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  • 1.
    Bhatnagar, Amit
    et al.
    Environmental Science and Technology Division, CBRI, Roorkee, India,Institute of Environmental Technology and Energy Economics, Hamburg University of Technology (TUHH), 21073 Hamburg Harburg, Germany .
    Minocha, A.K.
    Assessment of the biosorption characteristics of lychee ( Litchi chinensis) peel waste for the removal of Acid Blue 25 dye from water2010In: Environmental technology, ISSN 0959-3330, E-ISSN 1479-487X, Vol. 31, p. 97-105Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to examine the adsorption potential of lychee (Litchi chinensis) peel waste for the removal of Acid Blue 25 dye from aqueous solutions. The adsorption was studied as a function of contact time, initial dye concentration and temperature by batch method. Equilibrium sorption isotherms showed that the lychee peel adsorbent possessed a high affinity and sorption capacity for Acid Blue 25, with a monolayer sorption capacity of ca. 200 mg g-1. The equilibrium adsorption data were well described by the Langmuir model. Kinetic studies revealed that the present system of dye adsorption on lychee peel adsorbent could be described more favourably by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The thermodynamic parameters, namely free energy (ΔG°), enthalpy (ΔH°) and entropy (ΔS°) changes, were determined for the process. The results of the present study suggest that lychee peel waste can be used beneficially as an adsorbent in treating industrial effluents containing dyes.

  • 2. Bhatnagar, Amit
    et al.
    Vilar, V.J.P.
    Botelho, C.M.S.
    Boaventura, R.A.R.
    Review on the use of red mud as adsorbent for the removal of toxicpollutants from water and wastewater2011In: Environmental technology, ISSN 0959-3330, E-ISSN 1479-487X, Vol. 32, no 3, p. 231-249Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Red mud (an aluminium industry waste) has received wide attention as an effective adsorbent for water pollution control, showing significant adsorption potential for the removal of various aquatic pollutants. In this review, an extensive list of red‐mud‐based adsorbents has been compiled and their adsorption capacities (maximum uptake value of the adsorbent for the pollutant or adsorbate being removed) for various aquatic pollutants (metal ions, dyes, phenolic compounds, inorganic anions) are presented. The review provides a summary of recent information obtained using batch studies and deals with the adsorption mechanisms involved. It is evident from the literature survey that red mud has been found to be efficient for the removal of various aquatic pollutants, especially arsenic and phosphate. However, there is still a need to investigate the practical utility of these adsorbents on a commercial scale.

  • 3.
    Hokkanen, Sanna
    et al.
    Lappeenranta Univ Technol.
    Repo, Eveliina
    Lappeenranta Univ Technol.
    Bhatnagar, Amit
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Tang, Walter Zhonghong
    Florida Int Univ.
    Sillanpaa, Mika
    Lappeenranta Univ Technol.
    Adsorption of hydrogen sulphide from aqueous solutions using modified nano/micro fibrillated cellulose2014In: Environmental technology, ISSN 0959-3330, E-ISSN 1479-487X, Vol. 35, no 18, p. 2334-2346Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present study, microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) was modified by aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APS), hydroxy-carbonated apatite (HAP), or epoxy in order to produce novel nanostructured adsorbents for the removal of hydrogen sulphide (H2S) from the aqueous solutions. Structural properties of the modified MFC materials were examined using a scanning electron microscope, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and acid/base titration. These methods were used to verify the presence of nanostructures on the adsorbents surfaces as well as functionalities suitable for H2S adsorption. Adsorption of H2S by prepared adsorbents was investigated in batch mode under different experimental conditions, i.e. varying pH and H2S concentrations. H2S uptake was found to be 103.95, 13.38 and 12.73mg/g by APS/MFC, HAP/MFC and epoxy/MFC, respectively from 80mg/L H2S solution. The equilibrium data were best described by the Langmuir isotherm for HAP/MFC and APS/MFC and the Sips isotherm for epoxy/MFC.

  • 4. Jain, A.K.
    et al.
    Suhas, S.
    Jain, S.
    Bhatnagar, Amit
    Department of Chemistry , Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee , Roorkee, 247667, India.
    Removal of 2-fluoro and 2-iodophenol from aqueous solutions using industrial wastes2004In: Environmental technology, ISSN 0959-3330, E-ISSN 1479-487X, Vol. 25, p. 15-22Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Kaczala, Fabio
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Marques, Marcia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Vinrot, Eva
    Hogland, William
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Stormwater run-off from an industrial log yard: characterization, contaminant correlation and first-flush phenomenon.2012In: Environmental technology, ISSN 0959-3330, E-ISSN 1479-487X, Vol. 33, no 13-15, p. 1615-1628Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The stormwater run-off generated in an industrial log yard during eight run-off events was studied with the main focus on the transport of toxic metals. Associations between water quality constituents and potential surrogates were evaluated by correlation analysis. The first-flush phenomenon was verified by normalized M(V) curves. The results have shown that, whereas some metals such as Zn, Ba, Cd, As and Fe were always detected in these waters, others (Cr, Pb, Cu, Ni, V, Co) were not. Large variations in the water constituents' concentrations were observed, with Fe, Pb and V being the most variable ones. Concentrations of Zn and Cu in the run-off waters exceeded the values established by the Swedish environmental authorities in 100% and 97% of samples, respectively. The correlation analyses indicated TSS as a potential surrogate of Pb, V, Co, Ni, As, Ba, Cr and COD (0.949 > R > 0.808), making it reasonable to state that a treatment system with focus on TSS removal would also reduce toxic metals from these waters. The first-flush phenomenon was evident for most of the constituents. Significant differences (p < 0.05) in the first-flush magnitude of different run-off events were observed confirming that hydro-meteorological variables such as dry period, precipitation duration and average intensity play important roles. Metal loads originating from the log yard were mainly composed ofZn, Cu and Ba. Knowledge of the physicochemical characteristics, discharge dynamics and the storm variables involved in the process is a crucial step for the proposal and implementation of a stormwater management programme.

  • 6.
    Kriipsalu, Mait
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Marques, Marcia
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Nammari, Diauddin R
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Hogland, William
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Fate of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons during composting of oily sludge2008In: Environmental technology, ISSN 0959-3330, E-ISSN 1479-487X, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 43-53Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to assess the effectiveness of aerobic degradation with emphasis on the 16 U.S. EPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), oily sludge generated by a dissolved air flotation flocculation unit of a wastewater treatment plant in a petroleum refinery was amended with remediated oil‐contaminated soil and non‐mature garden waste compost 40:40:20 (wet weight) respectively. About 21 t of the mixture with a top‐layer formed by 30 cm of remediated soil was treated in a 28 m3 air‐forced reactor. The PAH concentration was monitored for 370 days. In the top‐layer, a reduction of 88 % of the total extractable PAH was measured at day 62 and a final reduction of 93 % at day 370 days. In the mixture, a reduction of 72 % in total PAH was measured at day 62, followed by fluctuation in concentration with a final measured reduction of 53 % at day 370. The analysis of individual PAH in the mixture suggested that volatilization and biodegradation are the main mechanisms responsible for the reduction of 2 ring PAH and 3–4 ring PAH, respectively. Fluctuation of 5–6 ring PAH concentrations with increase observed at the end of the period might result from a combination of the following: (i) sequestration of large PAH in the organic matrix (reducing bioavailability, biodegradability and eventually, extractability) and desorption as composting progresses; (ii) heterogeneous distribution of the stable large PAH in the mixture, thus affecting sampling. It was concluded that one‐time composting in static‐aerated biopiles with organic amendments as the sole strategy to treat oily sludge is very effective in reducing the content of 2–4 ring PAH, but it is not effective in reducing the content of 5–6 ring PAHs, even after a relatively long time span (370 d). The concentrations measured in the remediated soil that formed the top layer after 62 days of composting suggests that further relevant reduction of residual PAH (89% of total PAH and 69% of 5–6 ring PAH) can be obtained if the contaminated masses are exposed to a second thermophilic phase. This could be achieved by adding new easily biodegradable organic amendments to the contaminated masses after some months of composting, remixing and composting again for a minimum additional period of 2 months.

  • 7.
    Laohaprapanon, Sawanya
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Kaczala, Fabio
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Salomon, Paulo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences. Department of Marine Biology , Institute of Biology, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ) , Rio de Janeiro , Brazil.
    Marques, Marcia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Hogland, William
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Wastewater generated during cleaning/washing procedures in a wood-floor industry: toxicity on the microalgae Desmodesmus subspicatus2012In: Environmental technology, ISSN 0959-3330, E-ISSN 1479-487X, Vol. 33, no 21, p. 2439-2446Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In industries based on dry processes, such as wood floor and wood furniture manufacture, wastewater is mainly generated after cleaning of surfaces, storage tanks and machinery. Owing to the small volumes, onsite treatment options and potential environmental risks posed to aquatic ecosystems due to discharge of these wastewaters are seldom investigated. In the present study, the effects of cleaning wastewater streams generated at two wood floor production lines on Desmodesmus subspicatus were investigated. The microalgae was exposed to different wastewater concentrations (100, 50, 25, 12.5 and 6.25% v:v) and the algae growth evaluation was based on in vivo chlorophyll fluorescence, cell density, cell size (number of cells/colony) and cell ratio (length/width). Inhibitory effects of the tested wastewaters on the microalgae were positively related to concentration and negatively related to exposure time. The EC50,24 h of blade cleaning wastewater (BCW) and floor cleaning wastewater (FCW) were 3.36 and 5.87% (v:v), respectively. No negative effect on cell colony formation was caused by BCW, whereas an increase of 90% unicellular cells was observed in FCW concentrations below 50% (v:v). At the lowest concentration (3.13% v:v) where no growth inhibition was observed, both wastewater streams caused changes in cell dimensions by increasing cell length and width. To conclude, wastewaters generated during cleaning procedures in the wood floor industries can have severe environmental impacts on aquatic organisms, even after high dilution. Therefore, these wastewaters must be treated before being discharged into water bodies.

  • 8.
    Laohaprapanon, Sawanya
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Marques, Marcia
    Rio de Janeiro State University, Brazil.
    Hogland, William
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Anaerobic baffled reactor coupled with chemical precipitation for treatment and toxicity reduction of industrial wastewater2014In: Environmental technology, ISSN 0959-3330, E-ISSN 1479-487X, Vol. 35, no 2, p. 154-162Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study describes the reduction of soluble chemical oxygen demand (CODs) and the removal of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), formaldehyde (FA) and nitrogen from highly polluted wastewater generated during cleaning procedures in wood floor manufacturing using a laboratory-scale biological anaerobic baffled reactor followed by chemical precipitation using MgCl2·6H2O+Na2HPO4. By increasing the hydraulic retention time from 2.5 to 3.7 and 5 days, the reduction rates of FA, DOC and CODs of nearly 100%, 90% and 83%, respectively, were achieved. When the Mg:N:P molar ratio in the chemical treatment was changed from 1:1:1 to 1.3:1:1.3 at pH 8, the NH4+ removal rate increased from 80% to 98%. Biologically and chemically treated wastewater had no toxic effects on Vibrio fischeri and Artemia salina whereas chemically treated wastewater inhibited germination of Lactuca sativa owing to a high salt content. Regardless of the high conductivity of the treated wastewater, combined biological and chemical treatment was found to be effective for the removal of the organic load and nitrogen, and to be simple to operate and to maintain. A combined process such as that investigated could be useful for on-site treatment of low volumes of highly polluted wastewater generated by the wood floor and wood furniture industries, for which there is no suitable on-site treatment option available today.

  • 9. Möller, Anna
    et al.
    Grahn, Anna
    Welander, Ulrika
    Precipitation of heavy metals from landfill leachates by microbially produced sulphide2004In: Environmental technology, ISSN 0959-3330, E-ISSN 1479-487X, Vol. 25, p. 69-77Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Nordström, F
    et al.
    Center for Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Department of Biotechnology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Terrazas, E
    Center for Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Department of Biotechnology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Welander, Ulrika
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design. Center for Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Department of Biotechnology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Decolorization of a mixture of textile dyes using Bjerkandera sp. BOL 132008In: Environmental technology, ISSN 0959-3330, E-ISSN 1479-487X, Vol. 29, no 8, p. 921-929Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The white-rot fungus Bjerkandera sp. BOL 13 was evaluated regarding decolorization of four textile dyes Reactive blue 21, Reactive black 5, Reactive orange 13 and Reactive yellow 206. Experiments were performed in batch and continuous modes. The total dye concentration in all experimtents was 100 mg/l. The results of the batch experiments showed that the fungus decolorized all dyes but at different rates. There was, however, an increase in the ultraviolet (UV) absorbance when a medium with a low concentration of nitrogen was used. No increase in UV range was observed when the nitrogen concentration was increased. A continuous experiment was performed to study the decolorization of a mixture of three of the dyes Reactive blue 21, Reactive black 5 and Reactive orange 13. Scanning of inlet and outlet samples showed that the absorbance at the peaks in the visible range decreased by 60-66%. The UV absorbance of the outlet increased during the first days of operation after which it decreased again to reach the same level as the inlet. The hydraulic retention time in the reactor was 3 days. The medium containing the higher nitrogen concentration was used in the continuous experiment.

  • 11. Vepsäläinen, M.
    et al.
    Selin, J.
    Rantala, P.
    Pulliainen, M.
    Särkkä, H.
    Kuhmonen, K.
    Bhatnagar, Amit
    Sillanpää, M.
    Precipitation of dissolved sulphide in pulp and paper mill wastewater by electrocoagulation2011In: Environmental technology, ISSN 0959-3330, E-ISSN 1479-487X, Vol. 32, no 12, p. 1393-1400Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The precipitation of dissolved sulphide ions by electrocoagulation was studied at laboratory scale using pulp and paper mill wastewaters. Concentrations of dissolved organic carbon and phosphorus were analysed before and after the electrocoagulation process to examine the suitability of the process for treatment of sulphide odour from pulp and paper mill wastewater. The electrochemical cell used in this study was constructed from monopolar dissolving iron electrodes. The dissolved iron concentration was directly proportional to the applied electric charge (C/L) at the tested current densities. Electrochemically produced ferrous iron (Fe2+) precipitated dissolved sulphide ions efficiently. Electricity consumption of the treatment was 4-8 C/mg S2- while iron consumption was 1.1-2.2 mg/mg S2- during the initial phase of the sulphide precipitation when the applied electric charge was 10-60 C/L. When 60 C/L was applied, 88% of dissolved sulphides and 40% of phosphorus was precipitated. The reduction in DOC was low during the sulphide precipitation. According to these results, electrocoagulation can precipitate dissolved sulphides effectively and thereby reduce sulphide odours of pulp and paper mill wastewaters.

  • 12. Welander, Ulrika
    et al.
    Henrysson, Tomas
    Physical and chemical treatment of a nitrified leachate from a municipal landfill1998In: Environmental technology, ISSN 0959-3330, E-ISSN 1479-487X, Vol. 19, p. 591-599Article in journal (Refereed)
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