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  • 1. Fältmarsch, R
    et al.
    Åström, Mats
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Vuori, K
    Effect of toxic metals mobilised from Finnish acid sulphate soils on terrestrial and aquatic biota: a literature review2008In: Boreal environment research, ISSN 1239-6095, E-ISSN 1797-2469, Vol. 13, p. 444-456Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Peltola, Pasi
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Wikström, Elisabeth
    Tyre stud derived tungsten carbide particles in urban street dust2006In: Boreal environment research, ISSN 1239-6095, E-ISSN 1797-2469, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 161-168Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In countries where studded winter tyres are used they contribute to the generation of street dust by grinding the road surface and traction sand into finer particles. At the same time the hard metal tips of the studs, made out of tungsten carbide (WC), wear to finer particles dispersed into the environment. Elevated tungsten concentrations in different sampling media, probably caused by the use of studded tyres, have also been reported. In this study three size fractions of street dust sampled in Turku, Finland, were investigated. Tungsten and various other element concentrations were determined with ICP-MS after total dissolution, pseudo total concentration (aqua regia) and a weaker extraction (1M NH4Ac). A visual analysis was made with a SEM-EDX to study the presence and size fraction of WC particles, which has not been studied before. The total concentrations (median values) of tungsten in the fractions were 9.2 µg g–1 (100 µm–2 mm), 21 µg g–1 (45 µm–100 µm) and 39 µg g–1 (< 45 µm). As expected, tungsten showed a tendency to accumulate into the finer size fractions. However, more surprising was the result that out of all elements determined, tungsten had the greatest (median values) relative enrichment in the fine fraction. In the SEM-EDX analysis particles consisting of tungsten were identified and ruled out to be WC abraded from tyre studs. The WC particles occurred either separately or in clusters with size range of 0.1–1.4 µm.

  • 3.
    Reinap, Ausra
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Wiman, Bo L. B.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Svenningsson, Birgitta
    Lund University.
    Gunnarsson, Sara
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Forest-edge effects on sea-salt aerosol deposition: a wind-tunnel study using living oak leaves2012In: Boreal environment research, ISSN 1239-6095, E-ISSN 1797-2469, Vol. 17, no 3-4, p. 193-209Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Landscape patchiness creates aerodynamic transitions zones that affect the exchange of nutrients and pollutants between the atmosphere and vegetation. Using an artificially generated NaCl aerosol, with its mass-versus-particle-size distribution characterised by an aerodynamic mean particle diameter of 1.6 µm and a geometrical standard deviation of 1.9, we investigate the forest-edge effect on aerosol deposition within a model oak (Quercus robur L.) canopy in a wind tunnel with a smooth up-wind surface, and provide quantitative estimates of deposition rates within the emulated beach-to-forest transition. The deposition rate is maximal around the forest edge with an enhancement factor in relation to the beach deposition of 2.4 for Cl- and 2.0 for Na+. Results are in reasonable agreement with those obtained from deposition models, field studies, and other wind-tunnel based investigations. We find a tendency towards an edge effect also at the downwind forest end, which is in support of model predictions. Estimates of deposition velocities at the edge are 0.06 cms-1 and 0.05 cms-1 for Cl- and Na+, respectively. Because of the edge effect the model forest’s deposition velocity is enhanced, being 1.4 times higher around the edge in comparison with the entire forest. This suggests that field measurements of deposition in the interior of a forest “island” in an otherwise open landscape would underestimate the deposition to the entire forest. Our results can help improve estimates of aerosol-borne inputs of nutrients or pollutants to forests that would experience shifts in meteorological regimes due to changes in climate and forestry practices, in particular with respect to deciduous species in coastal environments where forest-edge effects might be substantial.

     

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