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  • 1. Andersen, Otto
    et al.
    Gössling, Stefan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Simonsen, Morten
    Walnum, Hans Jakob
    Peeters, Paul
    Neiberger, Cordula
    CO2-emissions from the transport of China’s exported goods.2010In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 38, no 10, p. 5790-5798Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Emissions of greenhouse gases in many European countries are declining, and the European Union (EU) believes it is on track in achieving emission reductions as agreed upon in the Kyoto Agreement and the EU's more ambitious post-Kyoto climate policy. However, a number of recent publications indicate that emission reductions may also have been achieved because production has been shifted to other countries, and in particular China. If a consumption perspective is applied, emissions in industrialized countries are substantially higher, and may not have declined at all. Significantly, emissions from transports are omitted in consumption-based calculations. As all trade involves transport, mostly by cargo ship, but also by air, transports add considerably to overall emissions growth incurred in production shifts. Consequently, this article studies the role of transports in creating emissions of CO2, based on the example of exports from China. Results are discussed with regard to their implications for global emission reductions and post-Kyoto negotiations.

  • 2. Börjesson, Pål
    et al.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Greenhouse Gas Balances in Building Construction: Wood versus Concrete from Lifecycle and Forest Land-Use Perspectives2000In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 28, no 9, p. 575-588Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Börjesson, Pål
    CO2 Mitigation Cost: Bioenergy Systems and Natural Gas Systems with Decarbonization1998In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 26, no 9, p. 699-714Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Holmberg, Jonas
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Dornburg, Veronica
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Sathre, Roger
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Eggers, Thies
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Marland, Gregg
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Using biomass for climate change mitigation and oil use reduction2007In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 35, no 11, p. 5671-5691Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we examine how an increased use of biomass could efficiently meet Swedish energy policy goals of reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and oil use. In particular, we examine the trade-offs inherent when biomass use is intended to pursue multiple objectives. We set up four scenarios in which up to 400 PJ/year of additional biomass is prioritised to reduce CO2 emissions, reduce oil use, simultaneously reduce both CO2 emission and oil use, or to produce ethanol to replace gasoline. Technologies analysed for using the biomass include the production of electricity, heat, and transport fuels, and also as construction materials and other products. We find that optimising biomass use for a single objective (either CO2 emission reduction or oil use reduction) results in high fulfilment of that single objective (17.4 Tg C/year and 350 PJ oil/year, respectively), at a monetary cost of 130–330 million €/year, but with low fulfilment of the other objective. A careful selection of biomass uses for combined benefits results in reductions of 12.6 Tg C/year and 230 PJ oil/year (72% and 67%, respectively, of the reductions achieved in the scenarios with single objectives), with a monetary benefit of 45 million €/year. Prioritising for ethanol production gives the lowest CO2 emissions reduction, intermediate oil use reduction, and the highest monetary cost.

  • 5.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Karjalainen, T
    Marland, G
    Savolainen, I
    Schlamadinger, B
    Apps, M
    Project-based Greenhouse Gas Accounting: guiding principles with a focus on baselines and additionality2000In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 28, no 13, p. 935-946Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Karlsson, Å
    A System Perspective on the Heating of Detached Houses2002In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 30, no 7, p. 553-574Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Gössling, Stefan
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. Western Norway Res Inst, Sogndal, Norway.
    National emissions from tourism: An overlooked policy challenge?2013In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 59, p. 433-442Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tourism has been recognized as a significant greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions sector on a global scale. Yet, only few studies assess tourism's share in national emissions. This paper compares and analyses existing inventories of national emissions from tourism. Studies are difficult to compare, because they use different system boundaries and allocation principles, omitting or including lifecycle emissions and GHG other than CO2. By outlining and analysing these differences, the paper estimates the contribution made by tourism to national emissions, and its greenhouse gas intensity in comparison to other economic sectors. Results indicate that while emissions from tourism are significant in all countries studied, they may, in some countries, exceed 'official' emissions as calculated on the basis of guidelines for national emission inventories under the Kyoto Protocol. This is a result of the fact that bunker fuels are not considered in national GHG inventories, leading to underestimates of the energy- and GHG intensity of tourism economies. While further growth in tourism emissions can be expected in all countries studied, energy-related vulnerabilities are already considerable in many of these. Climate policy for tourism, on the other hand, is largely non-existent, calling for immediate action to consider this sector in national legislation. (c) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 8.
    Gössling, Stefan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. Western Norway Res Inst, Norway.
    Metzler, Daniel
    Munich Univ Appl Sci, Germany.
    Germany's climate policy: Facing an automobile dilemma2017In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 105, p. 418-428Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Germany has one of the most ambitious climate policy goals worldwide, having pledged to reduce national emissions by 40% by 2020, and 80-95% by 2050 (base year: 1990). 2015 data suggests that progress on decarbonisation has slowed, also because emissions from the transport sector have grown. Road transport, which is contributing 20.5% to Germany's CO2 emissions, has become a major obstacle to achieving the country's policy goals. This paper analyses energy use from road transport in order to provide a better understanding of emissions from this sub-sector. Data is derived from representative longitudinal household surveys as well as mobility and fuel diaries for the period 2002-2015. Analysis reveals significant growth in energy-inefficient car choices, as well as considerable differences in mobility patterns (distances driven, driving styles) and actual fuel consumption between car segments. Findings suggest that German transport policies will fail to deliver significant emission reductions if complexities in car model choices and use patterns are ignored. Both command-and-control and market-based measures will be needed to align the transport sector with climate goals, while persisting policy inconsistencies will also have to be addressed. Findings are of central relevance for EU-wide and global climate policy in the transport sector:

  • 9.
    Joelsson, Anna
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Perspectives on implementing energy efficiency in existing Swedish detached houses2008In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 36, no 1, p. 84-96Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we first analyse energy-efficiency measures in existing electrically heated houses in Sweden from a societal economic perspective. Measures to a house envelopes and to energy supply chains are evaluated through a system analysis approach and we include the external costs of climate change and the effect of different Swedish climatic zones. We find that in a typical house from the 1970s, conversion from electric heating is highly motivated since the mitigation cost of conversion is lower than the estimated external costs of emitted CO2. Both conversions and house envelope measures are more motivated in the northern part of the country, where there is a higher heat demand. A successful implementation of changes requires them to be attractive for consumers to adopt. We therefore secondly analyse the economic conditions for Swedish house owners to implement societal economic cost-efficient measures. We include the economic influence of an investment subsidy for heating system conversion, an income tax deduction for changing windows, customer electricity tax, real estate tax and of the cost of purchased energy from different energy suppliers. Apart from the economics, several other factors affect a house owner's decision to change heating systems. We therefore thirdly analyse house owners' perceptions of different heating supply alternatives based on the results of two comprehensive questionnaires. These different perspectives are combined in a discussion whether the studied policy instruments encourage house owners to implement changes in accordance with the energy-efficiency goals of decision makers. We find that the investment subsidy could be useful to break the lock-in effect of resistance heaters, which house owners seemed to experience. The electricity tax makes heating systems in line with national goals more competitive and efficiency measures to the house envelope more profitable. The reduction of the electricity tax in the northern part of the country has the opposite effect. Also, the increase in real estate tax when implementing energy-efficiency measures gives a contradictory message. The price differences between energy suppliers has a larger impact on the house owners' economic conditions than both subsidies and tax rate changes, and possibly also affect the house owner's attitudes towards various systems.

  • 10.
    Karlsson, Åsa
    et al.
    Department of Environmental and Energy Systems Studies, Lund University, Gerdagatan 13, SE-223 62, Lund, Sweden.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    External Costs and Taxes in Heat Supply System2003In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 31, no 14, p. 1541-1560Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A systems approach was used to compare different heating systems from a consumer perspective. The whole energy system was considered from natural resources to the required energy services. District heating, electric heat pumps, electric boilers, natural-gas-, oil- or pellet-fired local boilers were considered when supplying heat to a detached house. The district heat production included wood-chip-fired and natural-gas-fired cogeneration plants. Electricity other than cogenerated electricity was produced in wood-chip- and natural-gas-fired stand-alone power plants. The analysis includes four tax scenarios, as well as the external cost of environmental and health damage arising from energy conversion emission based on the ExternE study of the European Commission. The most cost efficient systems were the natural-gas and oil boiler systems, followed by the heat pump and district heating systems, when the external cost and taxes were excluded. When including the external costs of CO2 emission, the wood-fuel-based systems were much more cost efficient than the fossil-fuel-based systems, also when CO2 capture and storage were applied. The external costs are, however, highly uncertain. Taxes steer towards lowering energy use and lowering CO2 emission if they are levied solely on all the fossil-fuel-related emission and fuel use in the systems. If consumer electricity and heat taxes are used, the taxes have an impact on the total cost, regardless of the fuel used, thereby benefiting fuel-based local heating systems. The heat pump systems were the least affected by taxes, due to their high energy efficiency. The electric boiler systems were the least cost efficient systems, also when the external cost and taxes were included.

  • 11.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    An adopter-centric approach to analyze the diffusion patterns of innovative residential heating systems in Sweden2008In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 36, no 2, p. 577-590Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Innovation and diffusion of renewable energy technologies play a major role in mitigation of climate change. In Sweden replacing electric and oil heating systems with innovative heating systems such as district heating, heat pumps and wood pellet boilers in detached homes is a significant mitigation option. Using an adopter-centric approach we analyzed the influence of investment subsidy on conversion of resistance heaters and oil boilers, and the variation in diffusion pattern of district heating, heat pumps and pellet boilers in Swedish detached homes. Results from questionnaire surveys of 1,500 randomly selected homeowners in September 2004 and January 2007 showed that more than 80% of the respondents did not intend to install a new heating system. Hence, about 37% of the homeowners still have electric and oil heating systems. The government investment subsidy was important for conversion from a resistance heater, but not from an oil boiler. This is because homeowners currently replacing their oil boilers are the laggards, while those replacing resistance heaters are the �early adopters�. Economic aspects and functional reliability were the most important factors for the homeowners when considering a new heating system. There is a variation in the perceived advantages associated with each of the innovative heating systems and therefore, the diffusion patterns of such systems vary. Installers and interpersonal sources were the most important communication channels for information on heating systems.

  • 12.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Nair, Gireesh
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Swedish energy advisers' perceptions regarding and suggestions for fulfilling homeowner expectations2011In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 39, no 7, p. 4264-4273Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Municipality energy advice services were re-introduced in Sweden in 1998 as a way of advising end-users, mainly owners of detached houses, on energy issues. In this paper, we investigate Swedish energy advisers' perceptions of homeowners' awareness of the energy advice service and their perceived ability to fulfil homeowners' expectations. Our study is based on a mail-in questionnaire survey conducted in 2009 and distributed to municipality energy advisers in all municipalities in Sweden. About 66% of the energy advisers responded. The results show that 43% of the energy advisers thought that fewer than 50% of the homeowners were aware of the service and that mass media advertisements and presentations at different organisations could improve homeowner awareness. Energy adviser attitudes, job satisfaction, and the perception that the advisers possessed up-to-date and good knowledge and sufficient financial resources to execute their duties had a significant influence on their perceived ability to fulfil homeowner expectations. Increased training in technical aspects of energy measures and increased financial support were the two measures most widely suggested as a means to improve energy advisers' performance.

  • 13.
    Nair, Gireesh
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Factors influencing energy efficiency investments in existing Swedish residential buildings2010In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 38, no 6, p. 2956-2963Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We used the data from a survey conducted in 2008 of 3,000 owners of detached houses to analyse the factors that influence the adoption of investment measures to improve the energy efficiency of their buildings. For the majority of Swedish homeowners, it was important to reduce their household energy use, and most of them undertook no-cost measures as compared to investment measures. Personal attributes such as income, education, age and contextual factors, including age of the house, thermal discomfort, past investment, and perceived energy cost, influence homeowners’ preference for a particular type of energy efficiency measure. The implications for promoting the implementation of energy efficiency investment measures are discussed.

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