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  • 1.
    Cedeno, Daniel Grings
    et al.
    Univ Fed Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
    Conceicao, Rommulo Vieira
    Univ Fed Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
    Wilbert de Souza, Marcio Roberto
    Univ Fed Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil..
    Schimdt Quinteiro, Roberto Vicente
    Univ Fed Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
    Carniel, Larissa Colombo
    Univ Fed Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
    Ketzer, João Marcelo
    Pontificia Univ Catolica Rio Grande Sul PUCRS, Brazil.
    Rodrigues, Frederico
    Pontificia Univ Catolica Rio Grande Sul PUCRS, Brazil.
    Bruzza, Eduardo do Canto
    Pontificia Univ Catolica Rio Grande Sul PUCRS, Brazil.
    An experimental study on smectites as nitrogen conveyors in subduction zones2019In: Applied Clay Science, ISSN 0169-1317, E-ISSN 1872-9053, Vol. 168, p. 409-420Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We performed high pressure and high temperature (HPHT) experiments on NH4-doped montmorillonite (similar to 2 wt % of NH4) under pressures of 2.5, 4.0, and 7.7 GPa and temperatures from 200 to 700 degrees C. Each experiment was analyzed with XRD, FTIR, CHN elemental analysis, and SEM in order to determine the NH4-Smectite phase changes and their morphology, and the presence of ammonium in the runs. Our results show that smectite can easily transport nitrogen, speciated as ammonium (NH4+), incorporated into the smectite interlayer in mildly reducing environments to deeper levels in the Earth through cold thermal regime subduction zones. NH4-Smectite transforms into NH4-enriched micaceous phase (tobelite) through a NH4+-enriched interlayered I/S phase in relatively low pressures and temperatures (around 2.5 GPa and 500 degrees C). Tobelite is stable until more extreme conditions (7.7 GPa and 700 degrees C), together with lesser amounts of buddingtonite (an ammonium-bearing feldspar) kyanite, and garnet. Our experiments also show the effect of nitrogen in the feldspar stability, as potassic and sodic feldspar are stable up to similar to 5 GPa, while buddingtonite, is observed to be stable up to 7.7 GPa. Nitrogen can return to the surface once the stability of these nitrogen-enriched minerals is reached due to pressure or temperature increasing.

  • 2.
    Lopez-Fernandez, Margarita
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Univ Granada, Spain.
    Vilchez-Vargas, Ramiro
    Univ Ghent, Belgium;Otto von Guericke Univ, Germany.
    Jroundi, Fadwa
    Univ Granada, Spain.
    Boon, Nico
    Univ Ghent, Belgium.
    Pieper, Dietmar
    Helmholtz Ctr Infect Res, Germany.
    Merroun, Mohamed L.
    Univ Granada, Spain.
    Microbial community changes induced by uranyl nitrate in bentonite clay microcosms2018In: Applied Clay Science, ISSN 0169-1317, E-ISSN 1872-9053, Vol. 160, p. 206-216Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Deep geological repository (DGR) is one of the internationally accepted options to dispose radioactive wastes. Bentonite formations from Almeria, Spain, were selected as reference material for artificial barriers for the future Spanish repository. However, the safety of this long-term disposal could be compromised not only by physicochemical factors but also by microbial processes. The highly radioactive waste must be safely stored at least for 100,000 years for the radioactivity to decrease to similar levels to those of natural uranium. To simulate a scenario where the mobilization of radionuclides from the repository to the host formations may occur, long-term microcosms were studied. After being exposed to uranyl nitrate for 5 months, the response of the bentonite microbial community to the addition of this radionuclide was evaluated. High throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed that the structure of the microbial community after the uranyl nitrate treatment differs to that of the control microcosms. The microbial diversity was dominated by Firmicutes and Proteobacteria. Moreover, after the uranyl nitrate treatment OTUs annotated as Paracoccus and Bacillus were highly enriched. The mineralogy of bentonites was not affected by the uranyl nitrate treatment as was demonstrated by X-ray diffraction analysis. In addition, the study of uranium-bacteria interaction revealed the ability of isolates to biomineralize uranium as uranium phosphate mineral phases. Thus, the changes induced by the release of uranium in the microbial population may also affect the mobility of this radionuclide, making it less mobile and therefore less harmful for this environment.

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