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  • 1.
    Amneklev, Jennie
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Sörme, Louise
    Statistics Sweden.
    Augustsson, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Bergbäck, Bo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    The Increase in Bismuth Consumption as Reflected in Sewage Sludge2015In: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 226, no 4, p. 1-11, article id 92Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As the use of dangerous substances in consumer products increases, these substances may also be found in society’s end products, among them sewage sludge. Measuring concentrations in sewage sludge can be a way to reflect the consumption of a substance. By using substance flow analysis, the inflow, stock and outflow of the specific substance to, e.g. a city region, may be analysed. Bismuth is a heavy metal that is found in increasing levels in sewage sludge in Swedish wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and a similar increase cannot be excluded for WWTPs around the world. This study aims to examine possible sources that could explain the amounts measured in one Swedish WWTP. Household products such as cosmetics (24 %) and plastics (14 %) are found to be major sources of Bi measured in sewage sludge. The remaining unidentified amounts in this study (approximately 50 %) are most likely found in effluent waters from industries or sources outside the household. There is, however, no information on measurements of Bi released by industry available and there is no legislation in place that may encourage industry to conduct such measurements.

  • 2.
    Bergbäck, Bo
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Anderberg, S
    Lohm, Ulrik
    A reconstruction of emission, flow and accumulation of chromium in Sweden 1920-19801989In: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 48, p. 391-407Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A reconstruction of Cr emissions in Sweden is presented. Estimations of total flows for 1920in 1980 were based on trade statistics, production of goods and life-length of products in society. Asimple model was used to calculate amounts of Cr accumulated in soil and sediment at different times.The importance of production emissions from tanneries and ferrochrome and steel plants is obvious,but, in the future, diffuse emissions of the same magnitude may occur from Cr products within urbanareas. 

  • 3.
    Hansson, Henrik
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Kaczala, Fabio
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Amaro, Alexandre
    Rio de Janeiro State Univ UERJ, Brazil.
    Marques, Marcia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Rio de Janeiro State Univ UERJ, Brazil.
    Hogland, William
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Advanced Oxidation Treatment of Recalcitrant Wastewater from a Wood-Based Industry: a Comparative Study of O3 and O3/UV2015In: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 226, no 7, article id 229Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ozone and ozone-based advanced oxidation processes were applied for the treatment of a recalcitrant wastewater generated by wood-based industries that contains different inorganic and organic constituents and high chemical oxygen demand (COD) varying between 3,400 and 4,000 mg/L. The investigation used a tubular ozone reactor combined with an UV reactor designed for different hydraulic retention times. The dependent variables addressed to evaluate the treatment efficiency were the reduction of COD and total organic carbon (TOC) and the biodegradability of the treated effluent based on respirometric studies using activated sludge from a wastewater treatment. The results showed that even though ozonation alone at acid pH promoted COD and TOC reductions of 65 and 31 % respectively, a decrease in the biodegradability was observed. The most effective treatment (COD and TOC reductions of 93 and 43 %, respectively) was obtained when applying ozone combined with UV light at basic pH. The ozone-UV combination was capable of increasing the amount of readily available COD by 75 % with an additional reduction of TOC by 60 %. In conclusion, ozonation at low pH effectively reduces the COD content in wastewater generated by the wood-based industry; however, in order to combine advanced oxidation with biological process, ozone combined with UV is recommended.

  • 4.
    Larsson, Per
    et al.
    Department of Ecology, Limnology, University of Lund.
    Södergren, A
    Transport of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in freshwater mesocosms from sediment to water and air1987In: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 36, p. 33-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With sediment as a source the flux of PCBs to water and air was followed in mesocosms with and without fish for two vegetation seasons. The fish represented the largest lipid pool in the mesocosm, and their presence increased the flux of PCBs across the sediment/water interface. The flow of PCBs from sediment to water followed a seasonal pattern with higher rates during summer than in the winter. The rates were governed by the turbation activity of benthic invertebrates, the extent of gas production in the sediment, the amount and quality of the lipid pools in the water column, and the solubility of the PCBs. The greatest amount of PCBs among the lipid pools was found in the dissolved extractable lipids, which also showed the highest concentration of PCBs calculated on a lipid basis. After about 1.5 yr, >90% of the PCBs added was still in the sediment. The remainder was distributed within the mesocosms to various extents depending on the amount and quality of the lipid pools, or transferred into the air. Transfer into the air was governed by PCB concentrations in the water, and by water temperature. The flow was highest during summer, when the surface microlayer renewed its load of PCBs every 8th day. 

  • 5.
    Mitter, Eduardo Kovalski
    et al.
    Sao Paulo State University, Brazil.
    Santos, Graziely Cristina
    Almeida, Erica Janaína Rodrigues
    Sao Paulo State University, Brazil.
    Morão, Luana Galvão
    Sao Paulo State University, Brazil.
    Rodrigues, Heide Dayane Prates
    Sao Paulo State University, Brazil.
    Corso, Carlos Renato
    Sao Paulo State University, Brazil.
    Analysis of Acid Alizarin Violet N Dye Removal Using Sugarcane Bagasse as Adsorbent2012In: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 223, no 2, p. 765-770Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the development of the textile industry, there has been a demand for dye removal from contaminated effluents. In recent years, attention has been directed toward various natural solid materials that are capable of removing pollutants from contaminated water at low cost. One such material is sugarcane bagasse. The aim of the present study was to evaluate adsorption of the dye Acid Violet Alizarin N with different concentrations of sugarcane bagasse and granulometry in agitated systems at different pH. The most promising data (achieved with pH 2.5) was analyzed with both Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms equations. The model that better fits dye adsorption interaction into sugarcane bagasse is Freundlich equation, and thus the multilayer model. Moreover, a smaller bagasse granulometry led to greater dye adsorption. The best treatment was achieved with a granulometry value lower than 0.21 mm at pH 2.50, in which the total removal was estimated at a concentration of 16.25 mg mL−1. Hence, sugarcane bagasse proves to be very attractive for dye removal from textile effluents.

  • 6.
    Santos, Graziely Cristina
    et al.
    Univ Estadual Paulista, Brazil.
    Corso, Carlos Renato
    Univ Estadual Paulista, Brazil.
    Comparative Analysis of Azo Dye Biodegradation by Aspergillus oryzae and Phanerochaete chrysosporium2014In: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 225, no 7, article id 2026Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The textile industry often releases effluents into the environment without proper treatment or complete dye removal. Azo dyes, which are characterized by azo groups (―N═N―), are frequently used in the textile industry. Among the different wastewater treatment methods available, biological treatment has been extensively studied. The aim of the present study was to compare the biodegradation of the azo dye Direct Blue 71 by the fungi Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Aspergillus oryzae in paramorphogenic form using a 100 μg/ml dye solution. Biodegradation tests were performed within 240 h. The absorbance values obtained with UV-VIS spectrophotometry were used to determine the absorbance ratio and the percentage of dye discoloration following the biodegradation test. FTIR analysis allowed the identification of molecular compounds in the solution before and after biodegradation. Both A. oryzae and P. chrysosporium demonstrated considerable potential regarding the biodegradation of dyes in wastewater. These results may contribute toward improving effluent treatment systems in the textile industry.

  • 7.
    Wiman, Bo
    Department of Ecology, University of Lund.
    Diurnal variations of aerosol concentrations inside and above a young spruce stand: modelling and measurements1986In: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 31, p. 343-348Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aerosol characteristics and aerodynamic conditions above and insideforests are strongly dynamic, especially for landscapes subject to frequent frontal activityand episodic anthropogenic aerosol inflows. Using empirical data of 1-hr time- resolutiona non-stationary partial differential equation model (based on K-theory and classicalfiltration theory for concentration and deposition variations in a forest) is shownreasonably capable of handling such temporal complexity, which is also shown to bereflected in a temporally complex deposition pattern. 

  • 8.
    Åström, Mats
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Österholm, Peter
    Bärlund, Ilona
    Tattari, Sirkka
    Hydrochemical effects of surface liming, controlled drainage and lime-filter drainage on Boreal acid sulfate soils2007In: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 179, p. 107-116Article in journal (Refereed)
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