R.
    Melissas, M.
    Migneco, E.
    Mongelli, M.
    Montaruli, T.
    Morganti, M.
    Moscoso, L.
    Motz, H.
    Musumeci, M.
    Naumann, C.
    Naumann-Godo, M.
    Niess, V.
    Noble, A.
    Olivetto, C.
    Ostasch, R.
    Palanque-Delabrouille, N.
    Payre, P.
    Peek, H. Z.
    Perez, A.
    Petta, C.
    Piattelli, P.
    Pillet, R.
    Pineau, J. -P
    Poinsignon, J.
    Popa, V.
    Pradier, T.
    Racca, C.
    Randazzo, N.
    van Randwijk, J.
    Real, D.
    Regnier, M.
    van Rens, B.
    Rethore, F.
    Rewiersma, P.
    Riccobene, G.
    Rigaud, V.
    Ripani, M.
    Roca, V.
    Roda, C.
    Rolin, J. F.
    Rostovtsev, A.
    Roux, J.
    Ruppi, M.
    Russo, G. V.
    Rusydi, G.
    Salesa, F.
    Salomon, K.
    Sapienza, P.
    Schmitt, F.
    Schuller, J. -P
    Shanidze, R.
    Sokalski, I.
    Spona, T.
    Spurio, M.
    van der Steenhoven, G.
    Stolarczyk, T.
    Streeb, K.
    Sulak, L.
    Taiuti, M.
    Tamburini, C.
    Tao, C.
    Tasca, L.
    Terreni, G.
    Urbano, F.
    Valdy, P.
    Valente, V.
    Vallage, B.
    Vaudaine, G.
    Venekamp, G.
    Verlaat, B.
    Vernin, P.
    van Wijk, R.
    Wijnker, G.
    Wobbe, G.
    de Wolf, E.
    Yao, A. -F
    Zaborov, D.
    Zaccone, H.
    Zornoza, J. D.
    Zuniga, J.
    Studies of a full-scale mechanical prototype line for the ANTARES neutrino telescope and tests of a prototype instrument for deep-sea acoustic measurements2007In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, ISSN 0168-9002, E-ISSN 1872-9576, Vol. 581, no 3, p. 695-708Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    full-scale mechanical prototype line was deployed to a depth of 2500 m to test the leak tightness of the electronics containers and the pressure-resistant properties of an electromechanical cable under evaluation for use in the ANTARES deep-sea neutrino telescope. During a month-long immersion study, line parameter data were taken using miniature autonomous data loggers and shore-based optical time domain reflectometry. Details of the mechanical prototype line, the electromechanical cable and data acquisition are presented. Data taken during the immersion study revealed deficiencies in the pressure resistance of the electromechanical cable terminations at the entry points to the electronics containers. The improvements to the termination, which have been integrated into subsequent detection lines, are discussed. The line also allowed deep-sea acoustic measurements with a prototype hydrophone system. The technical setup of this system is described, and the first results of the data analysis are presented. (c) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 6. Ageron, M.
    et al.
    Aguilar, J. A.
    Albert, A.
    Ameli, F.
    Anghinolfi, M.
    Anton, G.
    Anvar, S.
    Ardellier-Desages, F.
    Aslanides, E.
    Aubert, J-J
    Auer, R.
    Barbarito, E.
    Basa, S.
    Battaglieri, M.
    Becherini, Yvonne
    Università e Sezione INFN, Italy.
    Beltramelli, J.
    Bertin, V.
    Bigi, A.
    Billault, M.
    Blaes, R.
    de Botton, N.
    Bouwhuis, M. C.
    Bradbury, S. M.
    Bruijn, R.
    Brunner, J.
    Burgio, G. F.
    Busto, J.
    Cafagna, F.
    Caillat, L.
    Calzas, A.
    Capone, A.
    Caponetto, L.
    Carmona, E.
    Carr, J.
    Cartwright, S. L.
    Castel, D.
    Castorina, E.
    Cavasinni, V.
    Cecchini, S.
    Ceres, A.
    Charvis, P.
    Chauchot, P.
    Chiarusi, T.
    Circella, M.
    Colnard, C.
    Compere, C.
    Coniglione, R.
    Cottini, N.
    Coyle, P.
    Cuneo, S.
    Cussatlegras, A-S
    Damy, G.
    van Dantzig, R.
    De Bonis, G.
    De Marzo, C.
    De Vita, R.
    Dekeyser, I.
    Delagnes, E.
    Denans, D.
    Deschamps, A.
    Destelle, J-J
    Dinkespieler, B.
    Distefano, C.
    Donzaud, C.
    Drogou, J-F
    Druillole, F.
    Durand, D.
    Ernenwein, J-P
    Escoffier, S.
    Falchini, E.
    Favard, S.
    Fehr, F.
    Feinstein, F.
    Ferry, S.
    Fiorello, C.
    Flaminio, V.
    Fratini, K.
    Fuda, J-L
    Galeotti, S.
    Gallone, J-M
    Giacomelli, G.
    Girard, N.
    Gojak, C.
    Goret, Ph.
    Graf, K.
    Hallewell, G.
    Harakeh, M. N.
    Hartmann, B.
    Heijboer, A.
    Heine, E.
    Hello, Y.
    Hernandez-Rey, J. J.
    Hoessl, J.
    Hoffman, C.
    Hogenbirk, J.
    Hubbard, J. R.
    Jaquet, M.
    Jaspers, M.
    de Jong, M.
    Jouvenot, F.
    Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.
    Kappes, A.
    Karg, T.
    Katz, U.
    Keller, P.
    Kok, E.
    Kok, H.
    Kooijman, P.
    Kopper, C.
    Korolkova, E. V.
    Kouchner, A.
    Kretschmer, W.
    Kruijer, A.
    Kuch, S.
    Kudryavstev, V. A.
    Lagier, P.
    Lahmann, R.
    Lamanna, G.
    Lamare, P.
    Lambard, G.
    Languillat, J-C
    Laschinsky, H.
    Lavalle, J.
    Le Guen, Y.
    Le Provost, H.
    Van Suu, A. Le
    Lefevre, D.
    Legou, T.
    Lelaizant, G.
    Lim, G.
    Lo Presti, D.
    Loehner, H.
    Loucatos, S.
    Louis, F.
    Lucarelli, F.
    Lyashuk, V.
    Marcelin, M.
    Margiotta, A.
    Masullo, R.
    Mazeas, F.
    Mazure, A.
    McMillan, J. E.
    Megna, R.
    Melissas, M.
    Migneco, E.
    Milovanovic, A.
    Mongelli, M.
    Montaruli, T.
    Morganti, M.
    Moscoso, L.
    Musumeci, M.
    Naumann-Godo, M.
    Naumann, C.
    Niess, V.
    Noble, T.
    Olivetto, C.
    Ostasch, R.
    Palanque-Delabrouille, N.
    Payre, P.
    Peek, H.
    Perez, A.
    Petta, C.
    Piattelli, P.
    Pillet, R.
    Pineau, J-P
    Poinsignon, J.
    Popa, V.
    Pradier, T.
    Racca, C.
    Randazzo, N.
    van Randwijk, J.
    Real, D.
    van Rens, B.
    Rethore, F.
    Rewiersma, P.
    Riccobene, G.
    Rigaud, V.
    Ripani, M.
    Roca, V.
    Roda, C.
    Rolin, J. F.
    Rose, H. J.
    Rostovtsev, A.
    Roux, J.
    Ruppi, M.
    Russo, G. V.
    Rusydi, G.
    Salesa, F.
    Salomon, K.
    Sapienza, P.
    Schmitt, F.
    Schuller, J-P
    Shanidze, R.
    Sokalski, I.
    Spona, T.
    Spurio, M.
    van der Steenhoven, G.
    Stolarczyk, T.
    Streeb, K.
    Sulak, L.
    Taiuti, M.
    Tamburini, C.
    Tao, C.
    Terreni, G.
    Thompson, L. F.
    Urbano, F.
    Valdy, P.
    Valente, V.
    Vallage, B.
    Vaudaine, G.
    Venekamp, G.
    Verlaat, B.
    Vernin, P.
    de Vries-Uiterweerd, G.
    van Wijk, R.
    Wijnker, G.
    Huberts, P. de Witt
    Wobbe, G.
    de Wolf, E.
    Yao, A-F
    Zaborov, D.
    Zaccone, H.
    Zornoza, J. D.
    Zuniga, J.
    The ANTARES optical beacon system2007In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, ISSN 0168-9002, E-ISSN 1872-9576, Vol. 578, no 3, p. 498-509Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ANTARES is a neutrino telescope being deployed in the Mediterranean Sea. It consists of a three-dimensional array of photomultiplier tubes that can detect the Cherenkov light induced by charged particles produced in the interactions of neutrinos with the surrounding medium. High angular resolution can be achieved, in particular, when a muon is produced, provided that the Cherenkov photons are detected with sufficient timing precision. Considerations of the intrinsic time uncertainties stemming from the transit time spread in the photomultiplier tubes and the mechanism of transmission of light in sea water lead to the conclusion that a relative time accuracy of the order of 0.5 ns is desirable. Accordingly, different time calibration systems have been developed for the ANTARES telescope. In this article, a system based on Optical Beacons, a set of external and well-controlled pulsed light sources located throughout the detector, is described. This calibration system takes into account the optical properties of sea water, which is used as the detection volume of the ANTARES telescope. The design, tests, construction and first results of the two types of beacons, LED and laser-based, are presented. (C) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 7. Aguilar, J A
    et al.
    Albert, A
    Ameli, F
    Amram, P
    Anghinolfi, M
    Anton, G
    Anvar, S
    Ardellier-Desages, F E
    Aslanides, E
    Aubert, J J
    Bailey, D
    Basa, S
    Battaglieri, M
    Becherini, Yvonne
    Università e Sezione INFN, Italy.
    Bellotti, R
    Beltramelli, J
    Bertin, V
    Billault, M
    Blaes, R
    Blanc, F
    de Botton, N
    Boulesteix, J
    Bouwhuis, M C
    Brooks, C B
    Bradbury, S M
    Bruijn, R
    Brunner, J
    Burgio, G F
    Cafagna, F
    Calzas, A
    Capone, A
    Caponetto, L
    Carmona, E
    Carr, J
    Cartwright, S L
    Castorina, E
    Cavasinni, V
    Cecchini, S
    Charvis, P
    Circella, M
    Colnard, C
    Compere, C
    Coniglione, R
    Cooper, S
    Coyle, P
    Cuneo, S
    Damy, G
    van Dantzig, R
    Deschamps, A
    De Marzo, C
    Denans, D
    Destelle, J J
    De Vita, R
    Dinkelspiler, B
    Distefano, C
    Drogou, J F
    Druillole, F
    Engelen, J
    Ernenwein, J P
    Falchini, E
    Favard, S
    Feinstein, F
    Ferry, S
    Festy, D
    Flaminio, V
    Fopma, J
    Fuda, J L
    Gallone, J M
    Giacomelli, G
    Girard, N
    Goret, P
    Graf, K
    Hallewell, G
    Hartmann, B
    Heijboer, A
    Hello, Y
    Hernandez-Rey, J J
    Herrouin, G
    Hossl, J
    Hoffmann, C
    Hubbard, J R
    Jaquet, M
    de Jong, M
    Jouvenot, F
    Kappes, A
    Karg, T
    Karkar, S
    Karolak, M
    Katz, U
    Keller, P
    Kooijman, P
    Korolkova, E V
    Kouchner, A
    Kretschmer, W
    Kuch, S
    Kudryavtsev, V A
    Lafoux, H
    Lagier, P
    Lahmann, R
    Lamare, P
    Languillat, J C
    Laschinsky, H
    Laubier, L
    Legou, T
    Le Guen, Y
    Le Provost, H
    Van Suu, A L
    Lo Nigro, L
    Lo Presti, D
    Loucatos, S
    Louis, F
    Lyashuk, V
    Marcelin, M
    Margiotta, A
    Maron, C
    Massol, A
    Masullo, R
    Mazeas, F
    Mazure, A
    McMillan, J E
    Migneco, E
    Millot, C
    Milovanovic, A
    Montanet, F
    Montaruli, T
    Morel, J P
    Morganti, M
    Moscoso, L
    Musumeci, M
    Naumann, C
    Naumann-Godo, M
    Nezri, E
    Niess, V
    Nooren, G J
    Ogden, P
    Olivetto, C
    Palanque-Delabrouille, N
    Papaleo, R
    Payre, P
    Petta, C
    Piattelli, P
    Pineau, J P
    Poinsignon, J
    Popa, V
    Potheau, R
    Pradier, T
    Racca, C
    Raia, G
    Randazzo, N
    Real, D
    van Rens, B A P
    Rethore, F
    Riccobene, G
    Rigaud, V
    Ripani, M
    Roca-Blay, V
    Rolin, J F
    Romita, M
    Rose, H J
    Rostovtsev, A
    Ruppi, M
    Russo, G V
    Sacquin, Y
    Salesa, F
    Salomon, K
    Saouter, S
    Sapienza, P
    Shanidze, R
    Schuller, J P
    Schuster, W
    Sokalski, I
    Spurio, M
    Stolarczyk, T
    Stubert, D
    Taiuti, M
    Thompson, L F
    Tilav, S
    Valdy, P
    Valente, V
    Vallage, B
    Vernin, P
    Virieux, J
    de Vries, G
    Huberts, P D
    de Wolf, E
    Zaborov, D
    Zaccone, H
    Zakharov, V
    Zornoza, J D
    Zuniga, J
    Study of large hemispherical photomultiplier tubes for the ANTARES neutrino telescope2005In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, ISSN 0168-9002, E-ISSN 1872-9576, Vol. 555, no 1-2, p. 132-141Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ANTARES neutrino telescope, to be immersed depth in the Mediterranean Sea, will consist of a three-dimensional matrix of 900 large area photomultiplier tubes housed in pressure-resistant glass spheres. The selection of the optimal photomultiplier was a critical step for the project and required an intensive phase of tests and developments carried out in close collaboration with the main manufacturers worldwide. This paper provides an overview of the tests performed by the collaboration and describes in detail the features of the photomultiplier tube chosen for ANTARES. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 8. Aguilar, J. A.
    et al.
    Albert, A.
    Ameli, F.
    Anghinolfi, M.
    Anton, G.
    Anvar, S.
    Aslanides, E.
    Aubert, J. -J
    Barbarito, E.
    Basa, S.
    Battaglieri, M.
    Becherini, Yvonne
    Università e Sezione INFN, Italy.
    Bellotti, R.
    Beltramelli, J.
    Bertin, V.
    Bigi, A.
    Billault, M.
    Blaes, R.
    de Botton, N.
    Bouwhuis, M. C.
    Bradbury, S. M.
    Bruijn, R.
    Brunner, J.
    Burgio, G. F.
    Busto, J.
    Cafagna, F.
    Caillat, L.
    Calzas, A.
    Capone, A.
    Caponetto, L.
    Carmona, E.
    Carr, J.
    Cartwright, S. L.
    Castel, D.
    Castorina, E.
    Cavasinni, V.
    Cecchini, S.
    Ceres, A.
    Charvis, P.
    Chauchot, P.
    Chiarusi, T.
    Circella, M.
    Colnard, C.
    Compere, C.
    Coniglione, R.
    Cottini, N.
    Coyle, P.
    Cuneo, S.
    Cussatlegras, A. -S
    Damy, G.
    van Dantzig, R.
    De Marzo, C.
    Dekeyser, I.
    Delagnes, E.
    Denans, D.
    Deschamps, A.
    Dessages-Ardellier, F.
    Destelle, J. -J
    Dinkespieler, B.
    Distefano, C.
    Donzaud, C.
    Drogou, J. -F
    Druillole, F.
    Durand, D.
    Ernenwein, J. -P
    Escoffier, S.
    Falchini, E.
    Favard, S.
    Feinstein, F.
    Ferry, S.
    Festy, D.
    Fiorello, C.
    Flaminio, V.
    Galeotti, S.
    Gallone, J. -M
    Giacomelli, G.
    Girard, N.
    Gojak, C.
    Goret, Ph.
    Graf, K.
    Hallewell, G.
    Harakeh, M. N.
    Hartmann, B.
    Heijboer, A.
    Heine, E.
    Hello, Y.
    Hernandez-Rey, J. J.
    Hoessl, J.
    Hoffman, C.
    Hogenbirk, J.
    Hubbard, J. R.
    Jaquet, M.
    Jaspers, M.
    de Jong, M.
    Jouvenot, F.
    Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.
    Kappes, A.
    Karg, T.
    Karkar, S.
    Katz, U.
    Keller, P.
    Kok, H.
    Kooijman, P.
    Kopper, C.
    Korolkova, E. V.
    Kouchner, A.
    Kretschmer, W.
    Kruijer, A.
    Kuch, S.
    Kudryavstev, V. A.
    Lachartre, D.
    Lafoux, H.
    Lagier, P.
    Lahmann, R.
    Lamanna, G.
    Lamare, P.
    Languillat, J. C.
    Laschinsky, H.
    Le Guen, Y.
    Le Provost, H.
    Suu, A. Le Van
    Legou, T.
    Lim, G.
    Lo Nigro, L.
    Lo Presti, D.
    Loehner, H.
    Loucatos, S.
    Louis, F.
    Lucarelli, F.
    Lyashuk, V.
    Marcelin, M.
    Margiotta, A.
    Masullo, R.
    Mazeas, F.
    Mazure, A.
    McMillan, J. E.
    Megna, R.
    Melissas, M.
    Migneco, E.
    Milovanovic, A.
    Mongelli, M.
    Montaruli, T.
    Morganti, M.
    Moscoso, L.
    Musumeci, M.
    Naumann, C.
    Naumann-Godo, M.
    Niess, V.
    Olivetto, C.
    Ostasch, R.
    Palanque-Delabrouille, N.
    Payre, P.
    Peek, H.
    Petta, C.
    Piattelli, P.
    Pineau, J. -P
    Poinsignon, J.
    Popa, V.
    Pradier, T.
    Racca, C.
    Randazzo, N.
    van Randwijk, J.
    Real, D.
    van Rens, B.
    Rethore, F.
    Rewiersma, P.
    Riccobene, G.
    Rigaud, V.
    Ripani, M.
    Roca, V.
    Roda, C.
    Rolin, J. F.
    Romita, M.
    Rose, H. J.
    Rostovtsev, A.
    Roux, J.
    Ruppi, M.
    Russo, G. V.
    Salesa, F.
    Salomon, K.
    Sapienza, P.
    Schmitt, F.
    Schuller, J. -P
    Shanidze, R.
    Sokalski, I.
    Spona, T.
    Spurio, M.
    van der Steenhoven, G.
    Stolarczyk, T.
    Streeb, K.
    Stubert, D.
    Sulak, L.
    Taiuti, M.
    Tamburini, C.
    Tao, C.
    Terreni, G.
    Thompson, L. F.
    Valdy, P.
    Valente, V.
    Vallage, B.
    Venekamp, G.
    Verlaat, B.
    Vernin, P.
    de Vita, R.
    de Vries, G.
    van Wijk, R.
    Huberts, P. de Witt
    Wobbe, G.
    de Wolf, E.
    Yao, A-F
    Zaborov, D.
    Zaccone, H.
    Zornoza, J. D.
    Zuniga, J.
    The data acquisition system for the ANTARES neutrino telescope2007In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, ISSN 0168-9002, E-ISSN 1872-9576, Vol. 570, no 1, p. 107-116Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ANTARES neutrino telescope is being constructed in the Mediterranean Sea. It consists of a large three-dimensional array of photo-multiplier tubes. The data acquisition system of the detector takes care of the digitisation of the photo-multiplier tube signals, data transport, data filtering, and data storage. The detector is operated using a control program interfaced with all elements. The design and the implementation of the data acquisition system are described. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 9. Ahrens, J.
    et al.
    Bai, X.
    Barwick, S. W.
    Bay, R. C.
    Becka, T.
    Becker, K. -H
    Bernardini, E.
    Bertrand, D.
    Binon, F.
    Biron, A.
    Böser, S.
    Botner, O.
    Bouchta, A.
    Bouhali, O.
    Burgess, T.
    Carius, Staffan
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Castermans, T.
    Chirkin, D.
    Conrad, J.
    Cooley, J.
    Cowen, D. F.
    Davour, A.
    de Clercq, C.
    DeYoung, T.
    Desiati, P.
    Doksus, P.
    Ekström, P.
    Engel, R.
    Evenson, P.
    Feser, T.
    Gaisser, T. K.
    Ganugapati, R.
    Gaug, M.
    Geenen, H.
    Gerhardt, L.
    Goldschmidt, A.
    Hallgren, A.
    Halzen, F.
    Hanson, K.
    Hardtke, R.
    Hauschildt, T.
    Hellwig, M.
    Herquet, P.
    Hill, G. C.
    Hinton, J. A.
    Hughey, B.
    Hulth, P. O.
    Hultqvist, K.
    Hundertmark, S.
    Jacobsen, J.
    Karle, A.
    Kim, J.
    Köpke, L.
    Kowalski, M.
    Kuehn, K.
    Lamoureux, J. I.
    Leich, H.
    Leuthold, M.
    Lindahl, P.
    Liubarsky, I.
    Lloyd-Evans, J.
    Madsen, J.
    Mandli, K.
    Marciniewski, P.
    Martello, D.
    Matis, H. S.
    McParland, C. P.
    Messarius, T.
    Miller, T. C.
    Minaeva, Y.
    Miočinović, P.
    Mock, P. C.
    Morse, R.
    Neunhöffer, T.
    Niessen, P.
    Nygren, D. R.
    Ögelman, H.
    Olbrechts, P.
    Perez de los Heros, C.
    Pohl, A. C.
    Porrata, R.
    Price, P. B.
    Przybylski, G. T.
    Rawlins, K.
    Resconi, E.
    Rhode, W.
    Ribordy, M.
    Richter, S.
    Rochester, K.
    Rodríguez Martino, J.
    Romenesko, P.
    Ross, D.
    Sander, H. -G
    Schmidt, T.
    Schinarakis, K.
    Schlenstedt, S.
    Schneider, D.
    Schwarz, R.
    Silvestri, A.
    Solarz, M.
    Splczak, G. M.
    Spiering, C.
    Stamatikos, M.
    Stanev, T.
    Steele, D.
    Steffen, P.
    Stokstad, R. G.
    Sulanke, K. -H
    Taboada, I.
    Tilav, S.
    Walck, C.
    Wagner, W.
    Wang, Y. -R
    Watson, A. A.
    Weinheimer, C.
    Wiebusch, C. H.
    Wiedemann, C.
    Wischnewski, R.
    Wissing, H.
    Woschnagg, K.
    Wu, W.
    Yodh, G.
    Young, S.
    Calibration and survey of AMANDA with the SPASE detectors2004In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, ISSN 0168-9002, E-ISSN 1872-9576, Vol. 522, no 3, p. 347-359Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report on the analysis of air showers observed in coincidence by the Antarctic Muon and Neutrino detector array (AMANDA-B10) and the South Pole Air Shower Experiment (SPASE-1 and SPASE-2). We discuss the use of coincident events for calibration and survey of the deep AMANDA detector as well as the response of AMANDA to muon bundles. This analysis uses data taken during 1997 when both SPASE-1 and SPASE-2 were in operation to provide a stereo view of AMANDA. © 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 10. Ahrens, J.
    et al.
    Bai, X.
    Bay, R.
    Barwick, S. W.
    Becka, T.
    Becker, J. K.
    Becker, K. -H
    Bernardini, E.
    Bertrand, D.
    Biron, A.
    Boersma, D. J.
    Böser, S.
    Botner, O.
    Bouchta, A.
    Bouhali, O.
    Burgess, T.
    Carius, Staffan
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Castermans, T.
    Chirkin, D.
    Collin, B.
    Conrad, J.
    Cooley, J.
    Cowen, D. F.
    Davour, A.
    De Clercq, C.
    DeYoung, T.
    Desiati, P.
    Dewulf, J. -P
    Ekström, P.
    Feser, T.
    Gaug, M.
    Gaisser, T. K.
    Ganugapati, R.
    Geenen, H.
    Gerhardt, L.
    Groß, A.
    Goldschmidt, A.
    Hallgren, A.
    Halzen, F.
    Hanson, K.
    Hardtke, R.
    Harenberg, T.
    Hauschildt, T.
    Helbing, K.
    Hellwig, M.
    Herquet, P.
    Hill, G. C.
    Hubert, D.
    Hughey, B.
    Hulth, P. O.
    Hultqvist, K.
    Hundertmark, S.
    Jacobsen, J.
    Karle, A.
    Kestel, M.
    Köpke, L.
    Kowalski, M.
    Kuehn, K.
    Lamoureux, J. I.
    Leich, H.
    Leuthold, M.
    Lindahl, P.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Liubarsky, I.
    Madsen, J.
    Marciniewski, P.
    Matis, H. S.
    McParland, C. P.
    Messarius, T.
    Minaeva, Y.
    Miočinović, P.
    Mock, P. C.
    Morse, R.
    Münich, K. S.
    Nam, J.
    Nahnhauer, R.
    Neunhöffer, T.
    Niessen, P.
    Nygren, D. R.
    Ögelman, H.
    Olbrechts, Ph.
    Pérez De Los Heros, C.
    Pohl, A. C.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Porrata, R.
    Price, P. B.
    Przybylski, G. T.
    Rawlins, K.
    Resconi, E.
    Rhode, W.
    Ribordy, M.
    Richter, S.
    Martino, J. R.
    Ross, D.
    Sander, H. -G
    Schinarakis, K.
    Schlenstedt, S.
    Schmidt, T.
    Schneider, D.
    Wiebusch, C. H.
    Muon track reconstruction and data selection techniques in AMANDA2004In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, ISSN 0168-9002, E-ISSN 1872-9576, Vol. 524, no 1-3, p. 169-194Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Antarctic Muon And Neutrino Detector Array (AMANDA) is a high-energy neutrino telescope operating at the geographic South Pole. It is a lattice of photo-multiplier tubes buried deep in the polar ice between 1500 and 2000 m. The primary goal of this detector is to discover astrophysical sources of high-energy neutrinos. A high-energy muon neutrino coming through the earth from the Northern Hemisphere can be identified by the secondary muon moving upward through the detector. The muon tracks are reconstructed with a maximum likelihood method. It models the arrival times and amplitudes of Cherenkov photons registered by the photo-multipliers. This paper describes the different methods of reconstruction, which have been successfully implemented within AMANDA. Strategies for optimizing the reconstruction performance and rejecting background are presented. For a typical analysis procedure the direction of tracks are reconstructed with about 2° accuracy. © 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 11. AMANDA Collaboration, -
    et al.
    Pohl, Arvid
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    The ICECUBE prototype string in AMANDA2006In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, ISSN 0168-9002, E-ISSN 1872-9576, Vol. 556, no 1, p. 169-181Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Antarctic Muon And Neutrino Detector Array (AMANDA) is a high-energy neutrino telescope. It is a lattice of optical modules (OM) installed in the clear ice below the South Pole Station. Each OM contains a photomultiplier tube (PMT) that detects photons of Cherenkov light generated in the ice by muons and electrons. ICECUBE is a cubic-kilometer-sized expansion of AMANDA currently being built at the South Pole. In ICECUBE the PMT signals are digitized already in the optical modules and transmitted to the surface. A prototype string of 41 OMs equipped with this new all-digital technology was deployed in the AMANDA array in the year 2000. In this paper we describe the technology and demonstrate that this string serves as a proof of concept for the ICECUBE array. Our investigations show that the OM timing accuracy is 5 ns. Atmospheric muons are detected in excellent agreement with expectations with respect to both angular distribution and absolute rate. 

  • 12. Ambrosio, M
    et al.
    Antolini, R
    Assiro, R
    Auriemma, G
    Bakari, D
    Baldini, A
    Barbarino, G C
    Barbarito, E
    Barish, B C
    Battistoni, G
    Becherini, Yvonne
    Università di Bologna.
    Bellotti, R
    Bemporad, C
    Bernardini, P
    Bilokon, H
    Bisi, V
    Bloise, C
    Bottazzi, E
    Bower, C
    Brigida, M
    Bussino, S
    Cafagna, F
    Calicchio, M
    Campana, D
    Candela, A
    Carboni, M
    Cecchini, S
    Cei, F
    Ceres, A
    Chiarella, V
    Choudhary, B C
    Coutu, S
    Cozzi, M
    Creti, P
    De Cataldo, G
    Degli Esposti, L
    Dekhissi, H
    De Marzo, C
    De Mitri, I
    Derkaoui, J
    De Vincenzi, M
    Di Credico, A
    Di Ferdinando, D
    Diotallevi, R
    Erriquez, O
    Favuzzi, C
    Forti, C
    Fusco, P
    Gebhard, M
    Giacomelli, G
    Giacomelli, R
    Giannini, G
    Giglietto, N
    Giorgini, M
    Giuliani, R
    Goretti, M
    Grassi, M
    Grau, H
    Gray, L
    Grillo, A
    Guarino, F
    Gustavino, C
    Habig, A
    Hanson, J
    Hanson, K
    Hawthorne, A
    Heinz, R
    Hong, J T
    Iarocci, E
    Katsavounidis, E
    Katsavounidis, I
    Kearns, E
    Kim, H
    Kyriazopoulou, S
    Lamanna, E
    Lane, C
    Leone, A
    Levin, D S
    Lipari, P
    Liu, G
    Liu, R
    Longley, N P
    Longo, M J
    Loparco, F
    Maaroufi, F
    Mancarella, G
    Mandrioli, G
    Manzoor, S
    Marrelli, V
    Margiotta, A
    Marini, A
    Martello, D
    Marzari-Chiesa, A
    Mazziotta, M N
    Michael, D G
    Mikheyev, S
    Miller, L
    Monacelli, P
    Mongelli, M
    Montaruli, T
    Monteno, M
    Mossbarger, L
    Mufson, S
    Musser, J
    Nicolo, D
    Nolty, R
    Okada, C
    Orsini, M
    Orth, C
    Osteria, G
    Ouchrif, M
    Palamara, O
    Parlati, S
    Patera, V
    Patrizii, L
    Pazzi, R
    Peck, C W
    Pellizzoni, G
    Perchiazzi, M
    Perrone, L
    Petrakis, J
    Petrera, S
    Pignatano, N
    Pinto, C
    Pistilli, P
    Popa, V
    Raino, A
    Reynoldson, J
    Ronga, F
    Rrhioua, A
    Sacchetti, A
    Saggese, P
    Satriano, C
    Satta, L
    Scapparone, E
    Scholberg, K
    Sciubba, A
    Serra, P
    Sioli, M
    Sirri, G
    Sitta, M
    Sondergaard, S
    Spinelli, P
    Spinetti, M
    Spurio, M
    Stalio, S
    Steinberg, R
    Stone, J L
    Sulak, L R
    Surdo, A
    Tarle, G
    Togo, V
    Vakili, M
    Valieri, C
    Walter, C W
    Webb, R
    Zaccheo, N
    The MACRO detector at Gran Sasso2002In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, ISSN 0168-9002, E-ISSN 1872-9576, Vol. 486, no 3, p. 663-707Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    MACRO was an experiment that ran in the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso from 1988 to 2000. Its principal goal was to observe magnetic monopoles or set significantly lower experimental flux limits than had been previously available in the velocity range from about beta = 10(-4) to unity. In addition it made a variety of other observations. Examples are: setting flux limits on other so far unobserved particles such as nuclearites and lightly ionizing particles, searching for WIMP annihilations in the Earth and the Sun and for neutrino bursts from stellar collapses in or near our Galaxy, and making measurements relevant to high energy muon and neutrino astronomy and of the flux of up-going muons as a function of nadir angle showing evidence for neutrino oscillations. The apparatus consisted of three principal types of detectors: liquid scintillator counters, limited streamer tubes, and nuclear track etch detectors. In addition, over part of its area it contained a transition radiation detector. The general design philosophy emphasized redundancy and complementarity. This paper describes the technical aspects of the complete MACRO detector, its operational performance, and the techniques used to calibrate it and verify its proper operation. It supplements a previously published paper which described the first portion of the detector that was built and operated. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 13. Ambrosio, M
    et al.
    Antolini, R
    Auriemma, G
    Bakari, D
    Baldini, A
    Barbarino, G C
    Barish, B C
    Battistoni, G
    Becherini, Yvonne
    Università di Bologna .
    Bellotti, R
    Bemporad, C
    Bernardini, P
    Bilokon, H
    Bloise, C
    Bower, C
    Brigida, M
    Bussino, S
    Cafagna, F
    Calicchio, M
    Campana, D
    Candela, A
    Carboni, M
    Caruso, R
    Cassese, F
    Cecchini, S
    Cei, F
    Chiarella, V
    Choudhary, B C
    Coutu, S
    Cozzi, M
    De Cataldo, G
    De Deo, M
    Dekhissi, H
    De Marzo, C
    De Mitri, I
    Derkaoui, J
    De Vincenzi, M
    Di Credico, A
    Dincecco, M
    Erriquez, O
    Favuzzi, C
    Forti, C
    Fusco, P
    Giacomelli, G
    Giannini, G
    Giglietto, N
    Giorgini, M
    Grassi, M
    Gray, L
    Grillo, A
    Guarino, F
    Gustavino, C
    Habig, A
    Hanson, K
    Heinz, R
    Iarocci, E
    Katsavounidis, E
    Katsavounidis, I
    Kearns, E
    Kim, H
    Kyriazopoulou, S
    Lamanna, E
    Lane, C P
    Levin, D S
    Lindozzi, M
    Lipari, P
    Longley, N P
    Longo, M J
    Loparco, F
    Marroufi, F
    Mancarella, G
    Mandrioli, G
    Margiotta, A
    Marini, A
    Martello, D
    Marzari-Chiesa, A
    Mazziotta, M N
    Michael, D G
    Monacelli, P
    Montaruli, T
    Monteno, M
    Mufson, S
    Musser, J
    Nicolo, D
    Nolty, R
    Orth, C
    Osteria, G
    Palamara, O
    Patera, V
    Patrizii, L
    Pazzi, R
    Peck, C W
    Perrone, L
    Petrera, S
    Pistilli, P
    Popa, V
    Raino, A
    Reynoldson, J
    Ronga, F
    Rrhioua, A
    Satriano, C
    Scapparone, E
    Scholberg, K
    Sciubba, A
    Serra, P
    Sioli, M
    Sirri, G
    Sitta, M
    Spinelli, P
    Spinetti, M
    Spurio, M
    Steinberg, R
    Stone, J L
    Sulak, L R
    Surdo, A
    Tarle, G
    Tatananni, E
    Togo, V
    Vakili, M
    Walter, C W
    Webb, R
    Muon energy estimate through multiple scattering with the MACRO detector2002In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, ISSN 0168-9002, E-ISSN 1872-9576, Vol. 492, no 3, p. 376-386Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Muon energy measurement represents an important issue for any experiment addressing neutrino-induced up-going muon studies. Since the neutrino oscillation probability depends on the neutrino energy, a measurement of the muon energy adds an important piece of information concerning the neutrino system. We show in this paper how the MACRO limited streamer tube system can be operated in drift mode by using the TDCs included in the QTPs, an electronics designed for magnetic monopole search. An improvement of the space resolution is obtained, through an analysis of the multiple scattering of muon tracks as they pass through our detector. This information can be used further to obtain an estimate of the energy of muons crossing the detector. Here we present the results of two dedicated tests, performed at CERN PS-T9 and SPS-X7 beam lines, to provide a full check of the electronics and to exploit the feasibility of such a multiple scattering analysis. We show that by using a neural network approach, we are able to reconstruct the muon energy for E-mu < 40 GeV. The test beam data provide an absolute energy calibration, which allows us to apply this method to MACRO data. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 14. Armijo, V.
    et al.
    Black, K.
    Bolton, R. D.
    Carius, Staffan
    Department of Radiation Sciences, Uppsala University.
    Cooper, M. D.
    Espinoza, C.
    Hart, G.
    Hogan, G. E.
    Ludwig, G.
    Mischke, R. E.
    Piilonen, L.
    Stanislaus, S.
    Sandoval, J.
    Whitehouse, D. A.
    Wilkinson, C.
    Jui, C. C. H.
    A fast MWPC with cathode strips and utilizing CF4-isobutane1991In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, ISSN 0168-9002, E-ISSN 1872-9576, Vol. 303, no 2, p. 298-308Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A planar wire chamber has been developed at LAMPF as a prototype for wire chambers of cylindrical configuration for electron detection in the MEGA experiment. Results form tests with the planar chamber have been used to set the geometrical parameters and predict the performance characteristics of the cylindrical chambers. The behavior of the planar chamber with CF4-isobutane gas demonstrates that 15 μm wire of 1 mm pitch is practical, that lifetimes greater than 0.045 C/cm are achievable and that gate widths of 25 ns are possible. © 1991.

  • 15.
    Becherini, Yvonne
    Dipartimento di Fisica dell’Universita’ di Bologna.
    ANTARES: Software organisation, reconstruction, performance studies2006In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, ISSN 0168-9002, E-ISSN 1872-9576, Vol. 567, no 2, p. 477-479Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ANTARES Collaboration is building an underwater neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean sea. The first full 480m line was connected to the shore station in March 2006. The full Monte Carlo simulation chain and offline software structure of the experiment is presented. The offline software structure consists of two main parts: the first concerns the generation of the Monte Carlo events in the detector and the cligitisation and filtering of the signals, while the second concerns offline event reconstruction of both Monte Carlo events and real data. The expected performances of the detector obtained from this accurate simulation procedure are also presented and discussed. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 16.
    Bolmont, J.
    et al.
    Pierre-and-Marie-Curie University, France ; Paris Diderot University, France.
    Corona, P.
    Pierre-and-Marie-Curie University, France ; Paris Diderot University, France.
    Gauron, P.
    Pierre-and-Marie-Curie University, France ; Paris Diderot University, France.
    Ghislain, P.
    Pierre-and-Marie-Curie University, France ; Paris Diderot University, France.
    Goffin, C.
    Pierre-and-Marie-Curie University, France ; Paris Diderot University, France.
    Riveros, L. Guevara
    Pierre-and-Marie-Curie University, France ; Paris Diderot University, France.
    Huppert, J. -F
    Pierre-and-Marie-Curie University, France ; Paris Diderot University, France.
    Martineau-Huynh, O.
    Pierre-and-Marie-Curie University, France ; Paris Diderot University, France.
    Nayman, P.
    Pierre-and-Marie-Curie University, France ; Paris Diderot University, France.
    Parraud, J. -M
    Pierre-and-Marie-Curie University, France ; Paris Diderot University, France.
    Tavernet, J. -P
    Pierre-and-Marie-Curie University, France ; Paris Diderot University, France.
    Toussenel, F.
    Pierre-and-Marie-Curie University, France ; Paris Diderot University, France.
    Vincent, D.
    Pierre-and-Marie-Curie University, France ; Paris Diderot University, France.
    Vincent, P.
    Pierre-and-Marie-Curie University, France ; Paris Diderot University, France.
    Bertoli, W.
    Paris Diderot University, France.
    Espigat, P.
    Paris Diderot University, France.
    Punch, Michael
    Univ Paris Diderot, APC, AstroParticule & Cosmology, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu, Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris C, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France.
    Besin, D.
    Delagnes, E.
    CEA Saclay, France.
    Glicenstein, J. -F
    CEA Saclay, France.
    Moudden, Y.
    CEA Saclay, France.
    Venault, P.
    CEA Saclay, France.
    Zaghia, H.
    CEA Saclay, France.
    Brunetti, L.
    University of Savoy, France.
    David, P. -Y
    University of Savoy, France.
    Dubois, J. -M
    University of Savoy, France.
    Fiasson, A.
    University of Savoy, France.
    Geffroy, N.
    University of Savoy, France.
    Monteiro, I. Gomes
    University of Savoy, France.
    Journet, L.
    University of Savoy, France.
    Krayzel, F.
    University of Savoy, France.
    Lamanna, G.
    University of Savoy, France.
    Le Flour, T.
    University of Savoy, France.
    Lees, S.
    University of Savoy, France.
    Lieunard, B.
    University of Savoy, France.
    Maurin, G.
    University of Savoy, France.
    Mugnier, P.
    University of Savoy, France.
    Panazol, J-L
    University of Savoy, France.
    Prast, J.
    University of Savoy, France.
    Chounet, L. -M
    Ecole Polytechnique, France.
    Degrange, B.
    Ecole Polytechnique, France.
    Edy, E.
    Ecole Polytechnique, France.
    Fontaine, G.
    Ecole Polytechnique, France.
    Giebels, B.
    Ecole Polytechnique, France.
    Hormigos, S.
    Ecole Polytechnique, France.
    Khelifi, B.
    Ecole Polytechnique, France.
    Manigot, P.
    Ecole Polytechnique, France.
    Maritaz, P.
    Ecole Polytechnique, France.
    de Naurois, M.
    Ecole Polytechnique, France.
    Compin, M.
    Montpellier 2 University, France.
    Feinstein, F.
    Montpellier 2 University, France.
    Fernandez, D.
    Montpellier 2 University, France.
    Mehault, J.
    Montpellier 2 University, France.
    Rivoire, S.
    Montpellier 2 University, France.
    Royer, S.
    Montpellier 2 University, France.
    Sanguillon, M.
    Montpellier 2 University, France.
    Vasileiadis, G.
    Montpellier 2 University, France.
    The camera of the fifth H.E.S.S. telescope: Part I: System description2014In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, ISSN 0168-9002, E-ISSN 1872-9576, Vol. 761, p. 46-57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In July 2012, as the four ground based gamma-ray telescopes of the H.E.S.S. (High Energy Stereoscopic System) array reached their tenth year of operation in Khomas Highlands, Namibia, a fifth telescope Look its first data as part of the system. This new Cherenkov detector, comprising a 614.5 m(2) reflector with a highly pixelized camera in its focal plane, improves the sensitivity of the current array by a factor two and extends ifs energy domain down to a few Lens of GeV. The present part l of the paper gives a detailed description of the fifth H.E.S.S. telescope's camera, presenting the details of both the hardware and the software, emphasizing the main improvements as compared to previous H.E.S.S. camera technology.

  • 17. Calén, H.
    et al.
    Carius, Staffan
    Department of Radiation Sciences, Uppsala University.
    Fransson, K.
    Gustafsson, L.
    Häggström, S.
    Höistad, B.
    Johansson, A.
    Johansson, T.
    Kullander, S.
    Mörtsell, A.
    Möhn, J.
    Ruber, R.
    Schuberth, U.
    Złomańczuk, J.
    Ekström, C.
    Fridén, C. -J
    Reistad, D.
    Kilian, K.
    Oelert, W.
    Renken, V.
    Sefzick, T.
    Waters, M.
    Bondar, A.
    Kolachev, G.
    Kuzmin, A.
    Purlatz, T.
    Shwartz, B.
    Sidorov, V.
    Sukhanov, A.
    Kupść, A.
    Marciniewski, P.
    Nawrot, A.
    Stepaniak, J.
    Bogoslawsky, D.
    Dunin, V.
    Kuznetsov, A.
    Morosov, B.
    Povtorejko, A.
    Sandukovsky, S.
    Zernov, A.
    Zabierowski, J.
    Turowiecki, A.
    Wilhelmi, Z.
    Pawlowski, Z.
    Bilger, R.
    Brodowski, W.
    Clement, H.
    Kurz, G.
    Wagner, G. J.
    Martemyanov, A.
    Sopov, V.
    Tchernyshev, V.
    David, E.
    Price, M.
    Rivoiron, C.
    Detector setup for a storage ring with an internal target1996In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, ISSN 0168-9002, E-ISSN 1872-9576, Vol. 379, no 1, p. 57-75Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A detector setup for the cooler storage ring CELSIUS is described. The setup detects particles produced in interactions between the internal beam and a cluster-jet target. Particles emitted in the forward direction are measured by means of arrays of plastic scintillators and proportional counters. Particles, particularly photons, emitted more isotropically are measured by means of two calorimeters containing CsI(Na) crystals. The performance of the setup is given for neutral meson production in proton-proton and proton-deuteron interactions in the energy range 290-1360 MeV.

  • 18. Cooper, M. D.
    et al.
    Armijo, V.
    Black, J. K.
    Bolton, R. D.
    Carius, Staffan
    Los Alamos National Laboratory.
    Espinoza, C.
    Hart, G.
    Hogan, G. E.
    Gonzales, A.
    Kroupa, M. A.
    Mischke, R. E.
    Sandoval, J.
    Schilling, S.
    Sena, J.
    Suazo, G.
    Whitehouse, D. A.
    Wilkinson, C. A.
    Stantz, K.
    Szymanski, J. J.
    Jui, C. C.
    Gagliardi, C. A.
    Tribble, R. E.
    Tu, X. -L
    Fisk, R. J.
    Koetke, D. D.
    Manweiler, R. W.
    Nord, P. M.
    Stanislaus, S.
    Piilonen, L. E.
    Zhang, Y. D.
    Construction and performance of MEGA's low-mass, high-rate cylindrical MWPCs1998In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, ISSN 0168-9002, E-ISSN 1872-9576, Vol. 417, no 1, p. 24-49Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A design for extremely low mass, high-resolution multiwire proportional chambers (MWPC) was achieved by the MEGA collaboration in its experiment to search for the lepton family number violating decay μ → eγ. To extend the present branching ratio limit by over an order of magnitude, these MWPCs were operated in high particle fluxes. They showed minimal effects of aging, and evidenced spatial and energy resolutions for the orbiting positrons from muon decay which were consistent with our design parameters. The unique features of these chambers, their assembly into the MEGA positron spectrometer, and their performance during the experiment are described in this paper.

  • 19.
    Horneffer, A.
    et al.
    Radboud University Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
    Bähren, L.
    Radboud University Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
    Buitink, S.
    Radboud University Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
    Corstanje, A.
    Radboud University Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
    Falcke, H.
    Radboud University Nijmegen, The Netherlands ; ASTRON, The Netherlands.
    Hörandel, J. R.
    Radboud University Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
    Lafebre, S.
    Radboud University Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
    Scholten, O.
    Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, The Netherlands.
    Singh, K.
    Radboud University Nijmegen, The Netherlands ; Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, The Netherlands.
    Thoudam, Satyendra
    Radboud University Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
    Ter Veen, S.
    Radboud University Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
    Cosmic ray and neutrino measurements with LOFAR2010In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, ISSN 0168-9002, E-ISSN 1872-9576, Vol. 617, no 1-3, p. 482-483Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    LOFAR is a new radio telescope being built in the Netherlands. It can detect cosmic particles by measuring radio pulses from air showers and by searching for radio pulses from particle cascades in the moon. The high density of radio antennas in the core and the excellent calibration will make LOFAR an unique tool to study the radio properties of single air showers and thus test and refine our theoretical understanding of the radio emission process in them. In addition LOFAR will be able to observe the moon with high sensitivity at low frequencies and search for particles interacting in the lunar regolith. This will give it unprecedented sensitivity to cosmic rays or neutrinos at energies around 1022eV. Triggering for both detection methods means detecting a short radio pulse and discriminating real events from radio interference. At LOFAR we will search for pulses in the digital data stream either from single antennas or from already beam-formed data and pick out real events from pulse form data. In addition we will have a small scintillator array to test and confirm the performance of the radio only trigger, and to provide additional measurements for the air shower reconstruction and analysis.

  • 20. Kanai, Y.
    et al.
    Ueno, M.
    Kataoka, J.
    Arimoto, M.
    Kawai, N.
    Yamamoto, K.
    Mizuno, T.
    Fukazawa, Y.
    Kiss, M.
    Ylinen, T.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Bettolo, C. M.
    Carlson, P.
    Klamra, W.
    Pearce, M.
    Chen, P.
    Craig, B.
    Kamae, T.
    Madejski, G.
    Ng, J. S. T.
    Rogers, R.
    Tajima, H.
    Thurston, T. S.
    Saito, Y.
    Takahashi, T.
    Gunji, S.
    Bjornsson, C. I.
    Larsson, S.
    Ryde, F.
    Bogaert, G.
    Kishimoto, S.
    Beam test of a prototype phoswich detector assembly for the PoGOLite astronomical soft gamma-ray polarimeter2007In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, ISSN 0168-9002, E-ISSN 1872-9576, Vol. 570, no 1, p. 61-71Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report about the beam test on a prototype of the balloon-based astronomical soft gamma-ray polarimeter, PoGOLite (Polarized Gamma-ray Observer-Light Version) conducted at KEK Photon Factory, a synchrotron radiation facility in Japan. The synchrotron beam was set at 30, 50, and 70 keV and its polarization was monitored by a calibrated polarimeter. The goal of the experiment was to validate the flight design of the polarimeter. PoGOLite is designed to measure polarization by detecting a Compton scattering and the subsequent photo-absorption in an array of 217 well-type phoswich detector cells (PDCs). The test setup included a first flight model PDC and a front-end electronics to select and reconstruct valid Compton scattering events. The experiment has verified that the flight PDC can detect recoil electrons and select valid Compton scattering events down to 30 keV from background. The measure azimuthal modulations (34.4%, 35.8% and 37.2% at 30, 50, and 70 keV, respectively) agreed within 10% (relative) with the predictions by Geant4 implemented with dependence on the initial and final photon polarizations. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 21.
    Koul, R.
    et al.
    Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, India.
    Tickoo, A. K.
    Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, India.
    Kaul, S. K.
    Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, India.
    Kaul, S. R.
    Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, India.
    Kumar, N.
    Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, India.
    Yadav, K. K.
    Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, India.
    Bhatt, N.
    Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, India.
    Venugopal, K.
    Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, India.
    Goyal, H. C.
    Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, India.
    Kothari, M.
    Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, India.
    Chandra, P.
    Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, India.
    Rannot, R. C.
    Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, India.
    Dhar, V. K.
    Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, India.
    Koul, M. K.
    Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, India.
    Kaul, R. K.
    Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, India.
    Kotwal, S.
    Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, India.
    Chanchalani, K.
    Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, India.
    Thoudam, Satyendra
    Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, India.
    Chouhan, N.
    Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, India.
    Sharma, M.
    Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, India.
    Bhattacharyya, S.
    Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, India.
    Sahayanathan, S.
    Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, India.
    The TACTIC atmospheric Cherenkov imaging telescope2007In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, ISSN 0168-9002, E-ISSN 1872-9576, Vol. 578, no 3, p. 548-564Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The TACTIC (TeV Atomospheric Cherenkov Telescope with Imaging Camera) γγ-ray telescope, equipped with a light collector of area ∼9.5m2 and a medium resolution imaging camera of 349 pixels, has been in operation at Mt. Abu, India, since 2001. This paper describes the main features of its various subsystems and its overall performance with regard to (a) tracking accuracy of its two-axes drive system, (b) spot size of the light collector, (c) back-end signal processing electronics and topological trigger generation scheme, (d) data acquisition and control system and (e) relative and absolute gain calibration methodology. Using a trigger field-of-view of 11×1111×11 pixels (∼3.4×3.4)(∼3.4∘×3.4∘), the telescope records a cosmic ray event rate of ∼2.5Hz at a typical zenith angle of 1515∘. Monte Carlo simulation results are also presented in the paper for comparing the expected performance of the telescope with actual observational results. The consistent detection of a steady signal from the Crab Nebula above ∼1.2TeV energy, at a sensitivity level of ∼5.0σ∼5.0σ in ∼25h, alongwith excellent matching of its energy spectrum with that obtained by other groups, reassures that the performance of the TACTIC telescope is quite stable and reliable. Furthermore, encouraged by the detection of strong γγ-ray signals from Mrk 501 (during 1997 and 2006 observations) and Mrk 421 (during 2001 and 2005–2006 observations), we believe that there is considerable scope for the TACTIC telescope to monitor similar TeV γγ-ray emission activity from other active galactic nuclei on a long-term basis.

  • 22.
    Schellart, P.
    et al.
    Radboud University Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
    Buitink, S.
    Radboud University Nijmegen, The Netherlands ; University Groningen, The Netherlands.
    Corstanje, A.
    Radboud University Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
    Enriquez, J. E.
    Radboud University Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
    Falcke, H.
    Radboud University Nijmegen, The Netherlands ; Science Park Amsterdam, The Netherlands ; Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON), The Netherlands ; Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Germany.
    Frieswijk, W.
    Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON), The Netherlands.
    Hörandel, J. R.
    Radboud University Nijmegen, The Netherlands ; Science Park Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Krause, M.
    Radboud University Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
    Nelles, A.
    Radboud University Nijmegen, The Netherlands ; Science Park Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Scholten, O.
    University Groningen, The Netherlands.
    ter Veen, S.
    Radboud University Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
    Thoudam, Satyendra
    Radboud University Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
    van den Akker, M.
    Radboud University Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
    Recent results from cosmic-ray measurements with LOFAR2014In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, ISSN 0168-9002, E-ISSN 1872-9576, Vol. 742, p. 115-118Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    LOFAR, the Low Frequency Array, is currently the world's largest distributed radio telescope observing at frequencies below 240 MHz. LOFAR is measuring cosmic-ray induced air-showers since June 2011 and has collected several hundreds of events with hundreds of antennas per individual event. We present measurements of the radio signal strength as well as high-precision measurements of wavefront curvature and polarization. These will enable us to disentangle the different emission mechanisms at play, such as geomagnetic radiation, charge excess, and Askaryan or Cherenkov effects, leading to a full understanding of the air-shower radio emission. Furthermore we give a first example on how the full complexity of the signal enables radio measurements to be used to study primary particle composition.

  • 23. Stanislaus, S.
    et al.
    Armijo, V.
    Black, J. K.
    Bolton, R. D.
    Carius, Staffan
    Department of Radiation Sciences, Uppsala University.
    Cooper, M. D.
    Espinoza, C.
    Hart, G.
    Hogan, G.
    Gonzales, A.
    Mischke, R. E.
    Piilonen, L. E.
    Sandoval, J.
    Schilling, S.
    Sena, J.
    Suazo, G.
    Szymanski, J. J.
    Whitehouse, D. A.
    Wilkinson, C. A.
    Fisk, R.
    Koetke, D. D.
    Manweiler, R. W.
    Jui, C. C.
    Results from beam tests of MEGA's low-mass, high-rate cylindrical MWPCs1992In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, ISSN 0168-9002, E-ISSN 1872-9576, Vol. 323, no 1-2, p. 198-202Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the leading experimental projects at LAMPF has been the MEGA experiment. This is an experiment to search for the rare decay μ → eγ with a sensitivity of 10-13. A prime component of this project has been the design and construction of high-rate, low-mass MWPCs for the tracking of positrons from muon decay. With rate capabilities of 2 × 104 e+/mm2/s and a thickness of 3 × 10-4 radiation lengths, these chambers are state-of-the-art cylindrical MWPCs. Cylindrical chambers of this size (0.9 m2) and thinness have never been previously constructed. The MEGA project at LAMPF has recently succeeded in building chambers with these necessary performance characteristics as demonstrated by data taken from muon decays, cosmic rays, and sources. © 1992.

  • 24.
    Thoudam, Satyendra
    Radboud University Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
    Gamma rays from Fermi bubbles as due to diffusive injection of Galactic cosmic rays2014In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, ISSN 0168-9002, E-ISSN 1872-9576, Vol. 742, p. 224-227Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent detailed analysis of the Fermi-LAT data has discovered two giant γ-rayγ-ray emission regions, the so-called Fermi bubbles, extending up to ~50° in Galactic latitude above and below the Galactic center with a width of ~40° in longitude. The origin of the γ-rayγ-ray emission is not clearly understood. Here, we discuss the possibility that the γ-raysγ-rays can be the result of diffusive injection of Galactic cosmic-ray protons during their propagation through the Galaxy. In the model, we consider that the bubbles are slowly expanding, and cosmic rays undergo much slower diffusion inside the bubbles than in the averaged Galaxy. Moreover, we consider that cosmic rays inside the bubbles suffer losses from adiabatic expansion, and also from inelastic collisions with the bubble plasma producing pion-decay γ rays. We show that this simple model can explain some of the important properties of Fermi bubbles such as the measured γ-rayγ-ray intensity profile, the energy spectrum and the measured luminosity.

  • 25.
    Thoudam, Satyendra
    et al.
    Radboud University Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
    Buitink, S.
    Radboud University Nijmegen, The Netherlands ; University of Groningen, The Netherlands.
    Corstanje, A.
    Radboud University Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
    Enriquez, J. E.
    Radboud University Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
    Falcke, H.
    Radboud University Nijmegen, The Netherlands ; ASTRON, The Netherlands ; Science Park Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Frieswijk, W.
    ASTRON, The Netherlands.
    Hörandel, J. R.
    Radboud University Nijmegen, The Netherlands ; Science Park Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Horneffer, A.
    Radboud University Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
    Krause, M.
    Radboud University Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
    Nelles, A.
    Radboud University Nijmegen, The Netherlands ; Science Park Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Schellart, P.
    Radboud University Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
    Scholten, O.
    University of Groningen, The Netherlands.
    ter Veen, S.
    Radboud University Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
    van den Akker, M.
    Radboud University Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
    LORA: A scintillator array for LOFAR to measure extensive air showers2014In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, ISSN 0168-9002, E-ISSN 1872-9576, Vol. 767, p. 339-346Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The measurement of the radio emission from extensive air showers, induced by high-energy cosmic rays, is one of the key science projects of the LOFAR radio telescope. The LOfar Radboud air shower Array (LORA) has been installed in the core of LOFAR in the Netherlands. The main purpose of LORA is to measure the properties of air showers and to trigger the read-out of the LOFAR radio antennas to register extensive air showers. The experimental set-up of the array of scintillation detectors and its performance are described.

  • 26.
    Tickoo, A. K.
    et al.
    Bhabha Atomic Research Centre.
    Suthar, R. L.
    Bhabha Atomic Research Centre.
    Koul, R.
    Bhabha Atomic Research Centre.
    Sapru, M. L.
    Bhabha Atomic Research Centre.
    Kumar, N.
    Bhabha Atomic Research Centre.
    Kaul, C. L.
    Bhabha Atomic Research Centre.
    Yadav, K. K.
    Bhabha Atomic Research Centre.
    Thoudam, Satyendra
    Bhabha Atomic Research Centre.
    Kaul, S. K.
    Bhabha Atomic Research Centre.
    Venugopal, K.
    Bhabha Atomic Research Centre.
    Kothari, M.
    Bhabha Atomic Research Centre.
    Goyal, H. C.
    Bhabha Atomic Research Centre.
    Chandra, P.
    Bhabha Atomic Research Centre.
    Dhar, V. K.
    Bhabha Atomic Research Centre.
    Rannot, R. C.
    Bhabha Atomic Research Centre.
    Koul, M. K.
    Bhabha Atomic Research Centre.
    Kaul, S. R.
    Bhabha Atomic Research Centre.
    A generalized ray-tracing procedure for an atmospheric Cherenkov imaging telescope and optical characteristics of the TACTIC light collector2005In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, ISSN 0168-9002, E-ISSN 1872-9576, Vol. 539, no 1-2, p. 177-190Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A generalized ray-tracing procedure has been developed, which facilitates the design of a multimirror-based light collector used in atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes. This procedure has been employed to study the optical characteristics of the 3.5 m diameter light collector of the TACTIC Imaging telescope. Comparison of the measured point-spread function of the light collector with the simulated performance of ideal Davies–Cotton and paraboloid designs has been made to determine an optimum arrangement of the 34 spherical mirror facets used in the telescope to obtain the best possible point-spread function. A description of the ray-tracing subroutine used for processing CORSIKA-generated Cherenkov data, required for carrying out Monte-Carlo simulation studies, is also discussed in the paper.

1 - 26 of 26
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  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf