lnu.sePublications
Change search
Refine search result
1 - 29 of 29
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 1.
    Aparicio, Fran L.
    et al.
    CSIC, Spain.
    Nieto-Cid, Mar
    CSIC, Spain.
    Borrull, Encarna
    CSIC, Spain.
    Calvo, Eva
    CSIC, Spain.
    Pelejero, Carles
    CSIC, Spain;CREA, Spain.
    Montserrat Sala, Maria
    CSIC, Spain.
    Pinhassi, Jarone
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Gasol, Josep M.
    CSIC, Spain.
    Marrase, Celia
    CSIC, Spain.
    Eutrophication and acidification: Do they induce changes in the dissolved organic matter dynamics in the coastal Mediterranean Sea?2016In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 563, p. 179-189Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two mesocosms experiments were conducted in winter 2010 and summer 2011 to examine how increased pCO(2) and/or nutrient concentrations potentially perturbate dissolved organic matter dynamics in natural microbial assemblages. The fluorescence signals of protein-and humic-like compounds were used as a proxy for labile and non-labile material, respectively, while the evolution of bacterial populations, chlorophyll a (Chl a) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations were used as a proxy for biological activity. For both seasons, the presence of elevated pCO(2) did not cause any significant change in the DOC dynamics (p-value < 0.05). The conditions that showed the greatest changes in prokaryote abundances and Chl a content were those amended with nutrients, regardless of the change in pH. The temporal evolution of fluorophores and optical indices revealed that the degree of humification of the organic molecules and their molecular weight changed significantly in the nutrient-amended treatment. The generation of protein-like compounds was paired to increases in the prokaryote abundance, being higher in the nutrient-amended tanks than in the control. Different patterns in the magnitude and direction of the generation of humic-like molecules suggested that these changes depended on initial microbial populations and the availability of extra nutrient inputs. Based on our results, it is expected that in the future projected coastal scenarios the eutrophication processes will favor the transformations of labile and recalcitrant carbon regardless of changes in pCO(2). (c) 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  • 2.
    Augustsson, Anna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Filipsson, Monika
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Öberg, Tomas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Bergbäck, Bo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Climate change - an uncertainty factor in risk analysis of contaminated land2011In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 409, no 22, p. 4693-4700Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Metals frequently occur at contaminated sites, where their potential toxicity and persistence require risk assessments that consider possible long-term changes. Changes in climate are likely to affect the speciation, mobility, and risks associated with metals. This paper provides an example of how the climate effect can be inserted in a commonly used exposure model, and how the exposure then changes compared to present conditions. The comparison was made for cadmium (Cd) exposure to 4-year-old children at a highly contaminated iron and steel works site in southeastern Sweden. Both deterministic and probabilistic approaches (through probability bounds analysis, PBA) were used in the exposure assessment. Potential climate-sensitive variables were determined by a literature review. Although only six of the total 39 model variables were assumed to be sensitive to a change in climate (groundwater infiltration, hydraulic conductivity, soil moisture, soil:water distribution, and two bioconcentration factors), the total exposure was clearly affected. For example, by altering the climate-sensitive variables in the order of 15% to 20%, the deterministic estimate of exposure increased by 27%. Similarly, the PBA estimate of the reasonable maximum exposure (RME, defined as the upper bound of the 95th percentile) increased by almost 20%. This means that sites where the exposure in present conditions is determined to be slightly below guideline values may in the future exceed these guidelines, and risk management decisions could thus be affected. The PBA, however, showed that there is also a possibility of lower exposure levels, which means that the changes assumed for the climate-sensitive variables increase the total uncertainty in the probabilistic calculations. This highlights the importance of considering climate as a factor in the characterization of input data to exposure assessments at contaminated sites. The variable with the strongest influence on the result was the soil:water distribution coefficient (Kd).

  • 3.
    Augustsson, Anna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Uddh Söderberg, Terese
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Jarsjo, J.
    Stockholm University.
    Åström, Mats E.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Olofsson, B.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Balfors, B.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Destouni, G.
    Stockholm University.
    The risk of overestimating the risk-metal leaching to groundwater near contaminated glass waste deposits and exposure via drinking water2016In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 566, p. 1420-1431Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates metal contamination patterns and exposure to Sb, As, Ba, Cd and Pb via intake of drinking water in a region in southeastern Sweden where the production of artistic glass has resulted in a large number of contaminated sites. Despite high total concentrations of metals in soil and groundwater at the glassworks sites properties, all drinking water samples from households with private wells, located at a 30-640 m distance from a glassworks site, were below drinking water criteria from the WHO for Sb, As, Ba and Cd. A few drinking water samples showed concentrations of Pb above the WHO guideline, but As was the only element found in concentrations that could result in human exposure near toxicological reference values. An efficient retention of metals in the natural soil close to the source areas, which results in a moderate impact on local drinking water, is implied. Firstly, by the lack of significant difference in metal concentrations when comparing households located upstream and downstream of the main waste deposits, and secondly, by the lack of correlation between the metal concentration in drinking water and distance to the nearest glassworks site. However, elevated Pb and Cd concentrations in drinking water around glassworks sites when compared to regional groundwater indicate that diffuse contamination of the soils found outside the glassworks properties, and not only the glass waste landfills, may have a significant impact on groundwater quality. We further demonstrate that different mobilization patterns apply to different metals. Regarding the need to use reliable data to assess drinking water contamination and human exposure, we finally show that the conservative modelling approaches that are frequently used in routine risk assessments may result in exposure estimates many times higher than those based on measured concentrations in the drinking water that is actually being used for consumption. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 4.
    Baun, Anders
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Eriksson, Eva
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Ledin, Anna
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Mikkelsen, Peter Steen
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    A methodology for ranking and hazard identification of xenobiotic organic compounds in urban stormwater2006In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 370, no 1, p. 29-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presents a novel methodology (RICH, Ranking and Identification of Chemical Hazards) for ranking and identification ofxenobiotic organic compounds of environmental concern in stormwater discharged to surface water. The RICHmethod is illustrated as afunnel fitted with different filters that sort out problematic and hazardous compounds based on inherent physico-chemical and biologicalproperties. The outcomes of the RICH procedure are separate lists for both water phase and solid phase associated compounds. Theselists comprise: a justified list of compounds which can be disregarded in hazard/risk assessments, a justified list of stormwater prioritypollutants which must be included in hazard/risk assessments, and a list of compounds which may be present in discharged stormwater,but cannot be evaluated due to lack of data. The procedure was applied to 233 xenobiotic organic chemicals (XOCs) of relevance forstormwater. Of these 233 compounds, 121 compounds were found to be priority pollutants with regard to solids phases (i.e. suspendedsolids, soil, or sediments) when stormwater is discharged to surface water and 56 compounds were found to be priority pollutants withregard to the water phase. For 11% of the potential stormwater priority pollutants the screening procedure could not be carried out due tolack of data on basic physico-chemical properties and/or data on bioaccumulation, resistance to biodegradation, and ecotoxicity. Thetiered approach applied in the RICH procedure and the focus on the phases relevant for monitoring or risk assessment in the aquaticenvironment refines the list of “compounds of concern” when compared to the outcome of existing classification schemes. In this paperthe RICH procedure is focused on effects in the aquatic environment exemplified with xenobiotic organic compounds (XOCs) found inurban stormwater, but it may be transferred to other environmental compartments and problems. Thus, the RICH procedure can be usedas a stand-alone tool for selection of potential priority pollutants or it can be integrated in larger priority setting frameworks.

  • 5.
    Berger, Tobias
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Mathurin, Frédéric A.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Drake, Henrik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Åström, Mats E.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Fluoride abundance and controls in fresh groundwater in Quaternary deposits and bedrock fractures in an area with fluorine-rich granitoid rocks2016In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 569, p. 948-960Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study focuses on fluoride (F-) concentrations in groundwater in an area in northern Europe (Laxemar, southeast Sweden) where high F- concentrations have previously been found in surface waters such as streams and quarries. Fluoride concentrations were determined over time in groundwater in the Quaternary deposits ("regolith groundwater"), and with different sampling techniques from just beneath the ground surface to nearly -700 min the bedrock (fracture) groundwater. A number of potential controls of dissolved F- were studied, including geological variables, mineralogy, mineral chemistry and hydrology. In the regolith groundwater the F- concentrations (0.3-4.2 mg/L) were relatively stable over time at each sampling site but varied widely among the sampling sites. In these groundwaters, the F- concentrations were uncorrelated with sample (filter) depth and the water table in meters above sea level (masl), with the thicknesses of the groundwater column and the regolith, and with the distribution of soil types at the sampling sites. Fluoride concentrations were, however, correlated with the anticipated spatial distribution of erosional material (till) derived from a F-rich circular granite intrusion. Abundant release of F-from such material is thus suggested, primarily via dissolution of fluorite and weathering of biotite. In the fresh fracture groundwater, the F- concentrations (1.2-7.4 mg/L) were generally higher than in the regolith groundwater, and were uncorrelated with depth and with location relative to the granite intrusion. Two mechanisms explaining the overall high F- levels in the fracture groundwater were addressed. First, weathering/dissolution of fluorite, bastnasite and apophyllite, which are secondary minerals formed in the fractures during past hydrothermal events, and biotite which is a primary mineral exposed on fracture walls. Second, long water-residence times, favoring water-rock interaction and build-up of high dissolved F- concentrations. The findings are relevant in contexts of extraction of groundwater for drinking-water purposes. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 6.
    Chi, Xupeng
    et al.
    GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel, Germany.
    Mueller-Navarra, Doerthe C.
    University of Hamburg, Germany.
    Hylander, Samuel
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Sommer, Ulrich
    GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel, Germany.
    Javidpour, Jamileh
    GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel, Germany ; University of Southern Denmark, Denmark .
    Food quality matters: interplay among food quality, food quantity and temperature affecting life history traits of Aurelia aurita (Cnidaria: Scyphozoa) polyps2019In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 656, p. 1280-1288Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding the interaction between organisms' life history traits and environmental factors is an essential task in ecology. In spite of the increasing appreciation of jellyfish as an important component in marine ecosystem, there are still considerable gaps in understanding how the phase transition from the benthic polyp to the pelagic medusa stage is influenced by multiple environmental factors, including nutrition. To investigate survival, growth, and phase transition of Aurelia aurita polyps, we designed a factorial experiment manipulating food quantity (20μg C, 5μg C and 1.5μg C polyp−1 every other day), food quality (Artemia salina and two dietary manipulated Acartia tonsa), and temperature (13°C, 20°C, and 27°C). Temperature was the key factor determining phase transition of polyps and negatively affecting their survival rate and growth at 27°C, which reflected a summer heatwave scenario. Furthermore, at polyps' optimum tolerance temperature (20°C) in our study, budding reproduction benefits from high food concentrations. Interestingly, polyps fed with food containing high level highly unsaturated fatty acid (HUFA) were able to compensate for physiological stress caused by the extreme temperature, and could enhance budding reproduction at optimum temperature. Moreover, benthic-pelagic coupling (strobilation) was determined by temperature but affected significantly by food conditions. Mild temperature together with optimum food conditions contributes to inducing more polyps, which may potentially bring about great ephyrae recruitments during overwintering. In contrast, heatwave events can potentially regulate plankton community structure accompanied by changes of nutritional conditions of primary and secondary producers and thus, negatively affect the population dynamics of polyps. We suggest a novel polyp tolerance curve, which can help to understand jellyfish population dynamics in different seasons and ecosystems. This sets up a baseline for understanding how anticipated global warming and food conditions may affect the population size of benthic polyps and consequently pelagic medusae.

  • 7.
    Dace, Elina
    et al.
    Riga Tech Univ, Latvia.
    Muizniece, Indra
    Riga Tech Univ, Latvia.
    Blumberga, Andra
    Riga Tech Univ, Latvia.
    Kaczala, Fabio
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Searching for solutions to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions by agricultural policy decisions - Application of system dynamics modeling for the case of Latvia2015In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 527, p. 80-90Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    European Union (EU) Member States have agreed to limit their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from sectors not covered by the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (non-ETS). That includes also emissions from agricultural sector. Although the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has established a methodology for assessment of GHG emissions from agriculture, the forecasting options are limited, especially when policies and their interaction with the agricultural system are tested. Therefore, an advanced tool, a system dynamics model, was developed that enables assessment of effects various decisions and measures have on agricultural GHG emissions. The model is based on the IPCC guidelines and includes the main elements of an agricultural system, i.e. land management, livestock farming, soil fertilization and crop production, as well as feedback mechanisms between the elements. The case of Latvia is selected for simulations, as agriculture generates 22% of the total anthropogenic GHG emissions in the country. The results demonstrate that there are very limited options for GHG mitigation in the agricultural sector. Thereby, reaching the non-ETS GHG emission targets will be very challenging for Latvia, as the level of agricultural GHG emissions will be exceeded considerably above the target levels. Thus, other non-ETS sectors will have to reduce their emissions drastically to "neutralize" the agricultural sector's emissions for reaching the EU's common ambition tomove towards low-carbon economy. The developed model may serve as a decision support tool for impact assessment of various measures and decisions on the agricultural system's GHG emissions. Although the model is applied to the case of Latvia, the elements and structure of the model developed are similar to agricultural systems in many countries. By changing numeric values of certain parameters, the model can be applied to analyze decisions and measures in other countries. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 8.
    Doane, Marie
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Sarenbo, Sirkku
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Exposure of Farm Laborers and Dairy Cattle to Formaldehyde from Footbath Use at a Dairy Farm in New York State2014In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 487, p. 65-71Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Formalin footbaths are commonly used in the dairy industry to prevent cattle hoof diseases. Although formalin is a well-documented disinfectant, it is also a carcinogen and irritant. The aim of this study was to estimate the exposure of farm workers and dairy cattle to formaldehyde from footbaths located in a milking facility and a heifer facility at a dairy farm in western New York, USA. The dairy farm included approximately 3900 dairy cattle including young stock; of these, 1670 cows were milked three times per day in a 60-stall carousel milking parlor, and approximately 800 heifers were located at the heifer facility where footbaths with formalin were in use. The formaldehyde concentration of the air was measured using a Formaldemeter™ htV approximately 50 cm above the 3% formalin footbaths in the milking (one footbath location) and heifer (three footbath locations) facilities on three consecutive days. The measured formaldehyde concentrations varied between 0.00 and 2.28 ppm, falling within the safety guidelines established by the Occupation Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) of the United States. Significant differences were found in the formaldehyde concentrations at the different footbath locations in the heifer facility, potentially due to the varying levels of ventilation at each location. Changes in the ambient temperature during the 3-day sampling period did not significantly affect the concentrations. We believe that the substantial ventilation at both the heifer and milking facilities ensured that the formaldehyde concentrations did not exceed OSHA guidelines, thus permitting the safe use of formalin footbaths in this farm.

  • 9.
    Donner, Erica
    et al.
    Middlesex University, UK.
    Eriksson, Eva
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Revitt, Mike
    Middlesex University, UK.
    Scholes (Lundy), Lian
    Middlesex University, UK.
    Lützhøft, Hans-Christian Holten
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Ledin, Anna
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Presence and fate of priority substances in domestic greywater treatment and reuse systems2010In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 408, no 12, p. 2444-2451Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A wide range of household sources may potentially contribute to contaminant loads in domestic greywater. The ability of greywater treatment systems to act as emission control barriers for household micropollutants, thereby providing environmental benefits in addition to potable water savings, have not been fully explored. This paper investigates the sources, presence and potential fate of a selection of xenobiotic micropollutants in on-site greywater treatment systems. All of the investigated compounds are listed under the European Water Framework Directive as either "Priority Substances" (PS) or "Priority Hazardous Substances" (PHS). Significant knowledge gaps are identified. A wide range of potential treatment trains are available for greywater treatment and reuse but treatment efficiency data for priority substances and other micropollutants is very limited. Geochemical modelling indicates that PS/PHS removal during treatment is likely to be predominantly due to sludge/solid phase adsorption, with only minor contributions to the water phase. Many PS/PHS are resistant to biodegradation and as the majority of automated greywater treatment plants periodically discharge sludge to the municipal sewerage system, greywater treatment is unlikely to act as a comprehensive PS/PHS emission barrier. Hence, it is important to ensure that other source control options (e.g. eco-labeling, substance substitution, and regulatory controls) for household items continue to be pursued, in order that PS/PHS emissions from these sources are effectively reduced and/or phased out as required under the demands of the European Water Framework Directive.

  • 10.
    Eriksson, Eva
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Baun, Anders
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Scholes, Lian
    Middlesex University, UK.
    Ledin, Anna
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Ahlman, Stefan
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Revitt, Mike
    Middlesex University, UK.
    Noutsopoulos, Constantinos
    National Technical University of Athens, Greece.
    Mikkelsen, Peter Steen
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Selected stormwater priority pollutants: a European perspective2007In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 383, no 1-3, p. 41-51Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The chemical characteristics of stormwater are dependent on the nature of surfaces (roads, roofs etc.) with which it comes into contact during the runoff process as well as natural processes and anthropogenic activities in the catchments. The different types of pollutants may cause problems during utilisation, detention or discharge of stormwater to the environment and may pose specific demands to decentralised treatment. This paper proposes a scientifically justifiable list of selected stormwater priority pollutants (SSPP) to be used, e.g., for evaluation of the chemical risks occurring in different handling strategies. The SSPP-list consists of 25 pollutant parameters including eight of the priority pollutants currently identified in the European Water Framework Directive. It contains general water quality parameters (organic and suspended matter, nutrients and pH); metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Pt and Zn); PAH (naphthalene, pyrene and benzo[a]pyrene); herbicides (pendimethalin, phenmedipham, glyphosate and terbutylazine); and other representative industrially derived compounds (nonylphenol ethoxylates, pentachlorophenol, di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, PCB-28 and methyl tert-butyl ether). Tools for flux modelling, enabling calculation of predicted environmental concentrations (PECs), and for ranking the susceptibility of a pollutant to removal within a range of structural stormwater treatment systems or best management practices (BMPs) have been developed, but further work is required to allow all SSPPs to be addressed in the development of future stormwater pollution control measures. In addition, the identified SSPPs should be considered for inclusion in stormwater related monitoring campaigns.

  • 11.
    Hagner, Marleena
    et al.
    Univ Helsinki, Finland ; Nat Resources Inst Finland Luke, Finland.
    Romantschuk, Martin
    Univ Helsinki, Finland ; Kazan Fed Univ, Russia.
    Penttinen, O. -P
    Univ Helsinki, Finland.
    Egfors, Angelica
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Marchand, Charlotte
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Augustsson, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Assessing toxicity of metal contaminated soil from glassworks sites with a battery of biotests2018In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 613, p. 30-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study addresses toxicological properties of metal contaminated soils, using glassworks sites in south-easternl Sweden as study objects. Soil from five selected glassworks sites as well as from nearby reference areas were analysed for total and water-soluble metal concentrations and general geochemical parameters. A battery of biotests was then applied to assess the toxicity of the glassworks soil environments: a test of phytotoxicity with garden cress (Lepidium sativum); the BioTox(TM) test for toxicity to bacteria using Vibrio fischeri; and analyses of abundancies and biomass of nematodes and enchytraeids. The glassworks-and reference areas were comparable with respect to pH and the content of organic matter and nutrients (C, N, P), but total metal concentrations (Pb, As, Ba, Cd and Zn) were significantly higher at the former sites. Higher metal concentrations in the water-soluble fraction were also observed, even though these concentrations were low compared to the total ones. Nevertheless, toxicity of the glassworks soils was not detected by the two ex situ tests; inhibition of light emission by V. fischeri could not be seen, nor was an effect seen on the growth of L. sativum. A decrease in enchytraeid and nematode abundance and biomass was, however, observed for the landfill soils as compared to reference soils, implying in situ toxicity to soil-inhabiting organisms. The confirmation of in situ bioavailability and negative effects motivates additional studies of the risk posed to humans of the glassworks villages. (C) 2017 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  • 12.
    Högfors-Rönnholm, Eva
    et al.
    Novia Univ Appl Sci, Finland.
    Christel, Stephan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Dalhem, Krister
    Åbo Akad Univ, Finland.
    Lillhonga, Tom
    Novia Univ Appl Sci, Finland.
    Engblom, Sten
    Novia Univ Appl Sci, Finland.
    Österholm, Peter
    Åbo Akad Univ, Finland.
    Dopson, Mark
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Chemical and microbiological evaluation of novel chemical treatment methods for acid sulfate soils2018In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 625, p. 39-49Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Naturally occurring sulfide rich deposits are common along the northern Baltic Sea coast thatwhen exposed to air, release large amounts of acid and metals into receiving water bodies. This causes severe environmental implications for agriculture, forestry, and building of infrastructure. In this study, we investigated the efficiency of ultrafine-grained calcium carbonate and peat (both separately and in combination) to mitigate acid and metal release. The experiments were carried out aerobically that mimicked summer conditions when the groundwater level is low and acid sulfate soils are exposed to oxygen, and anaerobically that is similar to autumn to spring conditions. The ultrafine-grained calcium carbonate dissipated well in the soil and its effect alone and when mixed with peat raised the pH and reduced pyrite dissolution while peat alone was similar to the controls and did not halt metal and acid release. High throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing identified populations most similar to characterized acidophiles in the control and peat treated incubations while the acidophilic like populations were altered in the calcium carbonate alone and calcium carbonate plus peat treated acid sulfate soils. Coupled with the geochemistry data, it was suggested that the acidophiles were inactivated by the high pH in the presence of calcium carbonate but catalyzed pyrite dissolution in the controls and peat incubations. In conclusion, the anaerobic conditions during winter would likely be sufficient to mitigate acid production and metal release from acid sulfate soils and in the summer, treatment with calcium carbonate was the best mitigation method. (c) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 13.
    Levchuk, Irina
    et al.
    Lappeenranta Univ Technol.
    Bhatnagar, Amit
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Sillanpaa, Mika
    Lappeenranta Univ Technol.
    Overview of technologies for removal of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) from water2014In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 476, p. 415-433Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wide use of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) as fuel oxygenates leads to worldwide environment contamination with this compound basically due to fuel leaks from storage or pipelines. Presence of MTBE in drinking water is of high environmental and social concern. Existing methods for MTBE removal from water have a number of limitations which can be possibly overcome in the future with use of emerging technologies. This work aims to provide an updated overview of recent developments in technologies for MTBE removal from water. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 14.
    Lindell, Lina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Åström, Mats E.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Öberg, Tomas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Land-use versus natural controls on soil fertility in the Subandean Amazon, Peru.2010In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 408, no 4, p. 965-975Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Deforestation to amplify the agricultural frontier is a serious threat to the Amazon forest. Strategies to attain and maintain satisfactory soil fertility, which requires knowledge of spatial and temporal changes caused by land-use, are important for reaching sustainable development. This study highlights these issues by evaluating the relative effects of agricultural land-use and natural factors on chemical fertility of inceptisols on redbed lithologies in the Subandean Amazon. Macro and micronutrients were determined in topsoil and subsoil in the vicinity of two villages at a total of 80 sites including pastures, coffee plantations, swidden fields, secondary forest and, as a reference, adjacent primary forest. Differences in soil fertility between the land cover classes were investigated by principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares regression (PLSR). Primary forest soil was found to be chemically similar to that of coffee plantations, pastures and secondary forests. There were no significant differences between soils of these land cover types in terms of plant nutrients (e.g. N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Mo, Mn, Zn, Cu and Co) or other fertility indicators (OM pH,, BS, EC, CECe and exchangeable acidity). The parent material (as indicated by texture and sample geographical origin) and the slope of the sampled sites were stronger controls on soil fertility than land cover type. Elevated concentrations of a few nutrients (NO3 and K) were, however detected in soils of swidden fields. Despite being fertile (higher CECe, Ca and P) compared to Oxisols and Ultisols in the Amazon lowland, the Subandean soils frequently showed deficiencies in several nutrients (e.g. P, K, NO3, Cu and Zn), and high levels of free Al at acidic sites. This paper concludes that deforestation and agricultural land-use has not introduced lasting chemical changes in the studied Subandean soils that are significant in comparison to the natural variability.

  • 15.
    Marchand, Charlotte
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Univ Montreal, Canada.
    Mench, Michel
    Univ Bordeaux, France.
    Jani, Yahya
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Kaczala, Fabio
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Notini, Peter
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Hijri, Mohamed
    Univ Montreal, Canada.
    Hogland, William
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Pilot scale aided-phytoremediation of a co-contaminated soil2018In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 618, p. 753-764Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A pilot scale experiment was conducted to investigate the aided-phytoextraction of metals and the aided-phytodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons (PHC) in a co-contaminated soil. First, this soil was amended with compost (10% w/w) and assembled into piles (Unp-10%C). Then, a phyto-cap of Medicago sativa L. either in monoculture (MS-10%C) or co-cropped with Helianthus annuus L. as companion planting (MSHA-10%C) was sown on the topsoil. Physico-chemical parameters and contaminants in the soil and its leachates were measured at the beginning and the end of the first growth season (after five months). In parallel, residual soil ecotoxicity was assessed using the plant species Lepidium sativum L. and the earthworm Eisenia fetida Savigny, 1826, while the leachate ecotoxicity was assessed using Lemna minor L. After 5 months, PH C10-C40, PAH-L, PAH-M PAH-H, Pb and Cu concentrations in the MS-10%C soil were significantly reduced as compared to the Unp-10% C soil. Metal uptake by alfalfa was low but their translocation to shoots was high for Mn, Cr, Co and Zn (transfer factor (TF) >1), except for Cu and Pb. Alfalfa in monoculture reduced electrical conductivity, total organic C and Cu concentration in the leachate while pH and dissolved oxygen increased. Alfalfa co-planting with sunflower did not affect the extraction of inorganic contaminants from the soil, the PAH (M and H) degradation and was less efficient for PH C10-C40 and PAH-L as compared to alfalfa monoculture. The co-planting reduced shoot and root Pb concentrations. The residual soil ecotoxicity after 5 months showed a positive effect of co-planting on L. sativum shoot dry weight (DW) yield. However, high contaminant concentrations in soil and leachate still inhibited the L. sativum root DW yield, earthworm development, and L. minor growth rate. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 16.
    Markiewicz, Anna
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Björklund, Karin
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Eriksson, Eva
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics.
    Kalmykova, Yuliya
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Strömvall, Ann-Margret
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Siopi, Anna
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Emissions of organic pollutants from traffic and roads: Priority pollutants selection and substance flow analysis2017In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 580, p. 1162-1174Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A large number of organic pollutants (OPs) emitted from vehicles and traffic-related activities exhibit environmental persistence and a tendency to bioaccumulate, and may have detrimental long-term effects on aquatic life. The aim of the study was to establish a list of significant sources of OPs occurring in road runoff, identify the OPs emitted from these sources, select a number of priority pollutants (PP), and estimate the quantity of PPs emitted in a road environment case study using substance flow analysis (SFA). The priority pollutants included in the SFA were selected from a list of approximately 1100 compounds found after comprehensive screening, including literature and database searches, expert judgments, the Ranking and Identification of Chemical Hazards method, and chemical analysis of sediments. The results showed the following priority order: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) > alkanes C20–C40 > alkylphenols > phthalates > aldehydes > phenolic antioxidants > bisphenol A > oxygenated-PAHs > naphtha C5–C12 > amides > amines. Among these, PAHs were chosen for a SFA, which was performed for a highway case study area in Gothenburg (Sweden). The SFA showed that the main sources of PAHs emitted in the area were vehicle exhaust gases, followed by tyre wear, motor lubricant oils, road surface wear, and brake linings. Only 2–6% of the total 5.8–29 kg annually emitted PAHs/ha ended up in the stormwater sewer system. The measured PAH loads were found in much smaller amounts than the calculated loads and the outflow to stormwater contained much more of the hazardous PAHs than the total loads emitted in the catchment area.

  • 17.
    Nielsen, Katrine
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Kalmykova, Yuliya
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Strömvall, Ann-Margret
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Baun, Anders
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Eriksson, Eva
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Particle phase distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in stormwater: Using humic acid and iron nano-sized colloids as test particles2015In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 532, p. 103-111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in different particulate fractions in stormwater: Total, Particulate, Filtrated, Colloidal and Dissolved fractions, were examined and compared to synthetic suspensions of humic acid colloids and iron nano-sized particles. The distribution of low-molecular weight PAHs (LMW PAHs), middle-molecular weight PAHs (MMWPAHs) and high-molecularweight PAHs (HMWPAHs) among the fractions was also evaluated. The results from the synthetic suspensions showed that the highest concentrations of the PAHs were found in the Filtrated fractions and, surprisingly, high loads were found in the Dissolved fractions. The PAHs identified in stormwater in the Particulate fractions and Dissolved fractions follow their hydrophobic properties. In most samples N50% of the HMW PAHs were found in the Particulate fractions, while the LMW and MMW PAHs were found to a higher extent in the Filtrated fractions. The highest concentrations of PAHs were present in the stormwater with the highest total suspended solids (TSS); the relative amount of the HMWPAHs was highest in the Particulate fractions (particles N 0.7 μm). The highest concentration of PAHs in the Colloidal fraction was found in the sample with occurrence of small nano-sized particles (b10 nm). The results show the importance of developing technologies that both can manage particulate matter and effectively remove PAHs present in the Colloidal and Dissolved fractions in stormwater.

  • 18.
    Pechsiri, Joseph S
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Thomas, Jean-Baptiste
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Risén, Emma
    Royal Institute of Technology ; Sweco Environment AB.
    Ribeiro, Maurico S
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Malmström, Maria E
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Nylund, Göran
    University of Gothenburg.
    Jansson, Anette
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Welander, Ulrika
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Paiva, Henrik
    University of Gothenburg.
    Gröndahl, Fredrik
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Energy performance and greenhouse gas emissions of kelp cultivation for biogas and fertilizer recovery in Sweden2016In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 573, p. 347-355Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The cultivation of seaweed as a feedstock for third generation biofuels is gathering interest in Europe, however, many questions remain unanswered in practise, notably regarding scales of operation, energy returns on investment (EROI) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, all of which are crucial to determine commercial viability. This study performed an energy and GHG emissions analysis, using EROI and GHG savings potential respectively, as indicators of commercial viability for two systems: the Swedish Seafarm project's seaweed cultivation (0.5 ha), biogas and fertilizer biorefinery, and an estimation of the same system scaled up and adjusted to a cultivation of 10 ha. Based on a conservative estimate of biogas yield, neither the 0.5 ha case nor the up-scaled 10 ha estimates met the (commercial viability) target EROI of 3, nor the European Union Renewable Energy Directive GHG savings target of 60% for biofuels, however the potential for commercial viability was substantially improved by scaling up operations: GHG emissions and energy demand, per unit of biogas, was almost halved by scaling operations up by a factor of twenty, thereby approaching the EROI and GHG savings targets set, under beneficial biogas production conditions. Further analysis identified processes whose optimisations would have a large impact on energy use and emissions (such as anaerobic digestion) as well as others embodying potential for further economies of scale (such as harvesting), both of which would be of interest for future developments of kelp to biogas and fertilizer biorefineries.

  • 19.
    Peltola, Pasi
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Ivask, Angela
    Åström, Mats
    Virta, Marko
    Lead and Cu in contaminated urban soils: Extraction with chemical reagents and bioluminescent bacteria and yeast2005In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 350, no 1-3, p. 194-203Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Twenty urban soil samples, with a wide range of Pb (14–5323 mg/kg) and Cu (8–12987 mg/kg), were used to compare the operational speciation of a five-step sequential leach with the bioavailability determined with bioluminescent Pb (RN4220(pTOO24)) and Cu (MC1061(pSLcueR/pDNPcopAluc)) specific bacterial biosensors and a Cu specific yeast sensor. The bioavailable Pb concentrations were all similar or lower than the first sequential leach step (1M NaOAc). In contrast, in some samples the bioavailable concentrations of Cu clearly exceeded even the second sequential leach step (0.1 M Na4P2O7). With the yeast sensor 12/20 samples were below detection, however, the yeast sensor was capable of detecting all high Cu concentrations. The biosensors used in this study are not capable of detecting the natural soil concentrations of Pb and Cu in the studied area.

  • 20.
    Peltola, Pasi
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Åström, Mats
    Concentations and leachability of chemical elements in estuarine sulfur-rich sediments, W. Finland2002In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 284, no 1-3, p. 109-122Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Concentrations, distributions and mobility of chemical elements were investigated in reduced sulfur-rich estuarine sediments located in western Finland. The main objective was to determine the possible extent of metal leaching when dredged masses of these sulfur-rich sediments are dumped on the land and thus exposed to air. When dredged, the reduced sulfur in the sediments oxidises resulting in a lowering of pH, which in turn is expected to leach metals. The study area is an artificial lake claimed from the Botnian sea in 1962. In this lake, several mass-kills of fish have occurred, believed partly to be due to dredging. Two sediment samples (0–50 and 50–100 cm) were taken from 39 sampling points in the lake. These samples were leached in aqua regia (2:2:2 HNO3/HCl/H2O) and analysed for Fe, Al, Mg, Ca, K, P, Na, Mn, Zn, Ba, V, Sr, Cr, Ni, Cu, Co, As, Pb, B, Mo and Cd with ICP-AES. Sulfur and organic carbon were analysed with Leco. In a controlled laboratory experiment, the sediments were allowed to oxidise for 1 year while moisturised with deionised water every month. The pH and conductivity were determined in the beginning of the experiment (reduced state) and in the end (oxidised state). In the supernatants in the oxidised states the amount of leached metals (Na, Al, Mn, Zn, Sr, Co, Ni, Cu, Cd, Cr, Pb, U, Li, Rb and As) were determined with ICP-MS. The sediments were found to contain low levels of toxic metals but, as expected, high concentrations of sulfur. In the experiment, pH was lowered (down to 3.0) and the conductivity increased in all samples due to oxidation and release of metal ions. The extent of leaching varied between 0.03% for As and 12.3% for Na. Critical pH values, at which high amounts of metals begin to leach, were obtained graphically. These values varied between 4.8 (Ni) and 3.3 (Cr). Not all elements were controlled by pH, e.g. Mn correlated well with its aqua regia leachable concentration. In a planned dredging operation in the area some 23 300 t (10 500 m3) (dry wt.) of sediments will be dredged. The amounts of metals likely to be leached, according to the results from this study, are as follows (kg): Al (1710), Mn (1230), Zn (59), Sr (39), Co (13), Ni (12), Cu (2) and less than 1 kg of Cd–Cr–As–Pb.

  • 21.
    Uddh Söderberg, Terese
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Berggren Kleja, Dan
    Swedish Geotechnical Institute, Sweden.
    Åström, Mats E.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Jarsjö, Jerker
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Fröberg, Mats
    Swedish Geotechnical Institute, Sweden.
    Svensson, P. Andreas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Augustsson, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Metal solubility and transport at a contaminated landfill site – From the source zone into the groundwater2019In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 668, p. 1064-1076Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Risks associated with metal contaminated sites are tightly linked to material leachability and contaminant mobility. In this study, metal solubility and transport were characterized within a glass waste landfill through i) lysimeter-collection of pore water and standardized batch leaching tests, ii) soil profiles extending from the landfill surface, through unsaturated soil underneath, and into the groundwater zone, and iii) groundwater samples upstream, at, and downstream of the landfill. The soil analyzes targeted both pseudo-total and geochemically active concentrations of contaminant metals (As, Cd, Pb, Sb) and basic soil geochemistry (pH, org. C, Fe,Mn). Water samples were analyzed for dissolved, colloid-bound and particulate metals, and speciation modelling of the aqueous phase was conducted. The results revealed a highly contaminated system, with mean metal concentrationsin the waste zone between 90 and 250 times the regional background levels. Despite severe contamination of the waste zone and high geochemically active fractions (80–100%) of all contaminant metals as well as elevated concentrations in landfill pore water, the concentrations of Cd and Pb decrease abruptly at the transition between landfill and underlying natural soil and no indication of groundwater contamination was found. The efficient cation retention is likely due to the high pH. However, the sorption of As and Sb is weaker at such high pH,which explains their higher mobility from the pore water zone into groundwater. The field soil:solution for Pb, ranging from 140 to 2,900,000 l kg−1), despite little variability in basic geochemical variables, which we suggest is due to waste material heterogeneity.

  • 22.
    Uddh Söderberg, Terese
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Gunnarsson, Sara
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Hogmalm, Johan
    Univ Gothenburg.
    Lindegård, Boel
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Augustsson, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    An assessment of health risks associated with arsenic exposure via consumption of homegrown vegetables near contaminated glassworks sites2015In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 536, p. 189-197Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The health risk posed by arsenic in vegetables grown in private gardens near 22 contaminated glassworks sites was investigated in this study. Firstly, vegetable (lettuce and potato) and soil samples were collected and arsenic concentrations measured to characterize the arsenic uptake in the selected crops. Secondly, a probabilistic exposure assessment was conducted to estimate the average daily intake (ADI(veg)), which was then evaluated against toxicological reference values by the calculation of hazard quotients (HQs) and cancer risks (CRs). The results show that elevated arsenic concentrations in residential garden soils are mirrored by elevated concentrations in vegetables, and that consumption of these vegetables alone may result in an unacceptable cancer risk; the calculated reasonable maximum exposure, for example, corresponded to a cancer incidence 20 times higher than the stated tolerance limit. However, the characterization of risk depends to a great extent on which toxicological reference value is used for comparison, as well as how the exposure is determined. Based on the assumptions made in the present study, the threshold levels for chronic non-carcinogenic or acute effects were not exceeded, but the cancer risks indicated highlight the need for further exposure studies, as dietary intake involves more than just homegrown vegetables and total exposure is a function of more than just one exposure pathway. In addition, glassworks sites - and contaminated sites in general - contain multiple contaminants, affecting the final and total risk.

  • 23.
    Vezzaro, Luca
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Eriksson, Eva
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Ledin, Anna
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Mikkelsen, Peter Steen
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Modelling the fate of organic micropollutants in stormwater ponds2011In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 409, no 13, p. 2597-2606Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban water managers need to estimate the potential removal of organic micropollutants (MP) in stormwater treatment systems to support MP pollution control strategies. This study documents how the potential removal of organic MP in stormwater treatment systems can be quantified by using multimedia models. The fate of four different MP in a stormwater retention pond was simulated by applying two steady-state multimedia fate models (EPI Suite and SimpleBox) commonly applied in chemical risk assessment and a dynamic multimedia fate model (Stormwater Treatment Unit Model for Micro Pollutants — STUMP). The four simulated organic stormwater MP (iodopropynyl butylcarbamate — IPBC, benzene, glyphosate and pyrene) were selected according to their different urban sources and environmental fate. This ensures that the results can be extended to other relevant stormwater pollutants. All three models use substance inherent properties to calculate MP fate but differ in their ability to represent the small physical scale and high temporal variability of stormwater treatment systems. Therefore the three models generate different results. A Global Sensitivity Analysis (GSA) highlighted that settling/resuspension of particulate matter was themost sensitive process for the dynamic model. The uncertainty of the estimated MP fluxes can be reduced by calibrating the dynamic model against total suspended solids data. This reduction in uncertainty was more significant for the substances with strong tendency to sorb, i.e. glyphosate and pyrene and less significant for substances with a smaller tendency to sorb, i.e. IPBC and benzene. The results provide support to the elaboration of MP pollution control strategies by limiting the need for extensive and complex monitoring campaigns targeting the wide range of specific organic MP found in stormwater runoff.

  • 24.
    Wu, Xiaofen
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Sten, Pekka
    Vaasa University of Applied Sciences, Finland.
    Engblom, Sten
    Novia University of Applied Sciences, Finland.
    Nowak, Pawel
    Polish Academy of Sciences, Poland.
    Österholm, Peter
    Åbo Akademi University, Finland.
    Dopson, Mark
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Impact of mitigation strategies on acid sulfate soil chemistry and microbial community2015In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 526, p. 215-221Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Potential acid sulfate soils contain reduced iron sulfides that if oxidized, can cause significant environmental damage by releasing large amounts of acid and metals. This study examines metal and acid release as well as the microbial community capable of catalyzing metal sulfide oxidation after treating acid sulfate soil with calcium carbonate (CaCO3) or calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2). Leaching tests of acid sulfate soil samples were carried out in the laboratory. The pH of the leachate during the initial flushing with water lay between 3.8 and 4.4 suggesting that the jarosite/schwertmannite equilibrium controls the solution chemistry. However, the pH increased to circa 6 after treatment with CaCO3 suspension and circa 12 after introducing Ca(OH)2 solution. 16S rRNA gene sequences amplified from community DNA extracted from the untreated and both CaCO3and Ca(OH)2 treated acid sulfate soils were most similar to bacteria (69.1% to 85.7%) and archaea (95.4% to 100%) previously identified from acid and metal contaminated environments. These species included a Thiomonas cuprina-like and an Acidocella-like bacteria as well as a Ferroplasma acidiphilum-like archeon. Although the CaCO3 and Ca(OH)2 treatments did not decrease the proportion of microorganisms capable of accelerating acid and metal release, the chemical effects of the treatments suggested their reduced activity.

  • 25.
    Yang, Shilei
    et al.
    Tianjin University, Peoples Republic of China.
    Hao, Qian
    Tianjin University, Peoples Republic of China.
    Liu, Hongyan
    Peking University, Peoples Republic of China.
    Xiaodong, Zhang
    Tianjin University, Peoples Republic of China.
    Yu, Changxun
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Yang, Xiaomin
    Tianjin University, Peoples Republic of China.
    Xia, Shaopan
    Tianjin University, Peoples Republic of China.
    Yang, Weihua
    Tianjin University, Peoples Republic of China.
    Li, Jianwu
    Zhejiang Agricultural and Forestry University, Peoples Republic of China.
    Song, Zhaoliang
    Tianjin University, Peoples Republic of China.
    Impact of grassland degradation on the distribution and bioavailability of soil silicon: Implications for the Si cycle in grasslands2019In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 657, p. 811-818Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Grassland ecosystems play an important role in the global terrestrial silicon (Si) cycle, and Si is a beneficial elementand structural constituent for the growth of grasses. In previous decades, grasslands have been degradedto different degrees because of the drying climate and intense human disturbance. However, the impact of grasslanddegradation on the distribution and bioavailability of soil Si is largely unknown. Here, we investigated vegetationand soil conditions of 30 sites to characterize different degrees of degradation for grasslands in the agropastoralecotone of northern China. We then explored the impact of grassland degradation on the distributionand bioavailability of soil Si, including total Si and four forms of noncrystalline Si in three horizons (0–10,10–20 and 20–40 cm) of different soil profiles. The concentrations of noncrystalline Si in soil profiles significantlydecreased with increasing degrees of degradation, being 7.35 ± 0.88 mg g−1, 5.36 ± 0.39 mg g−1, 3.81 ±0.37 mg g−1 and 3.60±0.26 mg g−1 in non-degraded, lightly degraded, moderately degraded and seriously degradedgrasslands, respectively. Moreover, the storage of noncrystalline Si decreased from higher than 40 t ha−1to lower than 23 t ha−1. The corresponding bioavailability of soil Si also generally decreased with grassland degradation.These processes may not only affect the Si pools and fluxes in soils but also influence the Si uptake in 

    plants. We suggest that grassland degradation can significantly affect the global grassland Si cycle. Grasslandmanagement methods such as fertilizing and avoiding overgrazing can potentially double the content and storageof noncrystalline Si in soils, thereby enhancing the soil Si bioavailability by N17%.

  • 26.
    Yu, Changxun
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Berger, Tobias
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. The Swedish Anglers Association, Sweden.
    Drake, Henrik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Song, Zhaoliang
    Tianjin University, Peoples Republic of China.
    Peltola, Pasi
    Boliden Rönnskär, Sweden.
    Åström, Mats E.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Geochemical controls on dispersion of U and Th in Quaternary deposits, stream water, and aquatic plants in an area with a granite pluton2019In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 663, p. 16-28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The weathering of U and/or Th rich granite plutons, which occurs worldwide, may serve as a potentially important, but as yet poorly defined source for U and Th in (sub-)surface environments. Here, we assessed the impact of an outcrop of such granite (5 km in diameter) and its erosional products on the distribution of U and Th in four nemo-boreal catchments. The results showed that (i) the pluton was enriched in both U and Th; and (ii) secondary U and Th phases were accumulated by peat/gyttja and in other Quaternary deposits with high contents of organic matter. Movement of the ice sheet during the latest glaciation led to dispersal of U- and Th-rich materials eroded from the pluton, resulting in a progressive increase in dissolved U and Th concentrations, as well as U concentrations in aquatic plants with increasing proximity to the pluton. The accumulation of U in the aquatic plants growing upon the pluton (100–365 mg kg−1, dry ash weight) shows that this rock represents a long-term risk for adjacent ecosystems. Dissolved pools of U and Th were correlated with those of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and were predicted to largely occur as organic complexes. This demonstrates the importance of DOM in the transport of U and Th in the catchments. Large fractions of Ca2UO2(CO3)30(aq) were modeled to occur in the stream with highest pH and alkalinity and thus, explain the strongly elevated U concentrations and fluxes in this particular stream. In future climate scenarios, boreal catchments will experience intensified runoff and warmer temperature that favor the production of hydrologically accessible DOM and alkalinity. Therefore, the results obtained from this study have implications for predicting the distribution and transport of Th and U in boreal catchments, especially those associated with U and/or Th rich granite plutons.

  • 27.
    Yu, Changxun
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Peltola, Pasi
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Nystrand, Miriam I.
    Åbo Akad Univ, Finland.
    Virtasalo, Joonas J.
    Geol Survey Finland GTK, Finland.
    Österholm, Peter
    Åbo Akad Univ, Finland.
    Ojala, Antti E. K.
    Geol Survey Finland GTK, Finland.
    Högmalm, Johan K.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Åström, Mats E.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Arsenic removal from contaminated brackish sea water by sorption onto Al hydroxides and Fe phases mobilized by land-use2016In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 542, p. 923-934Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the spatial and temporal distribution patterns of arsenic (As) in solid and aqueous materials along the mixing zone of an estuary, located in the south-eastern part of the Bothnian Bay and fed by a creek running through an acid sulfate (AS) soil landscape. The concentrations of As in solution form (<1 kDa) increase steadily from the creek mouth to the outer estuary, suggesting that inflowing seawater, rather than AS soil, is the major As source in the estuary. In sediments at the outer estuary, As was accumulated and diagenetically cycled in the surficial layers, as throughout much of the Bothnian Bay. In contrast, in sediments in the inner estuary, As concentrations and accumulation rates showed systematical peaks at greater depths. These peaks were overall consistent with the temporal trend of past As discharges from the Ronnskar smelter and the accompanied As concentrations in past sea-water of the Bothnian Bay, pointing to a connection between the historical smelter activities and the sediment-bound As in the inner estuary. However, the concentrations and accumulation rates of As peaked at depths where the smelter activities had already declined, but a large increase in the deposition of Al hydroxides and Fe phases occurred in response to intensified land-use in the mid 1960's and early 1970's. This correspondence suggests that, apart from the inflowing As-contaminated seawater, capture by Al hydroxides, Fe hydroxides and Fe-organic complexes is another important factor for As deposition in the inner estuary. After accumulating in the sediment, the solid-phase As was partly remobilized, as reflected by increased pore-water As concentrations, a process favored by As(V) reduction and high concentrations of dissolved organic matter. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 28.
    Zhang, Yu
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. Nanjing Univ, Peoples Republi of China.
    Zhang, Jin-He
    Nanjing Univ, Peoples Republi of China.
    Tian, Qing
    Tongren Polytech Coll, Peoples Republi of China.
    Liu, Ze-Hua
    Nanjing Univ, Peoples Republi of China.
    Zhang, Hong-Lei
    Nanjing Univ, Peoples Republi of China.
    Virtual water trade of agricultural products: A new perspective to explore the Belt and Road2018In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 622, p. 988-996Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Belt and Road is an initiative of cooperation and development that was proposed by China. Moreover, most of the spanning countries faced water shortages and agriculture consumed a lot of water. Virtual water links water, food and trade and is an effective tool to ease water shortages. Therefore, this paper aims to understand the Belt and Road from the new perspective of virtual water trade of agricultural products. We considered agricultural products trade from 2001 to 2015. On the whole, the results indicated that China was in virtual water trade surplus with the countries along the Belt and Road. However, in terms of each country, >40 spanning countries were in virtual water trade surplus with China and eased water shortages. Russia had the largest net imported virtual water from China. Furthermore, the proportion of the grey water footprint that China exported to the spanning countries was much higher than that imported, no matter from the whole or different geographical regions. Moreover, more than half of the countries' virtual water trade with China conformed to the virtual water strategy, which helped to ease water crises. Furthermore, the products that they exported to China were mainly advantageous products that each spanning countries have. Virtual water trade is a new perspective to explore the Belt and Road. Agricultural products trade with China definitely benefits both the countries along the Belt and Road and China from the perspective of virtual water. The findings are beneficial for the water management of the countries along the Belt and Road and China, alleviating water shortages, encouraging the rational allocation of water resources in the various departments. They can provide references for optimizing trade structures as well. (c) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 29.
    Öberg, Tomas
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Low-temperature formation and degradation of chlorinated benzenes, PCDD and PCDF in dust from steel production.2007In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 382, no 1, p. 153-158Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dust from thermal processes may catalytically enhance the formation of chlorinated aromatic compounds under oxygen-rich conditions. The activities of two dust samples from electric arc furnaces and one from iron ore-based steelmaking (oxygen converter) were investigated in a laboratory experiment. The dust samples were heated at 300 degrees C for 2 h in an air atmosphere. The concentrations of chlorinated benzenes did not change greatly upon heating, while the concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans decreased. The addition of copper in parallel runs resulted in a substantial increase in the concentration of chlorinated benzenes, thus indicating that the experimental setup was suitable for the evaluation of low-temperature catalysis. The outcome of the experiment seems to suggest that results cannot easily be extrapolated between different thermal and metallurgical processes. Some measures to reduce emissions, such as inhibition of catalytic activity and rapid cooling, could possibly be counterproductive when applied to off-gases from the steelmaking processes investigated here.

1 - 29 of 29
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf