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  • 1.
    Fyfe, Ralph M.
    et al.
    Plymouth University, UK.
    Twiddle, Claire
    University of Aberdeen, UK.
    Sugita, Shinya
    Tallinn University, Estonia.
    Gaillard, Marie-José
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Barratt, Philip
    Queen's University of Belfast, UK.
    Caseldine, Christopher J.
    University of Exeter, UK.
    Dodson, John
    Institute for Environmental Research, Australia.
    Edwards, Kevin J.
    University of Aberdeen, UK.
    Farrell, Michelle
    University of Hull, UK.
    Froyd, Cynthia
    Swansea University, UK.
    Grant, Michael J.
    Wessex Archaeology, UK;Kingston University, UK.
    Huckerby, Elizabeth
    Oxford Archaeology North, UK.
    Innes, James B.
    Durham University, UK.
    Shaw, Helen
    Lancaster University, UK.
    Waller, Martyn
    Kingston University, UK.
    The Holocene vegetation cover of Britain and Ireland: overcoming problems of scale and discerning patterns of openness2013In: Quaternary Science Reviews, ISSN 0277-3791, E-ISSN 1873-457X, Vol. 73, p. 132-148Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The vegetation of Europe has undergone substantial changes during the course of the Holocene epoch, resulting from range expansion of plants following climate amelioration, competition between taxa and disturbance through anthropogenic activities. Much of the detail of this pattern is understood from decades of pollen analytical work across Europe, and this understanding has been used to address questions relating to vegetation-climate feedback, biogeography and human impact. Recent advances in modelling the relationship between pollen and vegetation now make it possible to transform pollen proportions into estimates of vegetation cover at both regional and local spatial scales, using the Landscape Reconstruction Algorithm (LRA), i.e. the REVEALS (Regional Estimates of VEgetation Abundance from Large Sites) and the LOVE (Local VEgetation) models. This paper presents the compilation and analysis of 73 pollen stratigraphies from the British Isles, to assess the application of the LRA and describe the pattern of landscape/woodland openness (i.e. the cover of low herb and bushy vegetation) through the Holocene. The results show that multiple small sites can be used as an effective replacement for a single large site for the reconstruction of regional vegetation cover. The REVEALS vegetation estimates imply that the British Isles had a greater degree of landscape/woodland openness at the regional scale than areas on the European mainland. There is considerable spatial bias in the British Isles dataset towards wetland areas and uplands, which may explain higher estimates of landscape openness compared with Europe. Where multiple estimates of regional vegetation are available from within the same region inter-regional differences are greater than intra-regional differences, supporting the use of the REVEALS model to the estimation of regional vegetation from pollen data. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 2.
    Marquer, Laurent
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden;Univ Toulouse Jean Jaures, France.
    Gaillard, Marie-José
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Sugita, Shinya
    Tallinn Univ, Estonia.
    Poska, Anneli
    Lund University, Sweden;Tallinn Univ Technol, Estonia.
    Trondman, Anna-Kari
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Mazier, Florence
    Univ Toulouse Jean Jaures, France.
    Nielsen, Anne Birgitte
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Fyfe, Ralph M.
    Univ Plymouth, UK.
    Jonsson, Anna Maria
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Smith, Benjamin
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Kaplan, Jed O.
    Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Alenius, Teija
    Univ Helsinki, Finland;Univ Turku, Finland.
    Birks, H. John B.
    Univ Bergen, Norway;UCL, UK.
    Bjune, Anne E.
    Univ Bergen, Norway;Uni Res Climate, Norway.
    Christiansen, Jorg
    Univ Göttingen, Germany.
    Dodson, John
    Univ Wollongong, Australia;Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples Republic of China.
    Edwards, Kevin J.
    Univ Aberdeen, UK;Univ Cambridge, UK.
    Giesecke, Thomas
    Univ Göttingen, Germany.
    Herzschuh, Ulrike
    Univ Potsdam, Germany.
    Kangur, Mihkel
    Tallinn Univ, Estonia.
    Koff, Tiiu
    Tallinn Univ, Estonia.
    Latalowa, Maligorzata
    Univ Gdansk, Poland.
    Lechterbeck, Jutta
    Univ Stavanger, Norway.
    Olofsson, Jorgen
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Seppa, Heikki
    Univ Helsinki, Finland.
    Quantifying the effects of land use and climate on Holocene vegetation in Europe2017In: Quaternary Science Reviews, ISSN 0277-3791, E-ISSN 1873-457X, Vol. 171, p. 20-37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Early agriculture can be detected in palaeovegetation records, but quantification of the relative importance of climate and land use in influencing regional vegetation composition since the onset of agriculture is a topic that is rarely addressed. We present a novel approach that combines pollen-based REVEALS estimates of plant cover with climate, anthropogenic land-cover and dynamic vegetation modelling results. This is used to quantify the relative impacts of land use and climate on Holocene vegetation at a sub-continental scale, i.e. northern and western Europe north of the Alps. We use redundancy analysis and variation partitioning to quantify the percentage of variation in vegetation composition explained by the climate and land-use variables, and Monte Carlo permutation tests to assess the statistical significance of each variable. We further use a similarity index to combine pollen based REVEALS estimates with climate-driven dynamic vegetation modelling results. The overall results indicate that climate is the major driver of vegetation when the Holocene is considered as a whole and at the sub-continental scale, although land use is important regionally. Four critical phases of land-use effects on vegetation are identified. The first phase (from 7000 to 6500 BP) corresponds to the early impacts on vegetation of farming and Neolithic forest clearance and to the dominance of climate as a driver of vegetation change. During the second phase (from 4500 to 4000 BP), land use becomes a major control of vegetation. Climate is still the principal driver, although its influence decreases gradually. The third phase (from 2000 to 1500 BP) is characterised by the continued role of climate on vegetation as a consequence of late-Holocene climate shifts and specific climate events that influence vegetation as well as land use. The last phase (from 500 to 350 BP) shows an acceleration of vegetation changes, in particular during the last century, caused by new farming practices and forestry in response to population growth and industrialization. This is a unique signature of anthropogenic impact within the Holocene but European vegetation remains climatically sensitive and thus may continue to respond to ongoing climate change. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 3.
    Marquer, Laurent
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Gaillard, Marie-José
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Sugita, Shinya
    Tallinn Univ, Estonia.
    Trondman, Anna-Kari
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Mazier, Florence
    Univ Toulouse, France.
    Nielsen, Anne Birgitte
    Lund University.
    Fyfe, Ralph
    Univ Plymouth, UK.
    Vad Odgaard, B.
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Alenius, T.
    University of Helsinki, Finland;University of Turku, Finland.
    Birks, H.J.B.
    University of Bergen, Norway;University College London, UK;University of Oxford, UK.
    Bjune, A.E.
    University of Bergen, Norway.
    Christiansen, J.
    University of Göttingen, Germany.
    Dodson, J.
    Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Australia.
    Edwards, K.J.
    University of Aberdeen, UK.
    Giesecke, T.
    University of Göttingen, Germany.
    Herzschuh, U.
    Universität Potsdam, Germany.
    Kangur, M.
    Tallinn University, Estonia.
    Lorenz, S.
    Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-University, Germany.
    Poska, Anneli
    Lund University.
    Schult, M.
    Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-University, Germany.
    Seppä, H.
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Holocene changes in vegetation composition in northern Europe: why quantitative pollen-based vegetation reconstructions matter2014In: Quaternary Science Reviews, ISSN 0277-3791, E-ISSN 1873-457X, no 90, p. 199-216Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present pollen-based reconstructions of the spatio-temporal dynamics of northern European regional vegetation abundance through the Holocene. We apply the Regional Estimates of VEgetation Abundance from Large Sites (REVEALS) model using fossil pollen records from eighteen sites within five modern biomes in the region. The eighteen sites are classified into four time-trajectory types on the basis of principal components analysis of both the REVEALS-based vegetation estimates (RVs) and the pollen percentage (PPs). The four trajectory types are more clearly separated for RVs than PPs. Further, the timing of major Holocene shifts, rates of compositional change, and diversity indices (turnover and evenness) differ between RVs and PPs. The differences are due to the reduction by REVEALS of biases in fossil pollen assemblages caused by different basin size, and inter-taxonomic differences in pollen productivity and dispersal properties. For example, in comparison to the PPs, the RVs show an earlier increase in Corylus and Ulmus in the early-Holocene and a more pronounced increase in grassland and deforested areas since the mid-Holocene. The results suggest that the influence of deforestation and agricultural activities on plant composition and abundance from Neolithic times was stronger than previously inferred from PPs. Relative to PPs, RVs show a more rapid compositional change, a largest decrease in turnover, and less variable evenness in most of northern Europe since 5200 cal yr BP. All these changes are primarily related to the strong impact of human activities on the vegetation. This study demonstrates that RV-based estimates of diversity indices, timing of shifts, and rates of change in reconstructed vegetation provide new insights into the timing and magnitude of major human distribution on Holocene regional, vegetation, feature that are critical in the assessment of human impact on vegetation, land-cover, biodiversity, and climate in the past.

  • 4. Wohlfarth, B
    et al.
    Gaillard, Marie-Jose
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Häberli, W
    Kelts, K
    Environment and Climate in Southwestern Switzerland during the Last Termination, 15-10 ka BP1994In: Quaternary Science Reviews, ISSN 0277-3791, E-ISSN 1873-457X, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 361-394Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Various records from sites ranging in altitude between 372 and 2290 m along a NW-SE transect through SW Switzerland were compiled and correlated within well defined chrono- and biostratigraphic units. Deglaciation of lowland areas is estimated at ca. 15,000-14,000 BP (minimum age), while the lower part of the Rhone valley and the Jura Mountains may have become ice free later. A significant climatic warming is clearly indicated by several palaeoecological records at ca. 12,600 BP. The compiled data give no clear evidence of a cooler phase between 12,200-12,000 BP. Oxygen isotope data point to a slight and progressive decrease in the deltaO-18 values between ca. 12,500-11,000 BP, which is followed by a marked drop at 11,000 BP. A very distinct change in lithology, rock glacier development and in mollusc and vegetation records characterises many low and high altitude sites ca. 300 years later, at 10,700 BP. Between 11,000 and 10,000 BP oxygen isotope records seem to respond more rapidly to the climatic shifts than the biostratigraphical records. Possible explanations for these time-lags are discussed. Our compilation shows that further multidisciplinary research in key sites would provide more precise palaeoclimatological information, both qualitatively and quantitatively. Higher time resolution and quantitative estimates of climatic parameters are needed to evaluate in detail the mechanisms and consequences of these rapid climatic changes in SW Switzerland.

  • 5.
    Xu, Qinghai
    et al.
    Hebei Normal University, China.
    Zhang, Shengrui
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, China.
    Gaillard, Marie-José
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Li, Manyue
    Hebei Normal University, China.
    Cao, Xianyong
    Hebei Normal University, China ; Alfred Wegener Institute, Germany.
    Tian, Fang
    Hebei Normal University, China ; Alfred Wegener Institute, Germany.
    Li, Furong
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Studies of modern pollen assemblages for pollen dispersal- deposition- preservation process understanding and for pollen-based reconstructions of past vegetation, climate, and human impact: A review based on case studies in China2016In: Quaternary Science Reviews, ISSN 0277-3791, E-ISSN 1873-457X, Vol. 149, p. 151-166Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fossil pollen, as a direct proxy record of past vegetation, and indirect proxy record of past climate, plays an essential role in revealing and reconstructing past vegetation and climate. However, relationships between pollen, vegetation and climate are not linear, hence quantitative reconstructions of past vegetation and climate based on pollen records are not straightforward, and results may be highly contradictory and difficult to interpret. One of the main causes of discrepancies between results has been the lack of comprehensive and systematical studies on modern pollen dispersal and deposition processes, particularly on the quantification of these processes. Based on empirical studies performed in China over the last 30 years, this paper provides the state-of-the-art of the understanding of pollen dispersal and deposition processes in China and the remaining questions to be investigated. We show that major progress has been achieved in the study of modern pollen dispersal and deposition processes, and in the application of models of the pollen-vegetation-climate relationships for quantitative reconstruction of past vegetation and climate. However, several issues are not entirely solved or understood yet, such as how to quantify the reworking and re-deposition of pollen grains in quaternary alluvial sediments, the influence of pollen preservation on pollen assemblages, and human impact on vegetation. Even so, the progress made during the last decades makes it possible to achieve significantly more precise and informative reconstructions of past vegetation, land-use and climate in China than was possible earlier.

1 - 5 of 5
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