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  • 1.
    Ahlstrom, Christina A.
    et al.
    US Geol Survey, USA.
    van Toor, Mariëlle L.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Woksepp, Hanna
    Kalmar County Hospital, Sweden.
    Chandler, Jeffrey C.
    USDA APHIS WS, USA.
    Reed, John A.
    US Geol Survey, USA.
    Reeves, Andrew B.
    US Geol Survey, USA.
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Franklin, Alan B.
    USDA APHIS WS, USA.
    Douglas, David C.
    US Geol Survey, USA.
    Bonnedahl, Jonas
    Linköping University, Sweden;Region Kalmar county, Sweden.
    Ramey, Andrew M.
    US Geol Survey, USA.
    Evidence for continental-scale dispersal of antimicrobial resistant bacteria by landfill-foraging gulls2021In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 764, p. 1-10, article id 144551Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Anthropogenic inputs into the environment may serve as sources of antimicrobial resistant bacteria and alter the ecology and population dynamics of synanthropic wild animals by providing supplemental forage. In this study, we used a combination of phenotypic and genomic approaches to characterize antimicrobial resistant indicator bacteria, animal telemetry to describe host movement patterns, and a novel modeling approach to combine information from these diverse data streams to investigate the acquisition and long-distance dispersal of antimicrobial resistant bacteria by landfill-foraging gulls. Our results provide evidence that gulls acquire antimicrobial resistant bacteria from anthropogenic sources, which they may subsequently disperse across and between continents via migratory movements. Furthermore, we introduce a flexible modeling framework to estimate the relative dispersal risk of antimicrobial resistant bacteria in western North America and adjacent areas within East Asia, which may be adapted to provide information on the risk of dissemination of other organisms and pathogens maintained by wildlife through space and time. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  • 2.
    Ahlstrom, Christina A.
    et al.
    US Geol Survey, USA.
    Woksepp, Hanna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry. Kalmar County Hospital, Sweden.
    Sandegren, Linus
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Mohsin, Mashkoor
    Univ Agr Faisalabad, Pakistan.
    Hasan, Badrul
    Uppsala University, Sweden;Anim Bacteriol Sect, Australia.
    Muzyka, Denys
    Inst Expt & Clin Vet Med, Ukraine.
    Hernandez, Jorge
    Kalmar County Hospital, Sweden.
    Aguirre, Filip
    Kalmar County Hospital, Sweden.
    Tok, Atalay
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Söderman, Jan
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Olsen, Björn
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Ramey, Andrew M.
    US Geol Survey, USA.
    Bonnedahl, Jonas
    Linköping University, Sweden;Region Kalmar County, Sweden.
    Genomically diverse carbapenem resistant Enterobacteriaceae from wild birds provide insight into global patterns of spatiotemporal dissemination2022In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 824, article id 153632Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Carbapenem resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are a threat to public health globally, yet the role of the environment in the epidemiology of CRE remains elusive. Given that wild birds can acquire CRE, likely from foraging in anthropogenically impacted areas, and may aid in the maintenance and dissemination of CRE in the environment, a spatiotemporal comparison of isolates from different regions and timepoints may be useful for elucidating epidemiological information. Thus, we characterized the genomic diversity of CRE from fecal samples opportunistically collected from gulls (Larus spp.) inhabiting Alaska (USA), Chile, Spain, Turkey, and Ukraine and from black kites (Milvus migrans) sampled in Pakistan and assessed evidence for spatiotemporal patterns of dissemination. Within and among sampling locations, a high diversity of carbapenemases was found, including Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC), New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase (NDM), oxacillinase (OXA), and Verona integron Metallo beta-lactamase (VIM). Although the majority of genomic comparisons among samples did not provide evidence for spatial dissemination, we did find strong evidence for dissemination among Alaska, Spain, and Turkey. We also found strong evidence for temporal dissemination among samples collected in Alaska and Pakistan, though the majority of CRE clones were transitory and were not repeatedly detected among locations where samples were collected longitudinally. Carbapenemase-producing hypervirulent K. pneumoniae was isolated from gulls in Spain and Ukraine and some isolates harbored antimicrobial resistance genes conferring resistance to up to 10 different antibiotic classes, including colistin. Our results are consistent with local acquisition of CRE by wild birds with spatial dissemination influenced by intermediary transmission routes, likely involving humans. Furthermore, our results support the premise that anthropogenicallyassociated wild birds may be good sentinels for understanding the burden of clinically-relevant antimicrobial resistance in the local human population.

  • 3.
    Akselsson, Cecilia
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Westling, Olle
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Alveteg, Mattias
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Thelin, Gunnar
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Fransson, Ann-Mari
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Hellsten, Sofie
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    The influence of N load and harvest intensity on the risk of P limitation in Swedish forest soils2008In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 404, no 2-3, p. 284-289Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nitrogen (N) is often considered to be the major factor limiting tree growth in northern forest ecosystems. An increased N availability, however, increases the demand for other nutrients such as base cations and phosphorous (P) which in turn may change which nutrient is the limiting factor. If P or base cations become limiting, N will start to leach which means a risk of increased eutrophication of surface waters. As many studies focus on base cations, this study instead aims at estimating P budgets on a regional scale for different harvesting scenarios relevant for Swedish conditions.

    P budget calculations were carried out for 14,550 coniferous sites from the Swedish National Forest Inventory, as weathering+deposition–harvesting–leaching. Three scenarios with different harvest intensities were used: 1) no harvesting, 2) stem harvesting and 3) whole-tree harvesting. The input data were derived from measurements and model results.

    The P budget estimates indicate that harvesting, especially whole-tree harvesting, result in net losses of P in large parts of Sweden. The highest losses were found in southern Sweden due to high growth rate in this area. In the whole-tree harvesting scenario the losses exceeded 1 kg ha− 1 y− 1 on many sites. N budget calculations on the same sites indicate that N generally accumulates in the whole country and especially in the southern parts. Consequently, the N and P budget calculations indicate that the forests in southern Sweden are in a transition phase from N-to P-limitation to growth. This transition will proceed as long as the accumulation of N continues. These results are important in a sustainable forestry context, as a basis for assessing the risk of future N leaching, and in designing recommendations for abatement strategies of N deposition and for application of wood ash recycling and N fertilization.

  • 4.
    Alriksson, Stina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Voxberg, Elin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Karlsson, Helen
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Ljunggren, Stefan
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Augustsson, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Sustainable Health.
    Temporal risk assessment – 20th century Pb emissions to air and exposure via inhalation in the Swedish glass district2023In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 858, no 1, article id 159843Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of the present study was to assess historical emissions of Pb to air around a number of glassworks sites in southeastern Sweden, and the possible implications for human exposure. To do so, a four-step method was applied. First, emissions of Pb to air around 10 glassworks were modelled for the 20th century. Second, an assessment of the resulting exposure was made for a number of scenarios. Third, the number of people potentially exposed at different times was estimated, and fourth, measurements of “current” Pb concentrations in PM10 material from four sites were conducted in 2019. The results show that the highest emissions, and exposures, occurred from 1970 to1980. It coincides with the time period when the highest number of people resided in the villages. At this time, the average Pb concentration in air around the six largest factories was about 2.4 μg Pb/m3, i.e. 16 times the present US national ambient air quality standard (NAAQS) of 0.15 μg Pb/m3. By year 2000 the modelled average concentration had dropped to 0.05 μg Pb/m3, a level that is normal for urban regions today. The PM10 measurements from 2019 indicate a further decline, now with a mean value of about 0.02 μg Pb/m3. Over the entire study period, inhalation hazard quotients (HQs) exceeded the dietary HQ by many orders of magnitude, indicating that inhalation has been the most prevalent exposure pathway in the past. At present, both pathways are judged to be associated with low exposures. Even if only roughly approximated, a picture of the historical exposure can increase our understanding of the connection between exposure and disease, and can be valuable when risks are to be communicated to residents near contaminated areas.

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  • 5.
    Aparicio, Fran L.
    et al.
    CSIC, Spain.
    Nieto-Cid, Mar
    CSIC, Spain.
    Borrull, Encarna
    CSIC, Spain.
    Calvo, Eva
    CSIC, Spain.
    Pelejero, Carles
    CSIC, Spain;CREA, Spain.
    Montserrat Sala, Maria
    CSIC, Spain.
    Pinhassi, Jarone
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Gasol, Josep M.
    CSIC, Spain.
    Marrase, Celia
    CSIC, Spain.
    Eutrophication and acidification: Do they induce changes in the dissolved organic matter dynamics in the coastal Mediterranean Sea?2016In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 563, p. 179-189Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two mesocosms experiments were conducted in winter 2010 and summer 2011 to examine how increased pCO(2) and/or nutrient concentrations potentially perturbate dissolved organic matter dynamics in natural microbial assemblages. The fluorescence signals of protein-and humic-like compounds were used as a proxy for labile and non-labile material, respectively, while the evolution of bacterial populations, chlorophyll a (Chl a) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations were used as a proxy for biological activity. For both seasons, the presence of elevated pCO(2) did not cause any significant change in the DOC dynamics (p-value < 0.05). The conditions that showed the greatest changes in prokaryote abundances and Chl a content were those amended with nutrients, regardless of the change in pH. The temporal evolution of fluorophores and optical indices revealed that the degree of humification of the organic molecules and their molecular weight changed significantly in the nutrient-amended treatment. The generation of protein-like compounds was paired to increases in the prokaryote abundance, being higher in the nutrient-amended tanks than in the control. Different patterns in the magnitude and direction of the generation of humic-like molecules suggested that these changes depended on initial microbial populations and the availability of extra nutrient inputs. Based on our results, it is expected that in the future projected coastal scenarios the eutrophication processes will favor the transformations of labile and recalcitrant carbon regardless of changes in pCO(2). (c) 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  • 6.
    Augustsson, Anna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Filipsson, Monika
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Öberg, Tomas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Bergbäck, Bo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Climate change - an uncertainty factor in risk analysis of contaminated land2011In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 409, no 22, p. 4693-4700Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Metals frequently occur at contaminated sites, where their potential toxicity and persistence require risk assessments that consider possible long-term changes. Changes in climate are likely to affect the speciation, mobility, and risks associated with metals. This paper provides an example of how the climate effect can be inserted in a commonly used exposure model, and how the exposure then changes compared to present conditions. The comparison was made for cadmium (Cd) exposure to 4-year-old children at a highly contaminated iron and steel works site in southeastern Sweden. Both deterministic and probabilistic approaches (through probability bounds analysis, PBA) were used in the exposure assessment. Potential climate-sensitive variables were determined by a literature review. Although only six of the total 39 model variables were assumed to be sensitive to a change in climate (groundwater infiltration, hydraulic conductivity, soil moisture, soil:water distribution, and two bioconcentration factors), the total exposure was clearly affected. For example, by altering the climate-sensitive variables in the order of 15% to 20%, the deterministic estimate of exposure increased by 27%. Similarly, the PBA estimate of the reasonable maximum exposure (RME, defined as the upper bound of the 95th percentile) increased by almost 20%. This means that sites where the exposure in present conditions is determined to be slightly below guideline values may in the future exceed these guidelines, and risk management decisions could thus be affected. The PBA, however, showed that there is also a possibility of lower exposure levels, which means that the changes assumed for the climate-sensitive variables increase the total uncertainty in the probabilistic calculations. This highlights the importance of considering climate as a factor in the characterization of input data to exposure assessments at contaminated sites. The variable with the strongest influence on the result was the soil:water distribution coefficient (Kd).

  • 7.
    Augustsson, Anna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Lundgren, Maria
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Qvarforth, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Engström, Emma
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden;ALS Laboratory Group, Sweden.
    Paulukat, Cora
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Rodushkin, Ilia
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden;ALS Laboratory Group, Sweden.
    Moreno-Jiménez, Eduardo
    Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Spain.
    Beesley, Luke
    University of Salford, UK;Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Czech Republic.
    Trakal, Lukas
    Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Czech Republic.
    Hough, Rupert
    The James Hutton Institute, UK.
    Urban vegetable contamination - The role of adhering particles and their significance for human exposure2023In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 900, article id 165633Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While urban-grown vegetables could help combat future food insecurity, the elevated levels of toxic metals in urban soils need to be met with measures that minimise transfer to crops. This study firstly examines soil/dust particle inclusion in leafy vegetables and its contribution to vegetable metals (As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Sb, and Zn), using vegetable, soil and dust data from an open-field urban farm in southeastern Sweden. Titanium concentrations were used to assess soil/dust adherence. Results showed that vegetables contained 0.05–1.3 wt% of adhering particles (AP) even after washing. With 0.5 % AP, an adult with an average intake of vegetables could ingest approximately 100 mg of particles per day, highlighting leafy vegetables as a major route for soil/dust ingestion. The presence of adhering particles also significantly contributed to the vegetable concentrations of As (9–20 %), Co (17–20 %), Pb (25–29 %), and Cr (33–34 %). Secondly, data from an indoor experiment was used to characterise root metal uptake from 20 urban soils from Sweden, Denmark, Spain, the UK, and the Czech Republic. Combining particle adherence and root uptake data, vegetable metal concentrations were calculated for the 20 urban soils to represent hypothetical field scenarios for these. Subsequently, average daily doses were assessed for vegetable consumers (adults and 3–6 year old children), distinguishing between doses from adhering particles and root uptake. Risks were evaluated from hazard quotients (HQs; average daily doses/tolerable intakes). Lead was found to pose the greatest risk, where particle ingestion often resulted in HQs > 1 across all assessed scenarios. In summary, since washing was shown to remove only a portion of adhering metal-laden soil/dust particles from leafy vegetation, farmers and urban planners need to consider that measures to limit particle deposition are equally important as cultivating in uncontaminated soil.

  • 8.
    Augustsson, Anna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Sustainable Health.
    Lundgren, Maria
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Qvarforth, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Hough, Rupert
    James Hutton Inst, UK.
    Engstrom, Emma
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden;ALS Scandinavia AB, Sweden.
    Paulukat, Cora
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Rodushkin, Ilia
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden;ALS Scandinavia AB, Sweden.
    Managing health risks in urban agriculture: The effect of vegetable washing for reducing exposure to metal contaminants2023In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 863, article id 160996Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A common, yet poorly evaluated, advice to remove contaminants from urban vegetables is to wash the produce before consumption. This study is based on 63 samples of chard, kale, lettuce and parsley that have grown near a heavily traf-ficked road in the third largest city in Sweden, with one portion of each sample being analysed without first being washed, and the other portion being subjected to common household washing. Concentrations of 71 elements were analysed by ICP-SFMS after a sample digestion that dissolves both the plant tissues and all potentially adhering parti-cles. The results show that the washing effect, or the fraction removed upon washing, varies significantly between el-ements: from approximately 0 % for K to 68 % for the n-ary sumation REEs. Considering traditional metal contaminants, the efficiency decreased from Pb (on average 56 % lost) to Co (56 %) > Cr (55 %) > As (45 %) > Sb (35 %) > Ni (33 %) > Cu (13 %) > Zn (7 %) > Cd (7 %), and Ba (5 %). A clear negative correlation between the washing effect and the different elements' bioconcentration factors shows that the elements' accessibility for plant uptake is a key control-ling factor for the degree to which they are removed upon washing. Based on the average washing efficiencies seen in this study, the average daily intake of Pb would increase by 130 % if vegetables are not washed prior to consumption. For the other contaminant metals this increase corresponds to 126 % (Co), 121 % (Cr), 82 % (As), 55 % (Sb), 50 % (Ni), 16 % (Cu), 8 % (Zn), 7 % (Cd) and 5 % (Ba). The advice to wash vegetables is therefore, for many elements, highly motivated for reducing exposure and health risks. For elements which are only slightly reduced when the vegetables are washed, however, advising should rather focus on reducing levels of contamination in the soil itself.

  • 9.
    Augustsson, Anna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Uddh Söderberg, Terese
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Jarsjo, J.
    Stockholm University.
    Åström, Mats E.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Olofsson, B.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Balfors, B.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Destouni, G.
    Stockholm University.
    The risk of overestimating the risk-metal leaching to groundwater near contaminated glass waste deposits and exposure via drinking water2016In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 566, p. 1420-1431Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates metal contamination patterns and exposure to Sb, As, Ba, Cd and Pb via intake of drinking water in a region in southeastern Sweden where the production of artistic glass has resulted in a large number of contaminated sites. Despite high total concentrations of metals in soil and groundwater at the glassworks sites properties, all drinking water samples from households with private wells, located at a 30-640 m distance from a glassworks site, were below drinking water criteria from the WHO for Sb, As, Ba and Cd. A few drinking water samples showed concentrations of Pb above the WHO guideline, but As was the only element found in concentrations that could result in human exposure near toxicological reference values. An efficient retention of metals in the natural soil close to the source areas, which results in a moderate impact on local drinking water, is implied. Firstly, by the lack of significant difference in metal concentrations when comparing households located upstream and downstream of the main waste deposits, and secondly, by the lack of correlation between the metal concentration in drinking water and distance to the nearest glassworks site. However, elevated Pb and Cd concentrations in drinking water around glassworks sites when compared to regional groundwater indicate that diffuse contamination of the soils found outside the glassworks properties, and not only the glass waste landfills, may have a significant impact on groundwater quality. We further demonstrate that different mobilization patterns apply to different metals. Regarding the need to use reliable data to assess drinking water contamination and human exposure, we finally show that the conservative modelling approaches that are frequently used in routine risk assessments may result in exposure estimates many times higher than those based on measured concentrations in the drinking water that is actually being used for consumption. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 10.
    Baun, Anders
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Eriksson, Eva
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Ledin, Anna
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Mikkelsen, Peter Steen
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    A methodology for ranking and hazard identification of xenobiotic organic compounds in urban stormwater2006In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 370, no 1, p. 29-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presents a novel methodology (RICH, Ranking and Identification of Chemical Hazards) for ranking and identification ofxenobiotic organic compounds of environmental concern in stormwater discharged to surface water. The RICHmethod is illustrated as afunnel fitted with different filters that sort out problematic and hazardous compounds based on inherent physico-chemical and biologicalproperties. The outcomes of the RICH procedure are separate lists for both water phase and solid phase associated compounds. Theselists comprise: a justified list of compounds which can be disregarded in hazard/risk assessments, a justified list of stormwater prioritypollutants which must be included in hazard/risk assessments, and a list of compounds which may be present in discharged stormwater,but cannot be evaluated due to lack of data. The procedure was applied to 233 xenobiotic organic chemicals (XOCs) of relevance forstormwater. Of these 233 compounds, 121 compounds were found to be priority pollutants with regard to solids phases (i.e. suspendedsolids, soil, or sediments) when stormwater is discharged to surface water and 56 compounds were found to be priority pollutants withregard to the water phase. For 11% of the potential stormwater priority pollutants the screening procedure could not be carried out due tolack of data on basic physico-chemical properties and/or data on bioaccumulation, resistance to biodegradation, and ecotoxicity. Thetiered approach applied in the RICH procedure and the focus on the phases relevant for monitoring or risk assessment in the aquaticenvironment refines the list of “compounds of concern” when compared to the outcome of existing classification schemes. In this paperthe RICH procedure is focused on effects in the aquatic environment exemplified with xenobiotic organic compounds (XOCs) found inurban stormwater, but it may be transferred to other environmental compartments and problems. Thus, the RICH procedure can be usedas a stand-alone tool for selection of potential priority pollutants or it can be integrated in larger priority setting frameworks.

  • 11.
    Berger, Tobias
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Mathurin, Frédéric A.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Drake, Henrik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Åström, Mats E.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Fluoride abundance and controls in fresh groundwater in Quaternary deposits and bedrock fractures in an area with fluorine-rich granitoid rocks2016In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 569, p. 948-960Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study focuses on fluoride (F-) concentrations in groundwater in an area in northern Europe (Laxemar, southeast Sweden) where high F- concentrations have previously been found in surface waters such as streams and quarries. Fluoride concentrations were determined over time in groundwater in the Quaternary deposits ("regolith groundwater"), and with different sampling techniques from just beneath the ground surface to nearly -700 min the bedrock (fracture) groundwater. A number of potential controls of dissolved F- were studied, including geological variables, mineralogy, mineral chemistry and hydrology. In the regolith groundwater the F- concentrations (0.3-4.2 mg/L) were relatively stable over time at each sampling site but varied widely among the sampling sites. In these groundwaters, the F- concentrations were uncorrelated with sample (filter) depth and the water table in meters above sea level (masl), with the thicknesses of the groundwater column and the regolith, and with the distribution of soil types at the sampling sites. Fluoride concentrations were, however, correlated with the anticipated spatial distribution of erosional material (till) derived from a F-rich circular granite intrusion. Abundant release of F-from such material is thus suggested, primarily via dissolution of fluorite and weathering of biotite. In the fresh fracture groundwater, the F- concentrations (1.2-7.4 mg/L) were generally higher than in the regolith groundwater, and were uncorrelated with depth and with location relative to the granite intrusion. Two mechanisms explaining the overall high F- levels in the fracture groundwater were addressed. First, weathering/dissolution of fluorite, bastnasite and apophyllite, which are secondary minerals formed in the fractures during past hydrothermal events, and biotite which is a primary mineral exposed on fracture walls. Second, long water-residence times, favoring water-rock interaction and build-up of high dissolved F- concentrations. The findings are relevant in contexts of extraction of groundwater for drinking-water purposes. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 12.
    Chi, Xupeng
    et al.
    GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel, Germany.
    Mueller-Navarra, Doerthe C.
    University of Hamburg, Germany.
    Hylander, Samuel
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Sommer, Ulrich
    GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel, Germany.
    Javidpour, Jamileh
    GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel, Germany;University of Southern Denmark, Denmark.
    Food quality matters: interplay among food quality, food quantity and temperature affecting life history traits of Aurelia aurita (Cnidaria: Scyphozoa) polyps2019In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 656, p. 1280-1288Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding the interaction between organisms' life history traits and environmental factors is an essential task in ecology. In spite of the increasing appreciation of jellyfish as an important component in marine ecosystem, there are still considerable gaps in understanding how the phase transition from the benthic polyp to the pelagic medusa stage is influenced by multiple environmental factors, including nutrition. To investigate survival, growth, and phase transition of Aurelia aurita polyps, we designed a factorial experiment manipulating food quantity (20μg C, 5μg C and 1.5μg C polyp−1 every other day), food quality (Artemia salina and two dietary manipulated Acartia tonsa), and temperature (13°C, 20°C, and 27°C). Temperature was the key factor determining phase transition of polyps and negatively affecting their survival rate and growth at 27°C, which reflected a summer heatwave scenario. Furthermore, at polyps' optimum tolerance temperature (20°C) in our study, budding reproduction benefits from high food concentrations. Interestingly, polyps fed with food containing high level highly unsaturated fatty acid (HUFA) were able to compensate for physiological stress caused by the extreme temperature, and could enhance budding reproduction at optimum temperature. Moreover, benthic-pelagic coupling (strobilation) was determined by temperature but affected significantly by food conditions. Mild temperature together with optimum food conditions contributes to inducing more polyps, which may potentially bring about great ephyrae recruitments during overwintering. In contrast, heatwave events can potentially regulate plankton community structure accompanied by changes of nutritional conditions of primary and secondary producers and thus, negatively affect the population dynamics of polyps. We suggest a novel polyp tolerance curve, which can help to understand jellyfish population dynamics in different seasons and ecosystems. This sets up a baseline for understanding how anticipated global warming and food conditions may affect the population size of benthic polyps and consequently pelagic medusae.

  • 13.
    Dace, Elina
    et al.
    Riga Tech Univ, Latvia.
    Muizniece, Indra
    Riga Tech Univ, Latvia.
    Blumberga, Andra
    Riga Tech Univ, Latvia.
    Kaczala, Fabio
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Searching for solutions to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions by agricultural policy decisions - Application of system dynamics modeling for the case of Latvia2015In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 527, p. 80-90Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    European Union (EU) Member States have agreed to limit their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from sectors not covered by the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (non-ETS). That includes also emissions from agricultural sector. Although the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has established a methodology for assessment of GHG emissions from agriculture, the forecasting options are limited, especially when policies and their interaction with the agricultural system are tested. Therefore, an advanced tool, a system dynamics model, was developed that enables assessment of effects various decisions and measures have on agricultural GHG emissions. The model is based on the IPCC guidelines and includes the main elements of an agricultural system, i.e. land management, livestock farming, soil fertilization and crop production, as well as feedback mechanisms between the elements. The case of Latvia is selected for simulations, as agriculture generates 22% of the total anthropogenic GHG emissions in the country. The results demonstrate that there are very limited options for GHG mitigation in the agricultural sector. Thereby, reaching the non-ETS GHG emission targets will be very challenging for Latvia, as the level of agricultural GHG emissions will be exceeded considerably above the target levels. Thus, other non-ETS sectors will have to reduce their emissions drastically to "neutralize" the agricultural sector's emissions for reaching the EU's common ambition tomove towards low-carbon economy. The developed model may serve as a decision support tool for impact assessment of various measures and decisions on the agricultural system's GHG emissions. Although the model is applied to the case of Latvia, the elements and structure of the model developed are similar to agricultural systems in many countries. By changing numeric values of certain parameters, the model can be applied to analyze decisions and measures in other countries. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 14.
    Doane, Marie
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Sarenbo, Sirkku
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Exposure of Farm Laborers and Dairy Cattle to Formaldehyde from Footbath Use at a Dairy Farm in New York State2014In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 487, p. 65-71Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Formalin footbaths are commonly used in the dairy industry to prevent cattle hoof diseases. Although formalin is a well-documented disinfectant, it is also a carcinogen and irritant. The aim of this study was to estimate the exposure of farm workers and dairy cattle to formaldehyde from footbaths located in a milking facility and a heifer facility at a dairy farm in western New York, USA. The dairy farm included approximately 3900 dairy cattle including young stock; of these, 1670 cows were milked three times per day in a 60-stall carousel milking parlor, and approximately 800 heifers were located at the heifer facility where footbaths with formalin were in use. The formaldehyde concentration of the air was measured using a Formaldemeter™ htV approximately 50 cm above the 3% formalin footbaths in the milking (one footbath location) and heifer (three footbath locations) facilities on three consecutive days. The measured formaldehyde concentrations varied between 0.00 and 2.28 ppm, falling within the safety guidelines established by the Occupation Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) of the United States. Significant differences were found in the formaldehyde concentrations at the different footbath locations in the heifer facility, potentially due to the varying levels of ventilation at each location. Changes in the ambient temperature during the 3-day sampling period did not significantly affect the concentrations. We believe that the substantial ventilation at both the heifer and milking facilities ensured that the formaldehyde concentrations did not exceed OSHA guidelines, thus permitting the safe use of formalin footbaths in this farm.

  • 15.
    Donner, Erica
    et al.
    Middlesex University, UK.
    Eriksson, Eva
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Revitt, Mike
    Middlesex University, UK.
    Scholes (Lundy), Lian
    Middlesex University, UK.
    Lützhøft, Hans-Christian Holten
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Ledin, Anna
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Presence and fate of priority substances in domestic greywater treatment and reuse systems2010In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 408, no 12, p. 2444-2451Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A wide range of household sources may potentially contribute to contaminant loads in domestic greywater. The ability of greywater treatment systems to act as emission control barriers for household micropollutants, thereby providing environmental benefits in addition to potable water savings, have not been fully explored. This paper investigates the sources, presence and potential fate of a selection of xenobiotic micropollutants in on-site greywater treatment systems. All of the investigated compounds are listed under the European Water Framework Directive as either "Priority Substances" (PS) or "Priority Hazardous Substances" (PHS). Significant knowledge gaps are identified. A wide range of potential treatment trains are available for greywater treatment and reuse but treatment efficiency data for priority substances and other micropollutants is very limited. Geochemical modelling indicates that PS/PHS removal during treatment is likely to be predominantly due to sludge/solid phase adsorption, with only minor contributions to the water phase. Many PS/PHS are resistant to biodegradation and as the majority of automated greywater treatment plants periodically discharge sludge to the municipal sewerage system, greywater treatment is unlikely to act as a comprehensive PS/PHS emission barrier. Hence, it is important to ensure that other source control options (e.g. eco-labeling, substance substitution, and regulatory controls) for household items continue to be pursued, in order that PS/PHS emissions from these sources are effectively reduced and/or phased out as required under the demands of the European Water Framework Directive.

  • 16.
    Eriksson, Eva
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Baun, Anders
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Scholes, Lian
    Middlesex University, UK.
    Ledin, Anna
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Ahlman, Stefan
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Revitt, Mike
    Middlesex University, UK.
    Noutsopoulos, Constantinos
    National Technical University of Athens, Greece.
    Mikkelsen, Peter Steen
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Selected stormwater priority pollutants: a European perspective2007In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 383, no 1-3, p. 41-51Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The chemical characteristics of stormwater are dependent on the nature of surfaces (roads, roofs etc.) with which it comes into contact during the runoff process as well as natural processes and anthropogenic activities in the catchments. The different types of pollutants may cause problems during utilisation, detention or discharge of stormwater to the environment and may pose specific demands to decentralised treatment. This paper proposes a scientifically justifiable list of selected stormwater priority pollutants (SSPP) to be used, e.g., for evaluation of the chemical risks occurring in different handling strategies. The SSPP-list consists of 25 pollutant parameters including eight of the priority pollutants currently identified in the European Water Framework Directive. It contains general water quality parameters (organic and suspended matter, nutrients and pH); metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Pt and Zn); PAH (naphthalene, pyrene and benzo[a]pyrene); herbicides (pendimethalin, phenmedipham, glyphosate and terbutylazine); and other representative industrially derived compounds (nonylphenol ethoxylates, pentachlorophenol, di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, PCB-28 and methyl tert-butyl ether). Tools for flux modelling, enabling calculation of predicted environmental concentrations (PECs), and for ranking the susceptibility of a pollutant to removal within a range of structural stormwater treatment systems or best management practices (BMPs) have been developed, but further work is required to allow all SSPPs to be addressed in the development of future stormwater pollution control measures. In addition, the identified SSPPs should be considered for inclusion in stormwater related monitoring campaigns.

  • 17.
    Ferrans, Laura
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Schmieder, Frank
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Mugwira, Rumbidzai
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Marques, Marcia
    Rio De Janeiro State Univ UERJ, Brazil.
    Hogland, William
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Dredged sediments as a plant-growing substrate: Estimation of health risk index2022In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 846, article id 157463Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dredging of sediments is conducted worldwide to maintain harbours and water bodies. As a result, large amounts of materials generated require proper management and could have useful applications in a circular economy context. The current use of peat as organic material in cultivating plants requires urgent replacement by more sustainable alternatives. In this context, using nutrient-rich sediments generated by dredging could be an attractive option. However, due to contaminants in dredged sediments, more investigations are required. The present study investigated the potential to employ dredged material as a plant-growing substrate to cultivate lettuce (Lactuca sativa). The study employed compost and dredged sediments from Malmfj & auml;rden Bay, Sweden, with low and high nutritional content(LN and HN, respectively), with and without polymer (PO) used for dewatering. The tests were carried out under con-trolled conditions in a greenhouse, and the studied substrates were (% vol): (1) 100 % sediment (100S(HN)); (2) 50 %sediment +50 % compost (50S(LN)-50C); (3) 70 % sediment +30 % compost (70S(LN)-30C); (4) 50 % polymer sediment+50 % compost (50S(PO)-50C);and (5) 100 % compost (100C). Fertilisers were added to 50S(LN)-50Cand 70SLN-30C during the experiment. Lettuces with the highest weight were harvested from substrates 100C, 50S(PO)-50C and 50S(LN)-50C.However, the lettuces only reached a weight of 18.57 +/- 4.67 g. The results showed that a main limitation of the growth was probably a lack of aeration of the sediments during sampling and development of the experiment. The low aeration possibly caused a lack of available forms of N in the substrates, hindering the growth. Lettuces harvested from substrates containing sediments presented Cd concentrations slightly overpassing the Swedish thresholds, and the health risk index was marginally exceeding 1. Hence, sediments need to be pre-treated before using them to cultivate edible crops, or they could be employed to cultivate ornamental or bioenergy plants

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  • 18.
    Gössling, Stefan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing and Tourism Studies (MTS). Western Norway Res Inst, Norway.
    Humpe, Andreas
    Munich Univ Appl Sci, Germany;Liverpool John Moores Univ, UK.
    Net-zero aviation: Transition barriers and radical climate policy design implications2024In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 912, article id 169107Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While air transport decarbonization is theoretically feasible, less attention has been paid to the complexity incurred in various 'transition barriers' that act as roadblocks to net-zero goals. A total of 40 barriers related to mitigation, management, technology and fuel transition, finance, and governance are identified. As these make decarbonization uncertain, the paper analyzes air transport system's growth, revenue, and profitability. Over the period 1978-2022, global aviation has generated marginal profits of US$20200.94 per passenger, or US$202082 billion in total. Low profitability makes it unlikely that the sector can finance the fuel transition cost, at US $0.5-2.1 trillion (Dray et al. 2022). Four radical policy scenarios for air transport futures are developed. All are characterized by "limitations", such as CO2 taxes, a carbon budget, alternative fuel obligations, or available capacity. Scenario runs suggest that all policy scenarios will more reliably lead to net-zero than the continued volume growth model pursued by airlines.

  • 19.
    Hagner, Marleena
    et al.
    Univ Helsinki, Finland;Nat Resources Inst Finland Luke, Finland.
    Romantschuk, Martin
    Univ Helsinki, Finland;Kazan Fed Univ, Russia.
    Penttinen, O. -P
    Univ Helsinki, Finland.
    Egfors, Angelica
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Marchand, Charlotte
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Augustsson, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Assessing toxicity of metal contaminated soil from glassworks sites with a battery of biotests2018In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 613, p. 30-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study addresses toxicological properties of metal contaminated soils, using glassworks sites in south-easternl Sweden as study objects. Soil from five selected glassworks sites as well as from nearby reference areas were analysed for total and water-soluble metal concentrations and general geochemical parameters. A battery of biotests was then applied to assess the toxicity of the glassworks soil environments: a test of phytotoxicity with garden cress (Lepidium sativum); the BioTox(TM) test for toxicity to bacteria using Vibrio fischeri; and analyses of abundancies and biomass of nematodes and enchytraeids. The glassworks-and reference areas were comparable with respect to pH and the content of organic matter and nutrients (C, N, P), but total metal concentrations (Pb, As, Ba, Cd and Zn) were significantly higher at the former sites. Higher metal concentrations in the water-soluble fraction were also observed, even though these concentrations were low compared to the total ones. Nevertheless, toxicity of the glassworks soils was not detected by the two ex situ tests; inhibition of light emission by V. fischeri could not be seen, nor was an effect seen on the growth of L. sativum. A decrease in enchytraeid and nematode abundance and biomass was, however, observed for the landfill soils as compared to reference soils, implying in situ toxicity to soil-inhabiting organisms. The confirmation of in situ bioavailability and negative effects motivates additional studies of the risk posed to humans of the glassworks villages. (C) 2017 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  • 20.
    Hao, Qian
    et al.
    Tianjin University, China.
    Yang, Shilei
    Tianjin University, China.
    Song, Zhaoliang
    Tianjin University, China.
    Ran, Xiangbin
    State Oceanic Administration, China.
    Yu, Changxun
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Chen, Chunmei
    Tianjin University, China.
    Van Zwieten, Lukas
    New South Wales Department of Primary Industries, Australia.
    Quine, Timothy A.
    University of Exeter, UK.
    Liu, Hongyan
    Peking University, China.
    Wang, Zhengang
    Sun Yat-Sen University, China.
    Wang, Hailong
    Foshan University, China;Zhejiang A&F University, China.
    Holocene carbon accumulation in lakes of the current east Asian monsoonal margin: Implications under a changing climate2020In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 737, p. 1-13, article id 139723Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Carbon (C) present in lake sediments is an important global sink for CO2; however, an in-depth understanding of the impact of climate variability and the associated changes in vegetation on sediment C dynamics is still lacking. A total of 13 lakes were studied to quantify the influence of climate and vegetation on the reconstructed Holocene C accumulation rate (CAR) in lake sediments of the modern East Asian monsoonal margin. The corresponding paleoclimate information was assessed, including the temperature (30–90°N in the Northern Hemisphere) and precipitation (indicated by the δ18O of the Sanbao, Dongge, and Hulu caves). The Holocene vegetation conditions were inferred by pollen records, including arboreal pollen/non-arboreal pollen and pollen percentages. The results showed that the peak CAR occurred during the mid-Holocene, coinciding with the strongest period of the East Asian summer monsoon and expansion of forests. Lakes in the temperate steppe (TS) regions had a mean CAR of 13.41 ± 0.88 g C m−2 yr−1, which was significantly greater than the CARs of temperate desert (TD) and highland meadow/steppe (HMS; 6.76 ± 0.29 and 7.39 ± 0.73 g C m−2 yr−1, respectively). The major influencing factor for the TS sub-region was vegetation dynamics, especially the proportion of arboreal vegetation, while temperature and vegetation coverage were more important for the HMS. These findings indicate that C accumulation in lake sediments is linked with climate and vegetation changes over long timescales; however, there was notable spatial heterogeneity in the CARs, such as opposing temporal changes and different major influencing factors among the three sub-regions during the mid-Holocene. Aridification and forest loss would decrease C storage. However, prediction of C accumulation remains difficult because of the spatial heterogeneity in CARs and the interaction between the CAR and various factors under future climate change conditions.

  • 21.
    Högfors-Rönnholm, Eva
    et al.
    Novia Univ Appl Sci, Finland.
    Christel, Stephan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Dalhem, Krister
    Åbo Akad Univ, Finland.
    Lillhonga, Tom
    Novia Univ Appl Sci, Finland.
    Engblom, Sten
    Novia Univ Appl Sci, Finland.
    Österholm, Peter
    Åbo Akad Univ, Finland.
    Dopson, Mark
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Chemical and microbiological evaluation of novel chemical treatment methods for acid sulfate soils2018In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 625, p. 39-49Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Naturally occurring sulfide rich deposits are common along the northern Baltic Sea coast thatwhen exposed to air, release large amounts of acid and metals into receiving water bodies. This causes severe environmental implications for agriculture, forestry, and building of infrastructure. In this study, we investigated the efficiency of ultrafine-grained calcium carbonate and peat (both separately and in combination) to mitigate acid and metal release. The experiments were carried out aerobically that mimicked summer conditions when the groundwater level is low and acid sulfate soils are exposed to oxygen, and anaerobically that is similar to autumn to spring conditions. The ultrafine-grained calcium carbonate dissipated well in the soil and its effect alone and when mixed with peat raised the pH and reduced pyrite dissolution while peat alone was similar to the controls and did not halt metal and acid release. High throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing identified populations most similar to characterized acidophiles in the control and peat treated incubations while the acidophilic like populations were altered in the calcium carbonate alone and calcium carbonate plus peat treated acid sulfate soils. Coupled with the geochemistry data, it was suggested that the acidophiles were inactivated by the high pH in the presence of calcium carbonate but catalyzed pyrite dissolution in the controls and peat incubations. In conclusion, the anaerobic conditions during winter would likely be sufficient to mitigate acid production and metal release from acid sulfate soils and in the summer, treatment with calcium carbonate was the best mitigation method. (c) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 22.
    Johnson, Anders
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Högfors-Rönnholm, Eva
    Novia Univ Appl Sci, Finland.
    Engblom, Sten
    Novia Univ Appl Sci, Finland.
    Österholm, Peter
    Åbo Akad Univ, Finland.
    Åström, Mats E.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Water.
    Dopson, Mark
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Dredging and deposition of metal sulfide rich river sediments results in rapid conversion to acid sulfate soil materials2022In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 813, article id 151864Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sediments along the Baltic Sea coast can contain considerable amounts of metal sulfides that if dredged and the spoils deposited such that they are exposed to air, can release high concentrations of acid and toxic metals into recipient water bodies. Two river estuaries in western Finland were dredged from 2013 to 2018 and the dredge spoils were deposited on land previously covered with agricultural limestone to buffer the pH and mitigate acid and metal release. In this study, the geochemistry and 16S rRNA gene amplicon based bacterial communities were investigated over time to explore whether the application of lime prevented a conversion of the dredge spoils into acid producing and metal releasing soil. The pH of the dredge spoils decreased with time indicating metal sulfide oxidation and resulted in elevated sulfate concentrations along with a concomitant release of metals. However, calculations indicated only approximately 5% of the added lime had been dissolved. The bacterial communities decreased in diversity with the lowering of the pH as taxa most similar to extremely acidophilic sulfur, and in some cases iron, oxidizing Acidithiobacillus species became the dominant characterized genus in the deposited dredge spoils as the oxidation front moved deeper. In addition, other taxa characterized as involved in oxidation of iron or sulfur were identified including Gallionella, Sulfuricurvum, and Sulfurimonas. These data suggest there was a rapid conversion of the dredge spoils to severely acidic soil similar to actual acid sulfate soil and that the lime placed on the land prior to deposition of the spoils, and later ploughed into the dry dredge spoils, was insufficient to halt this process. Hence, future dredging and deposition of dredge spoils containing metal sulfides should not only take into account the amount of lime used for buffering but also its grain size and mixing into the soil.

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  • 23.
    Levchuk, Irina
    et al.
    Lappeenranta Univ Technol.
    Bhatnagar, Amit
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Sillanpaa, Mika
    Lappeenranta Univ Technol.
    Overview of technologies for removal of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) from water2014In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 476, p. 415-433Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wide use of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) as fuel oxygenates leads to worldwide environment contamination with this compound basically due to fuel leaks from storage or pipelines. Presence of MTBE in drinking water is of high environmental and social concern. Existing methods for MTBE removal from water have a number of limitations which can be possibly overcome in the future with use of emerging technologies. This work aims to provide an updated overview of recent developments in technologies for MTBE removal from water. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 24.
    Lindell, Lina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Åström, Mats E.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Öberg, Tomas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Land-use versus natural controls on soil fertility in the Subandean Amazon, Peru.2010In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 408, no 4, p. 965-975Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Deforestation to amplify the agricultural frontier is a serious threat to the Amazon forest. Strategies to attain and maintain satisfactory soil fertility, which requires knowledge of spatial and temporal changes caused by land-use, are important for reaching sustainable development. This study highlights these issues by evaluating the relative effects of agricultural land-use and natural factors on chemical fertility of inceptisols on redbed lithologies in the Subandean Amazon. Macro and micronutrients were determined in topsoil and subsoil in the vicinity of two villages at a total of 80 sites including pastures, coffee plantations, swidden fields, secondary forest and, as a reference, adjacent primary forest. Differences in soil fertility between the land cover classes were investigated by principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares regression (PLSR). Primary forest soil was found to be chemically similar to that of coffee plantations, pastures and secondary forests. There were no significant differences between soils of these land cover types in terms of plant nutrients (e.g. N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Mo, Mn, Zn, Cu and Co) or other fertility indicators (OM pH,, BS, EC, CECe and exchangeable acidity). The parent material (as indicated by texture and sample geographical origin) and the slope of the sampled sites were stronger controls on soil fertility than land cover type. Elevated concentrations of a few nutrients (NO3 and K) were, however detected in soils of swidden fields. Despite being fertile (higher CECe, Ca and P) compared to Oxisols and Ultisols in the Amazon lowland, the Subandean soils frequently showed deficiencies in several nutrients (e.g. P, K, NO3, Cu and Zn), and high levels of free Al at acidic sites. This paper concludes that deforestation and agricultural land-use has not introduced lasting chemical changes in the studied Subandean soils that are significant in comparison to the natural variability.

  • 25.
    Marchand, Charlotte
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Univ Montreal, Canada.
    Mench, Michel
    Univ Bordeaux, France.
    Jani, Yahya
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Kaczala, Fabio
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Notini, Peter
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Hijri, Mohamed
    Univ Montreal, Canada.
    Hogland, William
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Pilot scale aided-phytoremediation of a co-contaminated soil2018In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 618, p. 753-764Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A pilot scale experiment was conducted to investigate the aided-phytoextraction of metals and the aided-phytodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons (PHC) in a co-contaminated soil. First, this soil was amended with compost (10% w/w) and assembled into piles (Unp-10%C). Then, a phyto-cap of Medicago sativa L. either in monoculture (MS-10%C) or co-cropped with Helianthus annuus L. as companion planting (MSHA-10%C) was sown on the topsoil. Physico-chemical parameters and contaminants in the soil and its leachates were measured at the beginning and the end of the first growth season (after five months). In parallel, residual soil ecotoxicity was assessed using the plant species Lepidium sativum L. and the earthworm Eisenia fetida Savigny, 1826, while the leachate ecotoxicity was assessed using Lemna minor L. After 5 months, PH C10-C40, PAH-L, PAH-M PAH-H, Pb and Cu concentrations in the MS-10%C soil were significantly reduced as compared to the Unp-10% C soil. Metal uptake by alfalfa was low but their translocation to shoots was high for Mn, Cr, Co and Zn (transfer factor (TF) >1), except for Cu and Pb. Alfalfa in monoculture reduced electrical conductivity, total organic C and Cu concentration in the leachate while pH and dissolved oxygen increased. Alfalfa co-planting with sunflower did not affect the extraction of inorganic contaminants from the soil, the PAH (M and H) degradation and was less efficient for PH C10-C40 and PAH-L as compared to alfalfa monoculture. The co-planting reduced shoot and root Pb concentrations. The residual soil ecotoxicity after 5 months showed a positive effect of co-planting on L. sativum shoot dry weight (DW) yield. However, high contaminant concentrations in soil and leachate still inhibited the L. sativum root DW yield, earthworm development, and L. minor growth rate. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 26.
    Markiewicz, Anna
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Björklund, Karin
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Eriksson, Eva
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics.
    Kalmykova, Yuliya
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Strömvall, Ann-Margret
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Siopi, Anna
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Emissions of organic pollutants from traffic and roads: Priority pollutants selection and substance flow analysis2017In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 580, p. 1162-1174Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A large number of organic pollutants (OPs) emitted from vehicles and traffic-related activities exhibit environmental persistence and a tendency to bioaccumulate, and may have detrimental long-term effects on aquatic life. The aim of the study was to establish a list of significant sources of OPs occurring in road runoff, identify the OPs emitted from these sources, select a number of priority pollutants (PP), and estimate the quantity of PPs emitted in a road environment case study using substance flow analysis (SFA). The priority pollutants included in the SFA were selected from a list of approximately 1100 compounds found after comprehensive screening, including literature and database searches, expert judgments, the Ranking and Identification of Chemical Hazards method, and chemical analysis of sediments. The results showed the following priority order: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) > alkanes C20–C40 > alkylphenols > phthalates > aldehydes > phenolic antioxidants > bisphenol A > oxygenated-PAHs > naphtha C5–C12 > amides > amines. Among these, PAHs were chosen for a SFA, which was performed for a highway case study area in Gothenburg (Sweden). The SFA showed that the main sources of PAHs emitted in the area were vehicle exhaust gases, followed by tyre wear, motor lubricant oils, road surface wear, and brake linings. Only 2–6% of the total 5.8–29 kg annually emitted PAHs/ha ended up in the stormwater sewer system. The measured PAH loads were found in much smaller amounts than the calculated loads and the outflow to stormwater contained much more of the hazardous PAHs than the total loads emitted in the catchment area.

  • 27.
    Nielsen, Katrine
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Kalmykova, Yuliya
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Strömvall, Ann-Margret
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Baun, Anders
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Eriksson, Eva
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Particle phase distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in stormwater: Using humic acid and iron nano-sized colloids as test particles2015In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 532, p. 103-111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in different particulate fractions in stormwater: Total, Particulate, Filtrated, Colloidal and Dissolved fractions, were examined and compared to synthetic suspensions of humic acid colloids and iron nano-sized particles. The distribution of low-molecular weight PAHs (LMW PAHs), middle-molecular weight PAHs (MMWPAHs) and high-molecularweight PAHs (HMWPAHs) among the fractions was also evaluated. The results from the synthetic suspensions showed that the highest concentrations of the PAHs were found in the Filtrated fractions and, surprisingly, high loads were found in the Dissolved fractions. The PAHs identified in stormwater in the Particulate fractions and Dissolved fractions follow their hydrophobic properties. In most samples N50% of the HMW PAHs were found in the Particulate fractions, while the LMW and MMW PAHs were found to a higher extent in the Filtrated fractions. The highest concentrations of PAHs were present in the stormwater with the highest total suspended solids (TSS); the relative amount of the HMWPAHs was highest in the Particulate fractions (particles N 0.7 μm). The highest concentration of PAHs in the Colloidal fraction was found in the sample with occurrence of small nano-sized particles (b10 nm). The results show the importance of developing technologies that both can manage particulate matter and effectively remove PAHs present in the Colloidal and Dissolved fractions in stormwater.

  • 28.
    Nyman, Alexandra
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Johnson, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Yu, Changxun
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Sohlenius, Gustav
    Geological Survey of Sweden, Sweden.
    Becher, Marina
    Geological Survey of Sweden, Sweden.
    Dopson, Mark
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Åström, Mats E.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    A nationwide acid sulfate soil study: A rapid and cost-efficient approach for characterizing large-scale features2023In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 869, article id 161845Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Acid sulfate soils are sulfide-rich soils that pose a notable environmental risk as their strong acidity and low pH mobilizes metals from soil minerals leading to both acidification and metal contamination of the surrounding environment. In this study a rapid and cost-efficient approach was developed to resolve the main distribution patterns and geochemical features of acid sulfate soils throughout coastal plains stretching for some 2000 km in eastern, southern, and western Sweden. Of the investigated 126 field sites, 47 % had acid sulfate soils including 33 % active, 12 % potential, and 2 % pseudo acid sulfate soils. There were large regional variations in the extent of acid sulfate soils, with overall much higher proportions of these soils along the eastern coastal plains facing the Baltic Sea than the western coastal plains facing the Kattegatt/Skagerrak (Atlantic Ocean). The sulfur concentrations of the soil's parent material, consisting of reduced near-pH neutral sediments, were correlated inversely both with the minimum pH of the soils in situ (rS = −0.65) and the pH after incubation (oxidation) of the reduced sediments (rS = −0.77). This indicated the importance of sulfide levels in terms of both present and potential future acidification. Hence, the higher proportion of acid sulfate soils in the east was largely the result of higher sulfur concentrations in this part of the country. The study showed that the approach was successful in identifying large-scale spatial patterns and geochemical characteristics of importance for environmental assessments related to these environmentally unfriendly soils.

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  • 29.
    Ortega, Jean C. G.
    et al.
    Univ Fed Acre, Brazil.
    Geijer, Joja
    Independent researcher, Sweden.
    Bergsten, Johannes
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Sweden.
    Heino, Jani
    Freshwater Ctr, Finland.
    Herrmann, Jan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Johansson, Frank
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Bini, Luis M.
    Univ Fed Goias, Brazil.
    Spatio-temporal variation in water beetle assemblages across temperate freshwater ecosystems2021In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 792, article id 148071Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ecological communities are structured by several mechanisms, including temporal, spatial and environmental factors. However, the simultaneous effects of these factors have rarely been studied. Here, we investigated their role on water beetle assemblages sampled over a period of 18 years. Water beetles were sampled in the spring of each year in lotic and lentic water bodies from mainland region of Kalmar and Oland Island in southeastern Sweden. We assessed how past assemblage structure, environmental factors and spatial variables correlated with current assemblage structure using a variation partitioning approach. We also tested for correlates of temporal beta diversity of water beetle assemblages with multiple regressions. We found that past water beetle assemblage structure explained current water beetle assemblage structure better than the environmental and spatial correlates. We also observed that temporal beta diversity of water beetle assemblages was mainly due to species gain rather than to species loss. Finally, environmental variables (e.g., hydroperiod, habitat size and hydrology) and timespan between sampling events explained part of temporal beta diversity and contribution of species loss to total assemblage dissimilarity variation. Despite the fact that most variation remained unexplained, we found that ecological factors that have been thought to be important for water beetle richness and abundance in past studies (e.g. water body size, water permanence, shore slope, and whether the water body is lentic or lotic) were also correlated to temporal beta diversity. From a conservation point of view, our study suggest that temporal variability of assemblage structure should be included in biological monitoring because of its potential to predict current assemblage structure. (c) 2021 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 30.
    Pechsiri, Joseph S
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Thomas, Jean-Baptiste
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Risén, Emma
    Royal Institute of Technology ; Sweco Environment AB.
    Ribeiro, Maurico S
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Malmström, Maria E
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Nylund, Göran
    University of Gothenburg.
    Jansson, Anette
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Welander, Ulrika
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Paiva, Henrik
    University of Gothenburg.
    Gröndahl, Fredrik
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Energy performance and greenhouse gas emissions of kelp cultivation for biogas and fertilizer recovery in Sweden2016In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 573, p. 347-355Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The cultivation of seaweed as a feedstock for third generation biofuels is gathering interest in Europe, however, many questions remain unanswered in practise, notably regarding scales of operation, energy returns on investment (EROI) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, all of which are crucial to determine commercial viability. This study performed an energy and GHG emissions analysis, using EROI and GHG savings potential respectively, as indicators of commercial viability for two systems: the Swedish Seafarm project's seaweed cultivation (0.5 ha), biogas and fertilizer biorefinery, and an estimation of the same system scaled up and adjusted to a cultivation of 10 ha. Based on a conservative estimate of biogas yield, neither the 0.5 ha case nor the up-scaled 10 ha estimates met the (commercial viability) target EROI of 3, nor the European Union Renewable Energy Directive GHG savings target of 60% for biofuels, however the potential for commercial viability was substantially improved by scaling up operations: GHG emissions and energy demand, per unit of biogas, was almost halved by scaling operations up by a factor of twenty, thereby approaching the EROI and GHG savings targets set, under beneficial biogas production conditions. Further analysis identified processes whose optimisations would have a large impact on energy use and emissions (such as anaerobic digestion) as well as others embodying potential for further economies of scale (such as harvesting), both of which would be of interest for future developments of kelp to biogas and fertilizer biorefineries.

  • 31.
    Peltola, Pasi
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Ivask, Angela
    Åström, Mats
    Virta, Marko
    Lead and Cu in contaminated urban soils: Extraction with chemical reagents and bioluminescent bacteria and yeast2005In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 350, no 1-3, p. 194-203Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Twenty urban soil samples, with a wide range of Pb (14–5323 mg/kg) and Cu (8–12987 mg/kg), were used to compare the operational speciation of a five-step sequential leach with the bioavailability determined with bioluminescent Pb (RN4220(pTOO24)) and Cu (MC1061(pSLcueR/pDNPcopAluc)) specific bacterial biosensors and a Cu specific yeast sensor. The bioavailable Pb concentrations were all similar or lower than the first sequential leach step (1M NaOAc). In contrast, in some samples the bioavailable concentrations of Cu clearly exceeded even the second sequential leach step (0.1 M Na4P2O7). With the yeast sensor 12/20 samples were below detection, however, the yeast sensor was capable of detecting all high Cu concentrations. The biosensors used in this study are not capable of detecting the natural soil concentrations of Pb and Cu in the studied area.

  • 32.
    Peltola, Pasi
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Åström, Mats
    Concentations and leachability of chemical elements in estuarine sulfur-rich sediments, W. Finland2002In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 284, no 1-3, p. 109-122Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Concentrations, distributions and mobility of chemical elements were investigated in reduced sulfur-rich estuarine sediments located in western Finland. The main objective was to determine the possible extent of metal leaching when dredged masses of these sulfur-rich sediments are dumped on the land and thus exposed to air. When dredged, the reduced sulfur in the sediments oxidises resulting in a lowering of pH, which in turn is expected to leach metals. The study area is an artificial lake claimed from the Botnian sea in 1962. In this lake, several mass-kills of fish have occurred, believed partly to be due to dredging. Two sediment samples (0–50 and 50–100 cm) were taken from 39 sampling points in the lake. These samples were leached in aqua regia (2:2:2 HNO3/HCl/H2O) and analysed for Fe, Al, Mg, Ca, K, P, Na, Mn, Zn, Ba, V, Sr, Cr, Ni, Cu, Co, As, Pb, B, Mo and Cd with ICP-AES. Sulfur and organic carbon were analysed with Leco. In a controlled laboratory experiment, the sediments were allowed to oxidise for 1 year while moisturised with deionised water every month. The pH and conductivity were determined in the beginning of the experiment (reduced state) and in the end (oxidised state). In the supernatants in the oxidised states the amount of leached metals (Na, Al, Mn, Zn, Sr, Co, Ni, Cu, Cd, Cr, Pb, U, Li, Rb and As) were determined with ICP-MS. The sediments were found to contain low levels of toxic metals but, as expected, high concentrations of sulfur. In the experiment, pH was lowered (down to 3.0) and the conductivity increased in all samples due to oxidation and release of metal ions. The extent of leaching varied between 0.03% for As and 12.3% for Na. Critical pH values, at which high amounts of metals begin to leach, were obtained graphically. These values varied between 4.8 (Ni) and 3.3 (Cr). Not all elements were controlled by pH, e.g. Mn correlated well with its aqua regia leachable concentration. In a planned dredging operation in the area some 23 300 t (10 500 m3) (dry wt.) of sediments will be dredged. The amounts of metals likely to be leached, according to the results from this study, are as follows (kg): Al (1710), Mn (1230), Zn (59), Sr (39), Co (13), Ni (12), Cu (2) and less than 1 kg of Cd–Cr–As–Pb.

  • 33.
    Rocha, Eva
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Gunnarson, Björn
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Kylander, Malin E.
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Augustsson, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Sustainable Health.
    Rindby, Anders
    Cox Analytical Systems, Sweden.
    Holzkamper, Steffen
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Testing the applicability of dendrochemistry using X-ray fluorescence to trace environmental contamination at a glassworks site2020In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 720, p. 1-12, article id 137429Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The potential of dendrochemistry as a tool for tracing anthropogenic contamination at a glassworks site in southeastern Sweden was investigated through a multidisciplinary approach combining continuous high-resolution time series of tree rings and sediment profiles. Tree cores from Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris), Norway spruce (Picea abies) and European aspen (Populus tremula) were analysed for their elemental composition using an energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (ED-XRF) technique. Sediment cores were sampled along a transect extending from the pollution point source to unpolluted areas and analysed using core-scanning-XRF (CS-XRF). High contaminant concentrations in the soil were found for As (approximate to 2000 ppm), Pb (>5000 ppm), Ba (approximate to 1000 ppm) and Cd (approximate to 150 ppm). The concentrations decreased with depth and distance from the pollution source. The dendrochemical analyses revealed alterations in the Barium, Chlorine and Manganese profiles, allowing the identification of seven potential asynchronous releases from the glassworks. Our results suggest that differences in the response of tree species to elemental uptake together with soil chemical properties dictate the success of dendrochemistry as an environmental monitoring tool. (C) 2020 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 34.
    Salis, Romana K.
    et al.
    University of Otago, New Zealand;University of Duisburg-Essen, Germany.
    Bruder, Andreas
    University of Otago, New Zealand;University of Applied Sciences and Arts of Southern Switzerland, Switzerland.
    Piggott, Jeremy J.
    University of Otago, New Zealand;Trinity College Dublin, Ireland.
    Summerfield, Tina C.
    University of Otago, New Zealand.
    Matthaei, Christoph D.
    University of Otago, New Zealand.
    Multiple-stressor effects of dicyandiamide (DCD) and agricultural stressors on trait-based responses of stream benthic algal communities2019In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 693, article id 133305Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Agricultural practices often result in multiple stressors affecting stream ecosystems, and interacting stressors complicate environmental assessment and management of impacted streams. The nitrification inhibitor dicyandiamide (DCD) is used for nitrogen management on farmland. Effects of leached DCD on stream ecosystems are still largely unstudied, even though it could be relevant as a stressor on its own or in combination with other agricultural stressors. We conducted two experiments in 128 outdoor stream-fed mesocosms to assess stressor effects on biomass, cell density, taxon richness, evenness and functional trait composition of benthic algal communities. First, we examined responses to a wide DCD gradient (eight concentrations, 0–31 mg L−1) and two additional stressors, deposited fine sediment (none, high) and nutrient enrichment (ambient, enriched). Second, we determined algal responses to four stressors: DCD, sediment, nutrients, and reduced flow velocity. Here DCD treatments included controls, constant application (1.4 mg L−1) and two pulsed treatments mimicking concentration patterns in real streams (peaks 3.5 mg L−1, 2.2 mg L−1). Sediment and nutrient enrichment were influential stressors in both experiments, with fine sediment having the most pervasive effects. In Experiment 2, reduced flow velocity had pervasive effects and stressor interactions were mainly restricted to two-way interactions. DCD had few, weak stressor main effects, especially at field-realistic concentrations (Experiment 2). At the highest concentrations in Experiment 1 (above levels observed in real streams), DCD effects were still rare but some significant stressor interactions occurred. Analyses of functional traits were helpful in identifying potential mechanisms driving changes in densities and community composition. These findings suggest that, while DCD on its own may be a minor stressor, it could have adverse effects on algal communities already exposed to other stressors, a scenario common in agricultural streams.

  • 35.
    Shahabi-Ghahfarokhi, Sina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Rahmati-Abkenar, Mahboubeh
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Stockholm Environment Institute, Sweden.
    Jaeger, Leonie
    Carl von Ossietzky University of Oldenburg, Germany.
    Josefson, Sarah
    Geological Survey of Sweden, Sweden.
    Djerf, Henric
    Kristianstad University, Sweden.
    Yu, Changxun
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Åström, Mats E.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Water.
    Ketzer, João Marcelo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Water.
    The response of metal mobilization and redistribution to reoxygenation in Baltic Sea anoxic sediments2022In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 837, article id 155809Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To bring life back to anoxic coastal and sea basins, reoxygenation of anoxic/hypoxic zones has been proposed. This research focuses on the metals released during the oxidization of sediments from two locations in the anoxic Eastern Gotland Basin under a laboratory-scale study. Triplicate experimental cores and reference cores were collected from the North and South Eastern Gotland Basins. The oxygenation of the water column took place over a 96-hour experiment in a dark and 5 °C environment. In 12 and 24 hour intervals, the surface waters were exchanged and, over time, analyzed for pH, electroconductivity (EC), total organic carbon (TOC), soluble metal concentrations, and the top samples (0–10 cm) were analyzed with 3-step (E1: water-soluble, E2: exchangeable, and E3: organic-bound) sequential chemical extraction (SCE). Results show stable pH and decreasing EC in the column waters. The EC indicates that metals are released in the initial phases (12 h) of reoxygenation for both sites. Arsenic, Ba, Co, Mn, Rb, U, K, Sr, and Mo are released into the water column during the 96 hour experiment, and based on the calculations for the entire East Gotland Basin, would mean 8, 50, 0.55, 734, 53, 27, 347,178, 3468, and 156 μg L−1 are released, respectively. Elements Mn, Mo, U, and As are released in higher concentrations during the experiment than previously measured in the Eastern Gotland Basin, which provides vital information for future proposed remediation and natural geochemical processes with their known environmental impacts. The SCE results show that redox-sensitive metals (Mn, U, and Mo) are released in the highest concentrations into the solution. The relationship between the highest released metals (beside redox-sensitive) into solution over the oxygenation and their initial abundant phase is noticed, where the smallest released concentrations belong to K < Rb < Sr in E2, and As<Ba in E3, respectively.

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  • 36.
    Sousa, João A. B.
    et al.
    Wageningen Univ & Res, Netherlands;European Ctr Excellence Sustainable Water Technol, Netherlands;Paques Technol Bv, Netherlands.
    Bolgar, Andrea
    European Ctr Excellence Sustainable Water Technol, Netherlands;Organ Technol Zrt, Hungary.
    Christel, Stephan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Oak Ridge Natl Lab, USA.
    Dopson, Mark
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Bijmans, Martijn F. M.
    European Ctr Excellence Sustainable Water Technol, Netherlands.
    Stams, Alfons J. M.
    Wageningen Univ & Res, Netherlands.
    Plugge, Caroline M.
    Wageningen Univ & Res, Netherlands;European Ctr Excellence Sustainable Water Technol, Netherlands.
    Immobilization of sulfate and thiosulfate-reducing biomass on sand under haloalkaline conditions2020In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 745, p. 1-8, article id 141017Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biological sulfate and thiosulfate reduction under haloalkaline conditions can be applied to treat waste streams from biodesulfurization systems. However, the lack of microbial aggregation under haloalkaline conditions limits the volumetric rates of sulfate and thiosulfate reducing bioreactors. As biomass retention in haloalkaline bioreactors has not been studied before, sand was chosen as a biomass carrier material to increase cell retention and consequently raise the volumetric rates. The results showed that similar to 10 fold higher biomass concentrations could be achieved with sand, compared to previous studies without carrier addition. The volumetric rates of sulfate/thiosulfate reduction increased approximately 4.5 times. Biomass attachment to the sand was restricted to cavities within the sand particles. Acetate produced by acetogenic bacteria from H-2 and CO2 was used as carbon source for biomass growth, while formate that was also produced from H-2 and CO2 enhanced sulfate reduction. The microbial community composition was analyzed by 165 rRNA gene amplicon sequencing, and Tindallia related bacteria were probably responsible for formate formation from hydrogen. The community attached to the sand particles was similar to the suspended fraction, but the relative abundance of sequences most closely related to Desuljohalobiaceae was much higher in the attached fraction compared to the suspended fraction (30% and 13%, respectively). The results indicated that even though the biomass attachment to sand was poor, it still increased the biomass concentration and consequently the sulfate and thiosulfate reduction volumetric rates. (C) 2020 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  • 37.
    Uddh Söderberg, Terese
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Berggren Kleja, Dan
    Swedish Geotechnical Institute, Sweden.
    Åström, Mats E.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Jarsjö, Jerker
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Fröberg, Mats
    Swedish Geotechnical Institute, Sweden.
    Svensson, P. Andreas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Augustsson, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Metal solubility and transport at a contaminated landfill site – From the source zone into the groundwater2019In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 668, p. 1064-1076Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Risks associated with metal contaminated sites are tightly linked to material leachability and contaminant mobility. In this study, metal solubility and transport were characterized within a glass waste landfill through i) lysimeter-collection of pore water and standardized batch leaching tests, ii) soil profiles extending from the landfill surface, through unsaturated soil underneath, and into the groundwater zone, and iii) groundwater samples upstream, at, and downstream of the landfill. The soil analyzes targeted both pseudo-total and geochemically active concentrations of contaminant metals (As, Cd, Pb, Sb) and basic soil geochemistry (pH, org. C, Fe,Mn). Water samples were analyzed for dissolved, colloid-bound and particulate metals, and speciation modelling of the aqueous phase was conducted. The results revealed a highly contaminated system, with mean metal concentrationsin the waste zone between 90 and 250 times the regional background levels. Despite severe contamination of the waste zone and high geochemically active fractions (80–100%) of all contaminant metals as well as elevated concentrations in landfill pore water, the concentrations of Cd and Pb decrease abruptly at the transition between landfill and underlying natural soil and no indication of groundwater contamination was found. The efficient cation retention is likely due to the high pH. However, the sorption of As and Sb is weaker at such high pH,which explains their higher mobility from the pore water zone into groundwater. The field soil:solution for Pb, ranging from 140 to 2,900,000 l kg−1), despite little variability in basic geochemical variables, which we suggest is due to waste material heterogeneity.

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  • 38.
    Uddh Söderberg, Terese
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Gunnarsson, Sara
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Hogmalm, Johan
    Univ Gothenburg.
    Lindegård, Boel
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Augustsson, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    An assessment of health risks associated with arsenic exposure via consumption of homegrown vegetables near contaminated glassworks sites2015In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 536, p. 189-197Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The health risk posed by arsenic in vegetables grown in private gardens near 22 contaminated glassworks sites was investigated in this study. Firstly, vegetable (lettuce and potato) and soil samples were collected and arsenic concentrations measured to characterize the arsenic uptake in the selected crops. Secondly, a probabilistic exposure assessment was conducted to estimate the average daily intake (ADI(veg)), which was then evaluated against toxicological reference values by the calculation of hazard quotients (HQs) and cancer risks (CRs). The results show that elevated arsenic concentrations in residential garden soils are mirrored by elevated concentrations in vegetables, and that consumption of these vegetables alone may result in an unacceptable cancer risk; the calculated reasonable maximum exposure, for example, corresponded to a cancer incidence 20 times higher than the stated tolerance limit. However, the characterization of risk depends to a great extent on which toxicological reference value is used for comparison, as well as how the exposure is determined. Based on the assumptions made in the present study, the threshold levels for chronic non-carcinogenic or acute effects were not exceeded, but the cancer risks indicated highlight the need for further exposure studies, as dietary intake involves more than just homegrown vegetables and total exposure is a function of more than just one exposure pathway. In addition, glassworks sites - and contaminated sites in general - contain multiple contaminants, affecting the final and total risk.

  • 39.
    Vezzaro, Luca
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Eriksson, Eva
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Ledin, Anna
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Mikkelsen, Peter Steen
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Modelling the fate of organic micropollutants in stormwater ponds2011In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 409, no 13, p. 2597-2606Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban water managers need to estimate the potential removal of organic micropollutants (MP) in stormwater treatment systems to support MP pollution control strategies. This study documents how the potential removal of organic MP in stormwater treatment systems can be quantified by using multimedia models. The fate of four different MP in a stormwater retention pond was simulated by applying two steady-state multimedia fate models (EPI Suite and SimpleBox) commonly applied in chemical risk assessment and a dynamic multimedia fate model (Stormwater Treatment Unit Model for Micro Pollutants — STUMP). The four simulated organic stormwater MP (iodopropynyl butylcarbamate — IPBC, benzene, glyphosate and pyrene) were selected according to their different urban sources and environmental fate. This ensures that the results can be extended to other relevant stormwater pollutants. All three models use substance inherent properties to calculate MP fate but differ in their ability to represent the small physical scale and high temporal variability of stormwater treatment systems. Therefore the three models generate different results. A Global Sensitivity Analysis (GSA) highlighted that settling/resuspension of particulate matter was themost sensitive process for the dynamic model. The uncertainty of the estimated MP fluxes can be reduced by calibrating the dynamic model against total suspended solids data. This reduction in uncertainty was more significant for the substances with strong tendency to sorb, i.e. glyphosate and pyrene and less significant for substances with a smaller tendency to sorb, i.e. IPBC and benzene. The results provide support to the elaboration of MP pollution control strategies by limiting the need for extensive and complex monitoring campaigns targeting the wide range of specific organic MP found in stormwater runoff.

  • 40.
    Woksepp, Hanna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Region Kalmar County, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Klara
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Börjesson, Stefan
    Public Health Agency of Sweden, Sweden;Karolinska Institutet, Sweden;Örebro University, Sweden.
    Karlsson Lindsjö, Oskar
    Public Health Agency of Sweden, Sweden.
    Söderlund, Robert
    Swedish National Veterinary Institute, Sweden.
    Bonnedahl, Jonas
    Linköping University, Sweden;Region Kalmar County, Sweden.
    Dissemination of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacterales through wastewater and gulls at a wastewater treatment plant in Sweden2023In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 886, article id 163997Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Here we report the detection of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacterales (CPE) isolated from Swedish wastewater and gull faeces. CPE have not been detected in samples from animals in Sweden preceding this report. Sampling of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) inlet and outlet, sedimentation basins, surface seawater from key aquatic bird habitats and freshly deposited gull faeces was done on six separate occasions during May to September 2021. Following broth enrichment, selective screening of putative CPE was performed on mSuperCarbaTM (CHROMagar). Species identification was done with MALDI-TOF. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed according to EUCAST. In total, seventeen CPE were verified by genome sequencing carrying blaGES-5, blaIMI-3, blaOXA-181 or blaOXA-244. The blaGES-5 was carried on IncP plasmids in four different species; Escherichia coli ST10 isolated from WWTP outlet, Raoultella ornithinolytica isolated from WWTP inlet, outlet and sedimentation basins as well as gull faeces collected at the WWTP and Klebsiella spp. isolates from WWTP inlet and outlet. The genetic environment surrounding blaGES-5 was similar in two Citrobacter freundii causing human infections. The blaIMI-3 was carried on IncFII(Yp) plasmids in four Enterobacter ludwigii, isolated from WWTP outlet and gull faeces collected at a recreational city park 2 km from the WWTP. The blaOXA-181 was located on a COLKP3 plasmid found in an E. coli, while blaOXA-244 was chromosomally located in an E. coli ST10, both isolated from WWTP inlet. Phylogenetic analysis of R. ornithinolytica and E. ludwigii isolates indicate that the gulls carried strains related to those identified in the WWTP samples. The results thus add to the increasing evidence of WWTPs as anthropogenic reservoirs for mobile genetic elements with antibiotic-resistance functionality. Such environments could profoundly impact the dissemination and spread of such genetic elements via for example aquatic birds, thereby warranting further study and surveillance.

  • 41.
    Wu, Xiaofen
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Sten, Pekka
    Vaasa University of Applied Sciences, Finland.
    Engblom, Sten
    Novia University of Applied Sciences, Finland.
    Nowak, Pawel
    Polish Academy of Sciences, Poland.
    Österholm, Peter
    Åbo Akademi University, Finland.
    Dopson, Mark
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Impact of mitigation strategies on acid sulfate soil chemistry and microbial community2015In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 526, p. 215-221Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Potential acid sulfate soils contain reduced iron sulfides that if oxidized, can cause significant environmental damage by releasing large amounts of acid and metals. This study examines metal and acid release as well as the microbial community capable of catalyzing metal sulfide oxidation after treating acid sulfate soil with calcium carbonate (CaCO3) or calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2). Leaching tests of acid sulfate soil samples were carried out in the laboratory. The pH of the leachate during the initial flushing with water lay between 3.8 and 4.4 suggesting that the jarosite/schwertmannite equilibrium controls the solution chemistry. However, the pH increased to circa 6 after treatment with CaCO3 suspension and circa 12 after introducing Ca(OH)2 solution. 16S rRNA gene sequences amplified from community DNA extracted from the untreated and both CaCO3and Ca(OH)2 treated acid sulfate soils were most similar to bacteria (69.1% to 85.7%) and archaea (95.4% to 100%) previously identified from acid and metal contaminated environments. These species included a Thiomonas cuprina-like and an Acidocella-like bacteria as well as a Ferroplasma acidiphilum-like archeon. Although the CaCO3 and Ca(OH)2 treatments did not decrease the proportion of microorganisms capable of accelerating acid and metal release, the chemical effects of the treatments suggested their reduced activity.

  • 42.
    Yan, Jinying
    et al.
    KTH Royal instute of technology, Sweden;Vattenfall AB, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Anna
    Vattenfall AB, Sweden.
    Zou, Zhi
    KTH Royal instute of technology, Sweden.
    Dai, Deliang
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Edlund, Ulrica
    KTH Royal instute of technology, Sweden.
    Contamination of heavy metals and metalloids in biomass and waste fuels: Comparative characterisation and trend estimation2020In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 700, p. 1-19, article id 134382Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of contaminated biomass and waste fuels is essential for waste management, waste to energy (WtE) and mitigating carbon emissions. The contamination of heavy metals and metalloids is specially concerned by environmental regulation and waste to energy processes. In this study, comparative characterisation is performed for three typical contaminated biomass and waste fuels. i.e. recycled woods, combustible municipal solid waste, and industrial and commercial wastes. The contamination characteristics are further analysed using statistical methods (e.g. significance, correlation, profile, and principal component analyses) to identify specific contamination features, relations among the contaminants and potential contamination sources. Contamination trend is estimated based on the continuously monitoring fuel qualities, the driving forces for regulating and reduction of the contaminations, and potential changes in major contamination sources. The comparative characterisation combined with statistical analyses provides a better way to understand the contamination mechanisms. The approach can also relate the fuel contamination with the contamination sources and their changes for trend estimation. Generally, the toxic heavy metals and metalloids are expected to be significantly reduced due to stricter regulations, but there is no general trend for the reduction of other metals and metalloids because of the complicated changes in contamination sources and waste recycling streams in the near future. (C) 2019 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 43.
    Yang, Shilei
    et al.
    Tianjin University, China.
    Hao, Qian
    Tianjin University, China.
    Liu, Hongyan
    Peking University, China.
    Xiaodong, Zhang
    Tianjin University, China.
    Yu, Changxun
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Yang, Xiaomin
    Tianjin University, China.
    Xia, Shaopan
    Tianjin University, China.
    Yang, Weihua
    Tianjin University, China.
    Li, Jianwu
    Zhejiang Agricultural and Forestry University, China.
    Song, Zhaoliang
    Tianjin University, China.
    Impact of grassland degradation on the distribution and bioavailability of soil silicon: Implications for the Si cycle in grasslands2019In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 657, p. 811-818Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Grassland ecosystems play an important role in the global terrestrial silicon (Si) cycle, and Si is a beneficial elementand structural constituent for the growth of grasses. In previous decades, grasslands have been degradedto different degrees because of the drying climate and intense human disturbance. However, the impact of grasslanddegradation on the distribution and bioavailability of soil Si is largely unknown. Here, we investigated vegetationand soil conditions of 30 sites to characterize different degrees of degradation for grasslands in the agropastoralecotone of northern China. We then explored the impact of grassland degradation on the distributionand bioavailability of soil Si, including total Si and four forms of noncrystalline Si in three horizons (0–10,10–20 and 20–40 cm) of different soil profiles. The concentrations of noncrystalline Si in soil profiles significantlydecreased with increasing degrees of degradation, being 7.35 ± 0.88 mg g−1, 5.36 ± 0.39 mg g−1, 3.81 ±0.37 mg g−1 and 3.60±0.26 mg g−1 in non-degraded, lightly degraded, moderately degraded and seriously degradedgrasslands, respectively. Moreover, the storage of noncrystalline Si decreased from higher than 40 t ha−1to lower than 23 t ha−1. The corresponding bioavailability of soil Si also generally decreased with grassland degradation.These processes may not only affect the Si pools and fluxes in soils but also influence the Si uptake in 

    plants. We suggest that grassland degradation can significantly affect the global grassland Si cycle. Grasslandmanagement methods such as fertilizing and avoiding overgrazing can potentially double the content and storageof noncrystalline Si in soils, thereby enhancing the soil Si bioavailability by N17%.

  • 44.
    Yu, Changxun
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Berger, Tobias
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. The Swedish Anglers Association, Sweden.
    Drake, Henrik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Song, Zhaoliang
    Tianjin University, China.
    Peltola, Pasi
    Boliden Rönnskär, Sweden.
    Åström, Mats E.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Geochemical controls on dispersion of U and Th in Quaternary deposits, stream water, and aquatic plants in an area with a granite pluton2019In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 663, p. 16-28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The weathering of U and/or Th rich granite plutons, which occurs worldwide, may serve as a potentially important, but as yet poorly defined source for U and Th in (sub-)surface environments. Here, we assessed the impact of an outcrop of such granite (5 km in diameter) and its erosional products on the distribution of U and Th in four nemo-boreal catchments. The results showed that (i) the pluton was enriched in both U and Th; and (ii) secondary U and Th phases were accumulated by peat/gyttja and in other Quaternary deposits with high contents of organic matter. Movement of the ice sheet during the latest glaciation led to dispersal of U- and Th-rich materials eroded from the pluton, resulting in a progressive increase in dissolved U and Th concentrations, as well as U concentrations in aquatic plants with increasing proximity to the pluton. The accumulation of U in the aquatic plants growing upon the pluton (100–365 mg kg−1, dry ash weight) shows that this rock represents a long-term risk for adjacent ecosystems. Dissolved pools of U and Th were correlated with those of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and were predicted to largely occur as organic complexes. This demonstrates the importance of DOM in the transport of U and Th in the catchments. Large fractions of Ca2UO2(CO3)30(aq) were modeled to occur in the stream with highest pH and alkalinity and thus, explain the strongly elevated U concentrations and fluxes in this particular stream. In future climate scenarios, boreal catchments will experience intensified runoff and warmer temperature that favor the production of hydrologically accessible DOM and alkalinity. Therefore, the results obtained from this study have implications for predicting the distribution and transport of Th and U in boreal catchments, especially those associated with U and/or Th rich granite plutons.

  • 45.
    Yu, Changxun
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Högfors-Rönnholm, Eva
    Novia University of Applied Sciences, Finland.
    Stén, Pekka
    Vaasa University of Applied Sciences, Finland.
    Engblom, Sten
    Novia University of Applied Sciences, Finland.
    Åström, Mats E.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Water.
    Iron‑sulfur geochemistry and acidity retention in hydrologically active macropores of boreal acid sulfate soils: Effects of mitigation suspensions of fine-grained calcite and peat2023In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 856, no Part 2, article id 159142Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Acid sulfate soils discharge large amounts of sulfuric acid along with toxic metals, deteriorating water quality and ecosystem health of recipient waterbodies. There is thus an urgent need to develop cost-effective and sustainable measures to mitigate the negative effects of these soils. In this study, we flushed aseptically-prepared MQ water (reference) or mitigation suspensions containing calcite, peat or a combination of both through 15-cm-thick soil cores from an acid sulfate soil field in western Finland, and investigated the geochemistry of Fe and S on the surfaces of macropores and in the solid columnar blocks (interiors) of the soil columns. The macropore surfaces of all soil columns were strongly enriched in total and HCl-extractable Fe and S relative to the interiors, owing to the existence of abundant Fe oxyhydroxysulfates (schwertmannite and partly jarosite) as yellow-to-brownish surface-coatings. The dissolution/hydrolysis of Fe oxyhydroxysulfates (predominantly jarosite) on the macropore surfaces of the reference columns, although being constantly flushed, effectively buffered the permeates at pH close to 4. These results suggest that Fe oxyhydroxysulfates accumulated on the macropore surfaces of boreal acid sulfate soils can act as long-lasting acidification sources. The treatments with mitigation suspensions led to a (near-)complete conversion of jarosite to Fe hydroxides, causing a substantial loss of S. In contrast, we did not observe any recognizable evidence indicating transformation of schwertmannite. However, sulfate sorbed by this mineral might be partially lost through anion-exchange processes during the treatments with calcite. No Fe sulfides were found in the peat-treated columns. Since Fe sulfides can support renewed acidification events, the moderate mineralogical changes induced by peat are desirable. In addition, peat materials can act as toxic-metal scavengers. Thus, the peat materials used here, which is relatively cheap in the boreal zone, is ideal for remediating boreal acid sulfate soils and other similar jarosite-bearing soils.

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  • 46.
    Yu, Changxun
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Peltola, Pasi
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Nystrand, Miriam I.
    Åbo Akad Univ, Finland.
    Virtasalo, Joonas J.
    Geol Survey Finland GTK, Finland.
    Österholm, Peter
    Åbo Akad Univ, Finland.
    Ojala, Antti E. K.
    Geol Survey Finland GTK, Finland.
    Högmalm, Johan K.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Åström, Mats E.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Arsenic removal from contaminated brackish sea water by sorption onto Al hydroxides and Fe phases mobilized by land-use2016In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 542, p. 923-934Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the spatial and temporal distribution patterns of arsenic (As) in solid and aqueous materials along the mixing zone of an estuary, located in the south-eastern part of the Bothnian Bay and fed by a creek running through an acid sulfate (AS) soil landscape. The concentrations of As in solution form (<1 kDa) increase steadily from the creek mouth to the outer estuary, suggesting that inflowing seawater, rather than AS soil, is the major As source in the estuary. In sediments at the outer estuary, As was accumulated and diagenetically cycled in the surficial layers, as throughout much of the Bothnian Bay. In contrast, in sediments in the inner estuary, As concentrations and accumulation rates showed systematical peaks at greater depths. These peaks were overall consistent with the temporal trend of past As discharges from the Ronnskar smelter and the accompanied As concentrations in past sea-water of the Bothnian Bay, pointing to a connection between the historical smelter activities and the sediment-bound As in the inner estuary. However, the concentrations and accumulation rates of As peaked at depths where the smelter activities had already declined, but a large increase in the deposition of Al hydroxides and Fe phases occurred in response to intensified land-use in the mid 1960's and early 1970's. This correspondence suggests that, apart from the inflowing As-contaminated seawater, capture by Al hydroxides, Fe hydroxides and Fe-organic complexes is another important factor for As deposition in the inner estuary. After accumulating in the sediment, the solid-phase As was partly remobilized, as reflected by increased pore-water As concentrations, a process favored by As(V) reduction and high concentrations of dissolved organic matter. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 47.
    Zhang, Yu
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. Nanjing Univ, China.
    Zhang, Jin-He
    Nanjing Univ, China.
    Tian, Qing
    Tongren Polytech Coll, China.
    Liu, Ze-Hua
    Nanjing Univ, China.
    Zhang, Hong-Lei
    Nanjing Univ, China.
    Virtual water trade of agricultural products: A new perspective to explore the Belt and Road2018In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 622, p. 988-996Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Belt and Road is an initiative of cooperation and development that was proposed by China. Moreover, most of the spanning countries faced water shortages and agriculture consumed a lot of water. Virtual water links water, food and trade and is an effective tool to ease water shortages. Therefore, this paper aims to understand the Belt and Road from the new perspective of virtual water trade of agricultural products. We considered agricultural products trade from 2001 to 2015. On the whole, the results indicated that China was in virtual water trade surplus with the countries along the Belt and Road. However, in terms of each country, >40 spanning countries were in virtual water trade surplus with China and eased water shortages. Russia had the largest net imported virtual water from China. Furthermore, the proportion of the grey water footprint that China exported to the spanning countries was much higher than that imported, no matter from the whole or different geographical regions. Moreover, more than half of the countries' virtual water trade with China conformed to the virtual water strategy, which helped to ease water crises. Furthermore, the products that they exported to China were mainly advantageous products that each spanning countries have. Virtual water trade is a new perspective to explore the Belt and Road. Agricultural products trade with China definitely benefits both the countries along the Belt and Road and China from the perspective of virtual water. The findings are beneficial for the water management of the countries along the Belt and Road and China, alleviating water shortages, encouraging the rational allocation of water resources in the various departments. They can provide references for optimizing trade structures as well. (c) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 48.
    Åström, Mats E.
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Roos, Per M.
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden;St Göran Hospital, Sweden.
    Comments on Letter to the Editor by Ph. D. Jussi Sipila regarding our paper "Geochemistry of multiple sclerosis in Finland "2023In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 859, article id 160367Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 49.
    Åström, Mats E.
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Water.
    Roos, Per M.
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden;St Göran Hospital, Sweden.
    Geochemistry of multiple sclerosis in Finland2022In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 841, article id 156672Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) affects some 3 million people around the world and the prevalence is increasing. The MS incidence increases with distance from the equator forming a north-to-south gradient. The cause of this gradient and the cause of MS in general are largely unknown. Sulphide-bearing marine and lake sediments, when exposed to oxygen after drainage, form sulphuric acid resulting in the development of acid sulphate soils. From these soils major neurotoxic metals such as iron, aluminum and manganese and trace metals such as nickel, copper and cadmium are released into the surrounding environment. As these soils are largely used for farming, obvious routes to human metal exposure exist. Here we compare the distribution of acid sulphate soils in Finland to the geographic localisation of MS cases using data from a national acid sulphate soil mapping project and historical MS distribution data. Finland has among the highest MS prevalences in the world and several independent nationwide surveys have shown the highest prevalence in western Finland, stable over time. Acid sulphate soil distribution colocalizes with MS, both on a regional (nationwide) scale and local (proximity to rivers) scale. A toxicokinetic LADME model for MS pathogenesis is presented. We propose that neurotoxic metals leaching from acid sulphate soils contribute to the clustering of MS in Finland.

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  • 50.
    Öberg, Tomas
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Low-temperature formation and degradation of chlorinated benzenes, PCDD and PCDF in dust from steel production.2007In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 382, no 1, p. 153-158Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dust from thermal processes may catalytically enhance the formation of chlorinated aromatic compounds under oxygen-rich conditions. The activities of two dust samples from electric arc furnaces and one from iron ore-based steelmaking (oxygen converter) were investigated in a laboratory experiment. The dust samples were heated at 300 degrees C for 2 h in an air atmosphere. The concentrations of chlorinated benzenes did not change greatly upon heating, while the concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans decreased. The addition of copper in parallel runs resulted in a substantial increase in the concentration of chlorinated benzenes, thus indicating that the experimental setup was suitable for the evaluation of low-temperature catalysis. The outcome of the experiment seems to suggest that results cannot easily be extrapolated between different thermal and metallurgical processes. Some measures to reduce emissions, such as inhibition of catalytic activity and rapid cooling, could possibly be counterproductive when applied to off-gases from the steelmaking processes investigated here.

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