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  • 1.
    Augustsson, Anna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Åström, Mats E.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Bergbäck, Bo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Elert, M.
    Kemakta Konsult.
    Höglund, L. O.
    Kemakta Konsult.
    Kleja, D. B.
    Swedish Geotechnical Institute;Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    High metal reactivity and environmental risks at a site contaminated by glass waste2016In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 154, p. 434-443Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study addresses the reactivity and risks of metals (Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, As and Sb) at a Swedish site with large glass waste deposits. Old glassworks sites typically have high total metal concentrations, but as the metals are mainly bound within the glass waste and considered relatively inert, environmental investigations at these kinds of sites are limited. In this study, soil and landfill samples were subjected to a sequential chemical extraction procedure. Data from batch leaching tests and groundwater upstream and downstream of the waste deposits were also interpreted. The sequential extraction revealed that metals in <2 mm soil/waste samples were largely associated with geochemically active fractions, indicating that metals are released from pristine glass and subsequently largely retained in the surrounding soil and/or on secondary mineral coatings on fine glass particles. From the approximately 12,000 m(3) of coarse glass waste at the site, almost 4000 kg of Pb is estimated to have been lost through corrosion, which, however, corresponds to only a small portion of the total amount of Pb in the waste. Metal sorption within the waste deposits or in underlying soil layers is supported by fairly low metal concentrations in groundwater. However, elevated concentrations in downstream groundwater and in leachates of batch leaching tests were observed for several metals, indicating on-going leaching. Taken together, the high metal concentrations in geochemically active forms and the high amounts of as yet uncorroded metal-rich glass, indicate considerable risks to human health and the environment.

  • 2.
    Dahlberg, Anna-Karin
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Lundberg Chen, Vivian
    Stockholm University.
    Larsson, Kjell
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholm University ; Swedish Toxicology Sciences Research Center (Swetox).
    Asplund, Lillemor
    Stockholm University.
    Hydroxylated and methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers in long-tailed ducks (Clangula hyemalis) and their main food, Baltic blue mussels (Mytilus trossulus x Mytilus edulis)2016In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 144, p. 1475-1483Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Long-tailed ducks (Clangula hyemalis) that breed in northern Europe and western Siberia and commonly winter in the Baltic Sea, are threatened by a significant population decrease. The ducks are, by primarily feeding on Baltic blue mussels (Mytilus trossulus x Mytilus edulis) while wintering in the Baltic Sea, potentially subjected to high levels of toxic hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs). To assess long-tailed ducks exposure to polybrominated phenols (PBPs), polybrominated anisoles (PBAs), hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs), their methylated counterparts (MeO-PBDEs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), livers of ten long-tailed ducks wintering in the Baltic Sea were analysed. Pattern and levels of analytes in long-tailed ducks (liver) and blue mussels sampled in March and May at nine sites in the Baltic Sea were compared. The geometric mean concentration (ng/g l.w.) in livers of long-tailed ducks and Baltic blue mussels were: ∑2PBPs: 0.57 and 48; ∑2PBAs: 0.83 and 11; ∑7OH-PBDEs: 6.1 and 45; ∑7MeO-PBDEs: 3.8 and 69; ∑7PBDEs: 8.0 and 7.2, respectively. Based on an estimated daily intake of 450 g fresh blue mussel meat, long-tailed ducks daily dietary intake of brominated substances while foraging in the Baltic Sea in March-May was estimated to; 390 ng ∑2PBPs, 90 ng ∑2PBAs, 370 ng ∑7OH-PBDEs, 590 ng ∑7MeO-PBDEs and 59 ng ∑7PBDEs. The low levels of PBPs, PBAs, OH-PBDEs and MeO-PBDEs in the long-tailed duck livers compared to blue mussel, despite a continuous daily intake, suggest that these compounds are poorly retained in long-tailed ducks.

  • 3.
    Fathollahzadeh, Homayoun
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Kaczala, Fabio
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Bhatnagar, Amit
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Hogland, William
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Significance of environmental dredging on metal mobility from contaminated sediments in the Oskarshamn Harbor, Sweden2015In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 119, p. 445-451Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Metals are often seen as immobile in bottom sediments as long as these environmental sinks remain undisturbed. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the potential metal mobility due to resuspension under pseudo-dredging conditions of contaminated sediments in the Oskarshamn Harbor that are likely to be dredged as part of a remediation program established in Sweden. To address this concern, mixtures of water slurries were sampled from pore, leaching, and surface water over a period of nearly 36 d, and the major ions and trace metal concentrations determined. The results of this study pointed out the potential mobility and toxicity of metals posed by temporary changes during dredging operations, and highlighted the potential release of Cu, Pb, Zn, Mn, and Ni to the environment. Among the toxic metals, regarding pre and post dredging, Cu and Pb significantly demonstrated to be in ionic form, apparently because of dissolution of Fe-Mn oxy/hydroxides and decomposition of organic matter. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 4. Holmqvist, N
    et al.
    Stenroth, Patrik
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Berglund, O
    Granéli, W.
    Nyström, P
    Larsson, Per
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in a benthic omnivore – A comparison between lake and stream crayfish populations2007In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 66, p. 1070-1078Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Jani, Yahya
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Burlakovs, Juris
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Augustsson, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Marques, Marcia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Hogland, William
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Physicochemical and toxicological characterization of hazardous wastes from an oldglasswork dump at southeastern part of Sweden2019In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    More than 34 old glasswork sites in the southeastern part of Sweden pose a permanent threat to human and environmental health due to the presence of toxic trace elements in open dumps with glass waste. The possibility of leaching of trace elements from different fractions of the disposed waste needed to be assessed. In the present investigation, leachate from a mixture of soil and waste glass of particle sizes of less than 2mm (given the name fine fraction) was characterized by analyzing the pH (7.3), total organic content (TOC<2%), organic matter content (4.4%), moisture content (9.7%), chemical oxygen demand (COD, 163mg/kg) and trace elements content, being the values in accordance to the Swedish guidelines for landfilling of inert materials. However, very high trace elements content was found in the fine fraction as well as in all colors of waste glass, whose values were compatible to hazardous waste landfill class. Tests with Lepidium sativum growing in the fine fraction as substrate revealed chronic toxicity expressed as inhibition of root biomass growth in 11 out of 15 samples. Additionally, leachate from fine fractions posed acute toxicity to genetically modified E. coli (Toxi-Chromotest). This study highlights the importance of combining physicochemical characterization with toxicity tests for both solid waste and leachate obtained from different waste fractions for proper hazardousness assessment supporting decision making on remediation demands.

  • 6.
    Jani, Yahya
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Hogland, William
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Chemical extraction of trace elements from hazardous fine fraction at an old glasswork dump2018In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 195, p. 825-830Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Old glassworks siteshave been always associated with contamination by different trace elements likePb, Cd, As, Zn and others. The mixture of soil and waste glass of particlesizes <2mmat one of the oldest Swedish glassworks (the Pukeberg) was studiedby analyzing the trace elements content, organic content (3.6%) and pH (7.4).The results showed hazardous concentrations of Pb (1525 mg/kg), Ba (1312mg/kg), Sb (128 mg/kg), Cd (36 mg/kg), As (118 mg/kg), Zn (1154mg/kg) and Co(263 mg/kg) exceeded the Swedish guidelines of contaminated soil. Batchchemical extraction by the chelating agents EDTA, DTPA and the biodegradableNTA were performed to study the effect of chelating agent concentration and mixingtime on the extraction efficiencies by following a Box-Wilson design ofexperiments. The results displayed good extraction efficiencies (less than 41%)of Pb, Cd, As and Zn by the EDTA, DTPA and NTA, which seemed depends on thetype of chelator. In addition, high correlation between the extraction efficiencies,the chelators concentration and mixing time was found based on the statisticaland experimental results.

  • 7.
    Lopez-Fernandez, Margarita
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Univ Granada, Spain.
    Romero-Gonzalez, Maria
    Univ Sheffield, UK.
    Guenther, Alix
    Helmholtz Zentrum Dresden Rossendorf, Germany.
    Solari, Pier L.
    Synchrotron SOLEIL, France.
    Merroun, Mohamed L.
    Univ Granada, Spain.
    Effect of U(VI) aqueous speciation on the binding of uranium by the cell surface of Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, a natural yeast isolate from bentonites2018In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 199, p. 351-360Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study presents the effect of aqueous uranium speciation (U-hydroxides and U-hydroxo-carbonates) on the interaction of this radionuclide with the cells of the yeast Rhodotorula mucigilanosa BII-R8. This strain was isolated from Spanish bentonites considered as reference materials for the engineered barrier components of the future deep geological repository of radioactive waste. X-ray absorption and infrared spectroscopy showed that the aqueous uranium speciation has no effect on the uranium binding process by this yeast strain. The cells bind mobile uranium species (U-hydroxides and U-hydroxo-carbonates) from solution via a time-dependent process initiated by the adsorption of uranium species to carboxyl groups. This leads to the subsequent involvement of organic phosphate groups forming uranium complexes with a local coordination similar to that of the uranyl mineral phase meta-autunite. Scanning transmission electron microscopy with high angle annular dark field analysis showed uranium accumulations at the cell surface associated with phosphorus containing ligands. Moreover, the effect of uranium mobile species on the cell viability and metabolic activity was examined by means of flow cytometry techniques, revealing that the cell metabolism is more affected by higher concentrations of uranium than the cell viability. The results obtained in this work provide new insights on the interaction of uranium with bentonite natural yeast from genus Rhodotorula under deep geological repository relevant conditions. (C) 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  • 8. Mansouri, Kamel
    et al.
    Consonni, Viviana
    Kos Durjava, Mojca
    Kolar, Boris
    Öberg, Tomas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Todeschini, Roberto
    Assessing bioaccumulation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers for aquatic species by QSAR modeling2012In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 89, no 4, p. 433-444Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are used as flame retardants in textiles, foams and plastics. Highly bioaccumulative with toxic effects including developmental neurotoxicity estrogen and thyroid hormones disruption, they are considered as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and have been found in human tissues, wildlife and biota worldwide. But only some of them are banned from EU market.

    For the environmental fate studies of these compounds the bioconcentration factor (BCF) is one of the most important endpoints to start with. We applied quantitative structure–activity relationships techniques to overcome the limited experimental data and avoid more animal testing.

    The aim of this work was to assess the bioaccumulation of PBDEs by means of QSAR. First, a BCF dataset of specifically conducted experiments was modeled. Then the study was extended by predicting the bioaccumulation and biomagnification factors using some experimental values from the literature. Molecular descriptors were calculated using DRAGON 6. The most relevant ones were selected and resulting models were compared paying attention to the applicability domain.

  • 9.
    Matilainen, Annu
    et al.
    University of Eastern Finland, Finland.
    Gjessing, Egil T.
    University of Oslo, Norway.
    Lahtinen, Tanja
    University of Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Hed, Leif
    Technology Centre Ketek LTD, Finland.
    Bhatnagar, Amit
    LSRE – Laboratory of Separation and Reaction Engineering, Portugal.
    Sillanpää, Mika
    University of Eastern Finland, Finland ; Lappeenranta University of Technology, Finland.
    An overview of the methods used in the characterization of natural organic matter (NOM) in relation to drinking water treatment2011In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 83, no 11, p. 1431-1442Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Natural organic matter (NOM) is found in all surface, ground and soil waters. During recent decades, reports worldwide show a continuing increase in the color and NOM of the surface water, which has an adverse affect on drinking water purification. For several practical and hygienic reasons, the presence of NOM is undesirable in drinking water. Various technologies have been proposed for NOM removal with varying degrees of success. The properties and amount of NOM, however, can significantly affect the process efficiency. In order to improve and optimise these processes, the characterisation and quantification of NOM at different purification and treatment processes stages is important. It is also important to be able to understand and predict the reactivity of NOM or its fractions in different steps of the treatment. Methods used in the characterisation of NOM include resin adsorption, size exclusion chromatography (SEC), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and fluorescence spectroscopy. The amount of NOM in water has been predicted with parameters including UV-Vis, total organic carbon (TOC), and specific UV-absorbance (SUVA). Recently, methods by which NOM structures can be more precisely determined have been developed; pyrolysis gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS), multidimensional NMR techniques, and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS). The present review focuses on the methods used for characterisation and quantification of NOM in relation to drinking water treatment.

  • 10. Perron, Nolwen
    et al.
    Welander, Ulrika
    Degradation of phenol and cresols at low temperatures using a suspended-carrier biofilm process2004In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 55, p. 45-50Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Öberg, Tomas
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Halogenated aromatics from steel production: results of a pilot-scale investigation2004In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 56, no 5, p. 441-448Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The potential environmental impact of emissions of halogenated aromatics from the steel industry is of growing concern. It has been suggested that electric arc furnaces are the only industrial source with constant or increasing emissions of dioxins to air. Here the results are reported from a pilot plant study on how scrap composition and various treatment alternatives affect the formation and release of chlorinated and brominated aromatics. The experiments were conducted with a statistical mixture design, and it is shown that scrap composition has a significant impact on the outcome. In contrast, the various treatment schemes examined--shredding, disassembly, and briquetting--did not affect the formation and release of halogenated aromatics. Parallel experiments with injection of adsorbents showed that it is possible to reduce emissions without substantial investments, and this option is recommended as a low-cost solution.

  • 12.
    Öberg, Tomas
    et al.
    Studsvik AB, Nyköping 61182, Sverige.
    Aittola, Jussi-Pekka
    Bergström, Jan
    Chlorinated aromatics from the combustion of hazardous waste1985In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 215-221Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The production and emission of chlorinated aromatics from a hazardous waste incinerator were shown to be influenced by the operating conditions. The emissions of chlorinated benzenes, PCDD and PCDF show statistically significant correlations to the chlorine input. Different substance groups also correlate, and the results presented correspond well with a general formation mechanism of chlorophenols via chlorobenzenes as indicated by others.

  • 13.
    Öberg, Tomas
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Allhammar, Göran
    Chlorinated aromatics from metallurgical industries: Process factors influencing production and emissions1989In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 19, no 1-6, p. 711-716Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The emission and production of chlorinated aromatics from metallurgical industries, e g scrap-metal re-melting, show substantial variations due to a number of process factors. The data evaluated indicates clearly that the production of chlorinated aromatics is combustion controlled.

  • 14.
    Öberg, Tomas
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Bergbäck, Bo
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Filipsson, Monika
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Catalytic effects by metal oxides on the formation and degradation of chlorinated aromatic compounds in fly ash.2008In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 71, no 6, p. 1135-43Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Polychlorinated benzenes, dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD), and dibenzofurans (PCDF) may be formed below the combustion temperature in fly ash from municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWI). Copper catalyzes this formation, possibly by the Deacon reaction. Many other elements are also Deacon catalysts or promoters, and here we report results from a statistically designed experiment with 15 metal oxides added to fly ash and heated at 300 degrees C for 2h in an air atmosphere. A resolution IV fractional factorial design with four replicates was completed in 36 runs with the oxides of magnesium, yttrium, titanium, vanadium, niobium, chromium, molybdenum, tungsten, manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc, and tin. All samples were analyzed for chlorinated benzenes and the results were evaluated by analysis of variance. The addition of copper significantly increased the amounts of the chlorinated benzenes, while cobalt, chromium and vanadium decreased the net formation. The oxides of zinc and iron seemed to have a slightly positive and negative effect respectively. The findings in this study seem to corroborate our previously reported results regarding the different catalytic effects of copper and chromium, and lack of a significant effect by nickel. Besides chromium, it also identifies cobalt and vanadium as potent catalysts for oxidative degradation of the chlorinated aromatic compounds found in MSWI fly ash.

  • 15.
    Öberg, Tomas
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Bergström, Jan
    Combustion test data from a Swedish hazardous waste incinerator1986In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 15, no 9-12, p. 2045-2048Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Here we present results from our tests with PCB-incineration at the SAKAB hazardous waste incinerator in Norrtorp, Sweden. Combustion tests were made with PCB both as a fluid (Arochlor 1242) and as a contaminant of solid waste (Arochlor 1016 in capacitors). A general conclusion was that the incineration of considerable amounts of PCB did not effect the production of PCDD and PCDF in this combustion plant.

  • 16.
    Öberg, Tomas
    et al.
    STUDSVIK AB, S-61182 NYKOPING, SWEDEN .
    Bergström, Jan
    Dioxins from Scandinavian waste combustion plants1986In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 15, no 9-12, p. 2041-2044Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A large quantity of emission data for PCDD and PCDF have been reported to date. Less information is available concerning the controlling parameters for the production of chlorinated aromatics from waste combustion. Here we report results and conclusions from investigations carried out in the Scandinavian countries to date.

  • 17.
    Öberg, Tomas
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Bergström, Jan
    Emission and chlorination pattern of PCDD/PCDF predicted from indicator parameters1987In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 16, no 6, p. 1221-1230Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The emission and chlorination pattern of polychlorinated dioxins and dibenzofurans from waste combustion shows a close covariation with that of chlorinated benzenes and phenols. This covariation can be utilized to predict the emission levels of specific isomers as well as the pattern of congeners.

  • 18.
    Öberg, Tomas
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Bergström, Jan
    Hexachlorobenzene as an indicator of dioxin production from combustion1985In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 14, no 8, p. 1081-1086Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The production of polychlorinated dioxins and dibenzofurans shows a strong correlation with the production of hexachlorobenzene. Hexachlorobenzene can be used as an indicator for the production of chlorinated aromatics.

  • 19.
    Öberg, Tomas
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Bergström, Jan
    Indicator Parameters for PCDD/PCDF1989In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 19, no 1-6, p. 337-344Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Relations between different chlorinated aromatics have been evaluated in 66 samples from various industrial activities. For municipal waste combustion partial least squares modelling with latent variables (PLS) can explain 86 % of the variance in PCDD/PCDF from the isomerspecific analytical data for chlorinated benzenes and phenols.

  • 20.
    Öberg, Tomas
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Iqbal, Muhammad Sarfraz
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    The chemical and environmental property space of REACH chemicals2012In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 87, no 8, p. 975-981Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The European regulation on chemicals, REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals), came into force on 1 June 2007. With pre-registration complete in 2008, data for these substances may provide an overview of the expected chemical space and its characteristics. In this paper, using various in silico computation tools, we evaluate 48782 neutral organic compounds from the list to identify hazardous and safe compounds. Two different classification schemes (modified Verhaar and ECOSAR) identified between 17% and 25% of the compounds as expressing only baseline toxicity (narcosis). A smaller portion could be identified as reactive (19%) or specifically acting (2.7%), while the majority were non-assigned (61%). Overall environmental persistence, bioaccumulation and long-range transport potential were evaluated using structure-activity relationships and a multimedia fugacity-based model. A surprisingly high proportion of compounds (20%), mainly aromatic and halogenated, had a very high estimated persistence (> 195 d). The proportion of compounds with a very high estimated bioconcentration or bioaccumulation factor (> 5000) was substantially less (6.9%). Finally, a list was compiled of those compounds within the applicability domain of the models used, meeting both persistence and bioaccumulation criteria, and with a long-range transport potential comparable to PCB. This list of 68 potential persistent organic pollutants contained many well-known compounds (all halogenated), but notably also five fluorinated compounds that were not included in the EINECS inventory. This study demonstrates the usability of in silico tools for identification of potentially environmentally hazardous chemicals.

  • 21.
    Öberg, Tomas
    et al.
    ENVIRONM CONSULTANTS STUDSVIK, S-61182 NYKOPING, SWEDEN .
    Warman, Kristofer
    Bergström, Jan
    Brominated aromatics from combustion1987In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 16, no 10-12, p. 2451-2465Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The production of brominated aromatics from combustion was shown to be influenced by the operating conditions. Brominated aromatics also showed high yields compared to their chlorinated analogues.

  • 22.
    Öberg, Tomas
    et al.
    Miljökonsulterna i Studsvik AB (Environmental Consultants).
    Warman, Kristofer
    Miljökonsulterna i Studsvik AB (Environmental Consultants).
    Bergström, Jan
    Miljökonsulterna i Studsvik AB (Environmental Consultants).
    Production of chlorinated aromatics in the post-combustion zone and boiler1989In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 19, no 1-6, p. 317-322Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The production of halogenated aromatics has been investigated in the SAKAB hazardous waste incinerator, Norrtorp, Sweden. The measurement results show that there is a substantial net production of chlorinated aromatics in the boiler.

  • 23.
    Öberg, Tomas
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Öhrström, Tomas
    Bergström & Öhrström.
    Bergström, Jan
    Bergström & Öhrström.
    Metal catalyzed formation of chlorinated aromatic compounds: a study of the correlation pattern in incinerator fly ash.2007In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 67, no 9, p. S185-S190Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chlorinated aromatics are unintentionally formed and released from combustion and other thermal processes involving organic matter and chlorine. The catalytic activity of incinerator fly ash in the low-temperature formation of chlorinated aromatics has been demonstrated in both laboratory experiments and full-scale trials. Copper has been shown to be an effective catalyst, but several other transition metals possess a similar activity. Here results are reported from a series of full-scale combustion trials with different fractions of household and industrial wastes, with waste from forestry as a reference fuel. The composition of elements and chlorinated aromatics in the fly ash was evaluated with principal component analysis and partial least squares regression. The observed correlation pattern indicates that metals other than copper are of equal importance for the catalytic activity. Chromium and nickel are two of these metals, which may contribute to the de novo formation of chlorinated benzenes, phenols, PCDD and PCDF.

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