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  • 1.
    Adie, Bailey Ashton
    et al.
    Southampton Solent Univ, UK.
    Hall, C. Michael
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. Univ Canterbury, New Zealand;Univ Oulu, Finland;Univ Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Prayag, Girish
    Univ Canterbury, New Zealand.
    World Heritage as a placebo brand: a comparative analysis of three sites and marketing implications2018In: Journal of Sustainable Tourism, ISSN 0966-9582, E-ISSN 1747-7646, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 399-415Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The UNESCO World Heritage (WH) List is often regarded as a successful tourism brand that motivates site nominations. However, there is relatively little research dealing specifically with WH brand attraction effects, and what does exist shows conflicting results. There is a significant research gap in terms of awareness of the WH brand and its potential impact on visitation, which this study seeks to fill through a comparative analysis of three diverse case studies: Independence Hall, USA; Studenica Monastery, Serbia; and the Archaeological Site of Volubilis, Morocco. Survey data (n = 771) from these three sites were collected and analyzed resulting in three distinct clusters of visitors. One of the clusters does exhibit higher levels of awareness of the WH brand, but members of this group were not motivated by this knowledge when planning their site visit. It is concluded that the WH brand may function as a placebo, and that its importance may be tied more to political interests than economic advancement. Thus, dependency on the WH List for tourism development may potentially be detrimental for locations in the long term. The WH brand's placebo effect could result in long-term problems for both the site and those whose livelihoods depend on tourism.

  • 2.
    Cohen, Scott A.
    et al.
    University of Surrey, UK.
    Higham, James
    University of Otago, New Zealand.
    Gössling, Stefan
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. Lund University ; Western Norway Research Institute, Norway.
    Peeters, Paul
    NHTV Breda University of Applied Sciences, The Netherlands.
    Eijgelaar, Eke
    NHTV Breda University of Applied Sciences, The Netherlands.
    Finding effective pathways to sustainable mobility: bridging the science-policy gap2016In: Journal of Sustainable Tourism, ISSN 0966-9582, E-ISSN 1747-7646, Vol. 24, no 3 Special issue, p. 317-334Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This overview paper examines three areas crucial to understanding why, despite clear scientific evidence for the growing environmental impacts of tourism transport, there is large-scale inertia in structural transitions and a lack of political will to enact meaningful sustainable mobility policies. These include the importance of addressing socio-technical factors, barriers posed by “technology myths” and the need to overcome “transport taboos” in policy-making. The paper seeks pathways to sustainable mobility by bridging the science–policy gap between academic research and researchers, and policy-makers and practitioners. It introduces key papers presented at the Freiburg 2014 workshop, covering the case for researcher engagement using advocacy and participatory approaches, the role of universities in creating their own social mobility policies, the power of social mechanisms encouraging long-haul travel, issues in consumer responsibility development, industry self-regulation and the operation of realpolitik decision-making and implementation inside formal and informal destination-based mobility partnerships. Overall, the paper argues that governments and the tourism and transport industries must take a more cautious approach to the technological optimism that fosters policy inertia, and that policy-makers must take a more open approach to implementing sustainable transport policies. A research agenda for desirable transport futures is suggested.

  • 3.
    Gössling, Stefan
    University of Kalmar, Baltic Business School.
    Carbon neutral destinations a conceptual analysis: a conceptual analysis2009In: Journal of Sustainable Tourism, ISSN 0966-9582, E-ISSN 1747-7646, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 17-37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper provides a critical review of the concept of “carbon neutrality” for tourism destinations within the framework of the UNWTO's Davos Declaration, a document ascribing responsibilities to various actors in the tourism industry to engage in greenhouse gas emission reductions. The paper assesses the planning frameworks of countries engaging with the concept, discusses the measures that can be taken to achieve “carbon neutrality”, along with an evaluation of some of the theoretical and practical implications. An increasing number of destinations now plan to become “carbon neutral”, often as a response strategy to pressure on the tourism industry to reduce its emissions of greenhouse gases. They aim to mitigate their contribution to global warming, and to develop their tourism industries by enhancing their image as being environmentally pristine and sustainable.

  • 4.
    Gössling, Stefan
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Planning sustainable transport2014In: Journal of Sustainable Tourism, ISSN 0966-9582, E-ISSN 1747-7646, Vol. 22, no 8, p. 1268-1269Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Gössling, Stefan
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Sustainable transportation in the national parks2015In: Journal of Sustainable Tourism, ISSN 0966-9582, E-ISSN 1747-7646, Vol. 23, no 7, p. 1120-1121Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Gössling, Stefan
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. Lund University ; Western Norway Research Institute, Norway.
    Tourism, information technologies and sustainability: an exploratory review2017In: Journal of Sustainable Tourism, ISSN 0966-9582, E-ISSN 1747-7646, Vol. 25, no 7, p. 1024-1041Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Considerable attention has been paid in recent years to the fundamental changes in the global tourism system related to the emergence of information technologies (IT), and, specifically, the rise of social media. Opportunities to search travel-related information, to reserve and book, evaluate and judge; to receive travel advice and to communicate one's mobility patterns have all profoundly changed the practices of performing tourism, with concomitant repercussions for the management and marketing of businesses and destinations. This paper provides a discussion of the implications of these changes for the sustainability of the global tourism system. Based on an exploratory research design, key changes in the tourism system are identified and discussed with regard to their environmental, socio-cultural and psychological, as well as economic significance. The paper concludes that IT affects the tourism system in numerous and complex ways, with mixed outcomes for sustainability: while most changes would currently appear to be ambivalent – and some outright negative – there is considerable potential for IT to support more sustainable tourism. Yet, this would require considerable changes in the tourism system on global, national and individual business' levels, and require tourism academics to probe many new issues.

  • 7.
    Gössling, Stefan
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. Lund University;Western Norway Res Inst, Norway.
    Tourism, tourist learning and sustainability: an exploratory discussion of complexities, problems and opportunities2018In: Journal of Sustainable Tourism, ISSN 0966-9582, E-ISSN 1747-7646, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 292-306Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Learning is often a central element of tourism. Tourists can learn actively, i.e. with a specific purpose, as well as passively through the comparison of values, norms and customs. It has been argued that travel supports active learning that has positive outcomes for sustainability, for instance, in the context of conservation. Yet, the complexity of active and passive learning processes and their outcomes for environmental sustainability and sustainable lifestyles remain insufficiently understood. Against this background, the paper discusses selected learning outcomes for transportation (air travel), accommodation (hotels) and activities (theme park visits). Findings suggest that desirable learning (defined as pro-sustainable development learning) in tourism may be very limited, while in particular, passive learning processes which redefine social norms frequently have outcomes that are largely detrimental to sustainable lifestyles. They include forms of moral licensing, the diffusion of responsibilities as well as the attenuation of the negative consequences of travel. Given the economic, social and cultural importance of tourism vis-a-vis its global implications for environmental sustainability, learning outcomes in tourism deserve to be studied in greater detail, while strategies need to be devised to enhance sustainable learning effects.

  • 8.
    Gössling, Stefan
    et al.
    Research Centre for Sustainable Tourism, Western Norway Research Institute, Sogndal, Norway.
    Hall, C. M
    Ekström, F
    Brudvik Engeset, A
    Aall, C
    Transition management: a tool for implementing sustainable tourism scenarios?2012In: Journal of Sustainable Tourism, ISSN 0966-9582, E-ISSN 1747-7646, Vol. 20, no 6, p. 899-916Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is academic, political and industry consensus that tourism should achieve greater sustainability, a process requiring stakeholder involvement on various levels. It is less clear how significant actor numbers can be mobilized to pro-actively work towards sustainability goals, achieving significant systemic change. This paper explores the transition management literature to provide a theoretical framework for stakeholder involvement and policy implementation processes in sustainable tourism. A selection of sustainable tourism initiatives by global tourism and transport organizations are reviewed and discussed with regard to the mechanisms and approaches used to involve stakeholders, and their success or otherwise in achieving change. This is compared to the results of a national tourism sustainability initiative by the Norwegian government initiated in 2010. The initiative brought together 62 leading stakeholders from all tourism interests, except airlines, for a series of six intensive discussion and goal setting sessions. Evaluation shows that stakeholder awareness and knowledge appear to have improved substantially, and potential government policy initiatives legitimized – though few tangible results can yet be seen. Overall results suggest that transition management provides a valuable theoretical framework to understand change processes, while the dialetics of stakeholder involvement and policy implementation are an essential precondition for successful governance.

  • 9.
    Gössling, Stefan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. Western Norway Res Inst, Norway;Lund University.
    Hall, C. Michael
    Univ Canterbury, New Zealand.
    Sharing versus collaborative economy: how to align ICT developments and the SDGs in tourism?2019In: Journal of Sustainable Tourism, ISSN 0966-9582, E-ISSN 1747-7646, Vol. 27, no 1, p. 74-96Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Great hopes have been placed in the sharing economy to provide a new business model based on peer-to-peer (P2P) exchanges of underutilized assets. As a model, the sharing economy has been expected to make significant contributions to sustainability, providing new opportunities for entrepreneurship, more sustainable use of resources, and consumer co-operation in tight economic networks. However, in recent years, digital platforms have turned into the most important actors in the global sharing economy, turning global corporations, such as AirBnB, Booking, or TripAdvisor into intermediaries controlling and profiting from most transactions. Focused on accommodation, this paper conceptualizes the sharing economy in comparison to the wider collaborative economy, and discusses its social, economic, environmental, and political impacts in comparison to the sustainable development goals. It concludes that the sharing economy has great potential to make very significant contributions to sustainability, though the model is increasingly being replaced by the collaborative economy, which performs as an extension and acceleration of neoliberal economic practices.

  • 10.
    Gössling, Stefan
    et al.
    Western Norway Research Institute, Norway ; Lund University, Sweden.
    Lane, Bernard
    Leeds Metropolitan University, UK.
    Rural tourism and the development of Internet-based accommodation booking platforms: a study in the advantages, dangers and implications of innovation2015In: Journal of Sustainable Tourism, ISSN 0966-9582, E-ISSN 1747-7646, Vol. 23, no 8-9, p. 1386-1403Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the past decade, the use of global Internet-based reservation systems for accommodation has grown massively. This development appears particularly relevant for rural properties, empowering even very small enterprises to reach a large global customer base cheaply and easily. However, a limited number of reservation platforms now dominate the market, with consequences for existing, often locally owned non-profit, national and regional reservation systems. Price comparability listings, ratings and customer reviews (key features of online booking platforms) could impact inter-business competition, quality management, marketing strategies and revenue flows. This paper reviews these issues and researches their impacts on rural accommodation providers in Western Norway, using a series of semi-structured interviews to determine when and why they became involved with Booking.com, the world's largest reservation platform, and how this affected their operations. Results indicate that Booking.com now has a significant role in reservations in rural Norway, with a range of implications for destinations and businesses. While individual businesses seem to benefit overall, Internet-based booking platforms abstract revenues from national and regional booking organisations which also provide advice, training, lobbying and image-enhancing destination marketing. Ideas are presented for new roles for national and regional organisations.

  • 11.
    Gössling, Stefan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. Lund Univ, Sweden ; Western Norway Res Inst, Norway.
    Peeters, Paul
    NHTV Breda Univ Appl Sci, Netherlands ; Delft Univ Technol, Netherlands ; Wageningen Univ, Netherlands .
    Assessing tourism's global environmental impact 1900-20502015In: Journal of Sustainable Tourism, ISSN 0966-9582, E-ISSN 1747-7646, Vol. 23, no 5, p. 639-659Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper pioneers the assessment of tourism's total global resource use, including its fossil fuel consumption, associated CO2 emissions, fresh water, land, and food use. As tourism is a dynamic growth system, characterized by rapidly increasing tourist numbers, understanding its past, current, and future contributions to global resource use is a central requirement for sustainable tourism assessments. The paper introduces the concept of resource use intensities (RUIs), which represent tourism's resource needs per unit of consumption (e.g. energy per guest night). Based on estimates of RUIs, a first assessment of tourism's global resource use and emissions is provided for the period 1900-2050, utilizing the Peeters Global Tourism Transport Model. Results indicate that the current (2010) global tourism system may require c.16,700 PJ of energy, 138 km(3) of fresh water, 62,000 km(2) of land, and 39.4 Mt of food, also causing emissions of 1.12 Gt CO2. Despite efforts to implement more sustainable forms of tourism, analysis indicates that tourism's overall resource consumption may grow by between 92% (water) and 189% (land use) in the period 2010-2050. To maintain the global tourism system consequently requires rapidly growing resource inputs, while the system is simultaneously becoming increasingly vulnerable to disruptions in resource flows.

  • 12.
    Gössling, Stefan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. Western Norway Research Institute, Norway.
    Ring, Amata
    The University of Queensland, Australia.
    Dwyer, Larry
    University of New South Wales, Australia ; Griffith University, Australia.
    Andersson, Ann-Christin
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Hall, C. Michael
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. University of Canterbury, New Zealand.
    Optimizing or maximizing? A challenge to sustainable tourism2016In: Journal of Sustainable Tourism, ISSN 0966-9582, E-ISSN 1747-7646, Vol. 24, no 4, p. 527-548Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Virtually all destinations seek to increase tourist numbers, pursuing economic maximization strategies. Considerably less attention is paid to optimizing existing tourist systems to create more profitable, stable, resilient and potentially more sustainable entities. While aspects of tourist expenditure, average length of stay and seasonality as three key destination management variables have received considerable attention in the literature, focus has usually been on the identification of “profitable” tourism markets by considering observed patterns of spending, length of stay and vacation timing. Building on such earlier studies, this paper focuses on flexibilities in these parameters: could tourists have spent more, stayed longer or visited during a different season? Perceptions of destination expensiveness as a potential deterrent to visitation were also addressed. Based on a sample (n = 1914) of domestic and international tourists in the Swedish cities of Kalmar and Stockholm, data were collected in face-to-face interviews using questionnaires. Results indicate considerable potential to optimize the Swedish tourism system with regard to all variables studied, while also providing new insights for destination management in the context of economic resilience. Results also indicate the need for researchers everywhere to have detailed market knowledge if they are to persuade the industry to change its sustainability behavior.

  • 13.
    Gössling, Stefan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Schumacher, Kim
    Department of Geography, University of Hildesheim, Hildesheim, Germany.
    Implementing carbon neutral destination policies:  issues from the Seychelles2010In: Journal of Sustainable Tourism, ISSN 0966-9582, E-ISSN 1747-7646, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 377-391Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is now accepted that tourism is a significant contributor to global climate change, especially through air travel's high greenhouse gas emissions. This paper analyses the dilemmas facing tourism planning in many small island developing states and presents a model approach toward overcoming those dilemmas by adapting carbon neutral tourism policies. It researches the implementation issues facing carbon neutral tourism policies on the Seychelles Islands: tourism to the islands is energy-intensive, and current plans to increase tourist numbers will entail growing emissions of greenhouse gases. This paper analyses tourism's current levels of energy use and emissions, and explores ways to reduce them. Based on a survey of tourists and industry representatives in the Seychelles, it discusses options for tourism-dependent small island developing states to implement and finance carbon neutrality, while outlining the complexities and limitations of such an objective.

  • 14.
    Gössling, Stefan
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Scott, Daniel
    Scenario planning for sustainable tourism: an introduction2012In: Journal of Sustainable Tourism, ISSN 0966-9582, E-ISSN 1747-7646, Vol. 20, no 6, p. 773-778Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper introduces the development of scenario planning for sustainable tourism, from the 1970s to the present day. It outlines the links between scenario planning and forecasting, its role as a business-planning tool generally, and its use in tourism for destination planning and advocacy. The prominent role of models is shown and the evolution from the first generation of forecast-focused models of the 1980s to the new generation of complex, integrative, hierarchical, dynamic and even adaptive models of today is discussed. The paper introduces a series of new scenario planning papers that cover a range of subjects including theorising scenario analysis, counterfactual scenario planning, green economy support systems, climate change scenarios (for ski and coastal tourism), destination environmental footprint scenario tools and transition management as a tool for scenario building.

  • 15.
    Gössling, Stefan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. Western Norway Res Inst, Norway;Lund University.
    Scott, Daniel
    Univ Waterloo, Canada.
    The decarbonisation impasse: global tourism leaders' views on climate change mitigation2018In: Journal of Sustainable Tourism, ISSN 0966-9582, E-ISSN 1747-7646, Vol. 26, no 12, p. 2071-2086Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Paris Climate Agreement is based on pledges from 195 countries to substantially reduce emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) to prevent dangerous climate change. The tourism sector has likewise pledged to reduce its GHG emissions (-70% by 2050); however, current emission trends would result in a tripling in the same timeframe. In order to understand how the sector understands the decarbonisation challenge, 17 senior tourism leaders were interviewed with regard to their perspectives on the risks and opportunities associated with climate change impacts and action. Respondents affirmed that the climate is already changing, fuelled by human activities, including tourism, and that its impacts on society and tourism will be largely negative and devastating in some regions. Opinion was divided regarding mitigation timelines, the compatibility of continued tourism growth with Paris Climate Agreement decarbonisation goals, and the role of technology and governance in reducing emissions. The paper examines leaders' perspectives in terms of "belief systems" that interpret information in decision-making, as well as forms of agnogenesis; this is, the fabrication of uncertainty to justify non-action. Belief systems and agnogenesis are thought to represent important barriers to progress on the decarbonisation of tourism, as they are for the global low-carbon transition.

  • 16.
    Hall, C. Michael
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. Univ Canterbury, New Zealand;Univ Oulu, Finland.
    Constructing sustainable tourism development: The 2030 agenda and the managerial ecology of sustainable tourism2019In: Journal of Sustainable Tourism, ISSN 0966-9582, E-ISSN 1747-7646, Vol. 27, no 7, p. 1044-1060Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The UN 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development sets a series of sustainable development goals (SDGs) to end poverty, protect the planet and ensure prosperity for all by 2030. The Agenda influences tourism policy even though the Agenda resolution only mentions tourism three times. A heterogeneous constructionism approach is adopted to examine the managerial ecology of tourism and the SDGs. Managerial ecology involves the instrumental application of science and economic utilitarian approaches and in the service of resource utilisation and economic development. A managerial ecological approach is integral to UNWTO work on the SDGs, as well as other actors, and is reflected in policy recommendations for achievement of the SDGs even though tourism is less sustainable than ever with respect to resource use. This situation substantially affects capacities to do other, and create alternative development and policy trajectories. It is concluded that a more reflexive understanding of knowledge and management is required to better understand the implications of knowledge circulation and legitimisation and action for sustainable tourism. More fundamentally, there is a need to rethink human-environment relations given the mistaken belief that the exertion of more effort and greater efficiency will alone solve problems of sustainable tourism.

  • 17.
    Hall, C. Michael
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Intervening in academic interventions: framing social marketing's potential for successful sustainable tourism behavioural change2016In: Journal of Sustainable Tourism, ISSN 0966-9582, E-ISSN 1747-7646, Vol. 24, no 3, p. 350-375Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Given tourism's growing emissions and contribution to environmental change, the positive potential of behavioural interventions, and especially social marketing, has increasingly become a focus for sustainable tourism and mobility research. This paper uses the lens of social marketing to investigate the capacities of tourism researchers to contribute to sustainable tourist behavioural change. Several key and interrelated issues are identified: the nature of socio-technical systems and regimes, understanding what constitutes a successful behavioural intervention, the role of theory and belief systems in interventions, and the potential role of upstream social marketing in policy learning and system change. In the case of social marketing, the essentially political nature of engaging in communications on sustainability is also highlighted. This has implications for the social marketing knowledge base on which sustainable tourism behaviour research draws, such as the value of political marketing and psychology, as well as the challenge that this provides for notions of value-free or objective tourism research. The need for behavioural change by tourism researchers, as well as by governments, the industry, and tourists is noted. These issues are critically evaluated and expanded upon to aid academic researchers in understanding and promoting behaviour change in tourism studies.

  • 18.
    Hall, C. Michael
    et al.
    University of Canterbury, New Zealand;University of Oulu, Finland.
    Amelung, B.
    Wageningen University, Netherlands.
    Cohen, S.
    University of Surrey, UK.
    Eijgelaar, E.
    NHTV Breda University of Applied Sciences, Netherlands.
    Gössling, Stefan
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Higham, J.
    University of Otago, New Zealand.
    Leemans, R.
    Peeters, P.
    NHTV Breda University of Applied Sciences, Netherlands.
    Ram, Y.
    Ashkelon Academic College, Israel.
    Scott, D.
    University of Waterloo, Canada.
    On climate change skepticism and denial in tourism2015In: Journal of Sustainable Tourism, ISSN 0966-9582, E-ISSN 1747-7646, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 4-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The period leading to and immediately after the release of the IPCC's fifth series of climate change assessments saw substantial efforts by climate change denial interests to portray anthropogenic climate change (ACC) as either unproven theory or a negligible contribution to natural climate variability, including the relationship between tourism and climate change. This paper responds to those claims by stressing that the extent of scientific consensus suggests that human-induced warming of the climate system is unequivocal. Second, it responds in the context of tourism research and ACC, highlighting tourism's significant contribution to greenhouse gas emissions, as well as climate change's potential impacts on tourism at different scales. The paper exposes the tactics used in ACC denial papers to question climate change science by referring to non-peer-reviewed literature, outlier studies, and misinterpretation of research, as well as potential links to think tanks and interest groups. The paper concludes that climate change science does need to improve its communication strategies but that the world-view of some individuals and interests likely precludes acceptance. The connection between ACC and sustainability illustrates the need for debate on adaptation and mitigation strategies, but that debate needs to be grounded in scientific principles not unsupported skepticism.

  • 19.
    Hall, C. Michael
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. Univ Canterbury, New Zealand;Univ Oulu, Finland;Univ Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Ram, Yael
    Ashkelon Acad Coll, Israel.
    Measuring the relationship between tourism and walkability?: Walk Score and English tourist attractions2019In: Journal of Sustainable Tourism, ISSN 0966-9582, E-ISSN 1747-7646, Vol. 27, no 2, p. 223-240Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Walking is an important part of the tourist experience and a significant element of sustainable mobility. Although the concept of walkability has substantial health, social, economic and environmental dimensions for permanent residents, little attention has been given to the concept of walkability from a tourist perspective. This study examines the relationships between walkability and indicators of successful tourism as measured by visitor numbers and TripAdvisor reviews for leading English visitor attractions. Walkability is measured by using the Walk Score (R) index that assesses the walking potential of an origin point through a combination of the shortest distance to a group of preselected destination points, the block length and the intersection density around the origin. The Walk Score algorithm includes built environment characteristics but not route characteristics. The study found only weak relationships between walkability and visitor numbers and walkability and number of TripAdvisor ratings for the top 330 visitor attractions in England. No significant relationships were found for London's attractions although a weak relationship was noted between walkability and TripAdvisor ranking. It is concluded that tourism-specific assessments of walkability and transport choice are required if visitors are to be encouraged to engage in active transport at destinations.

  • 20.
    Hibbert, Julia F.
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. Bournemouth Univ, Sch Tourism, Poole BH12 5BB, Dorset, England.
    Dickinson, Janet E.
    Bournemouth Univ, Sch Tourism, Poole BH12 5BB, Dorset, England.
    Gössling, Stefan
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. Lund Univ, Dept Serv Management, Lund, Sweden.
    Curtin, Susanna
    Bournemouth Univ, Sch Tourism, Poole BH12 5BB, Dorset, England.
    Identity and tourism mobility: an exploration of the attitude-behaviour gap2013In: Journal of Sustainable Tourism, ISSN 0966-9582, E-ISSN 1747-7646, Vol. 21, no 7, p. 999-1016Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the attitude-behaviour gap from an identity perspective in order to better understand why tourists act sustainably at "home" but not when "away". The majority of tourism-related CO2 emissions stems from transport. Behavioural change is a possible way to reduce those emissions. However, research indicates that instigating behavioural change within tourism is problematic, because of the attitude-behaviour gap. Studies suggest that understanding the role of identity and tourism mobility could explain this gap; this paper researches that idea, using a narrative approach to explore the travel life histories of 24 participants, with a second interview to examine how interviewees viewed their tourism activity in the light of environmental debates and concerns. Data were analysed using thematic and narrative-based dialogic/performance approaches. The paper reveals how a need for personal identity can influence travel behaviour and that identity plays a significant role in travel decisions, sometimes overriding cost and environmental issues. The power of social identity is explored, noting increasingly powerful global VFR networks, along with the search for future selves, the need for personal differentiation and issues of multiple identities. Suggestions are made for ways to use identity research into policies seeking to achieve behavioural change.

  • 21. Higham, James
    et al.
    Cohen, Scott A.
    Peeters, Paul
    Gössling, Stefan
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. Lund Univ, Dept Serv Management, Helsingborg, Sweden.
    Psychological and behavioural approaches to understanding and governing sustainable mobility2013In: Journal of Sustainable Tourism, ISSN 0966-9582, E-ISSN 1747-7646, Vol. 21, no 7, p. 949-967Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper introduces and explores the psychological and social factors that both contribute to and inhibit behaviour change vis-a-vis sustainable (tourist) mobility. It is based on papers presented at the Freiburg 2012 workshop. Specifically, it reviews climate change attitudes and perceptions, the psychological benefits of tourism mobilities, addictive elements of mobility and social norming effects, the attitude-behaviour gap (i.e. cognitive dissonance between understandings of, and responses to, climate change), the psychology of modal shifts, the psychology of travel speed/time and psychological explanations for the perceived importance of long distance travel. It notes that anthropogenic climate change is an inescapable reality and that tourism's share of greenhouse gas emissions appears set to rise substantially. There is little prospect of technical solutions adequately addressing this problem. The paper concludes that, while a comprehensive understanding of tourist psychology is necessary to inform policy-makers, it alone will be insufficient to achieve emission reductions, and bring tourism to a climatically sustainable pathway, if treated in isolation. Radical change in the structures of provision is also necessary. That change may take the form of infrastructure planning, including financial and economic infrastructure (e. g. taxation regimes and emission trading schemes) for sustainable mobility.

  • 22.
    Peeters, Paul
    et al.
    Breda Univ Appl Sci, Netherlands.
    Higham, James
    Univ Otago, New Zealand;Univ Stavanger, Norway.
    Cohen, Scott
    Univ Surrey, UK.
    Eijgelaar, Eke
    Breda Univ Appl Sci, Netherlands.
    Gössling, Stefan
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. Lund University, Sweden;West Norway Res Inst, Norway.
    Desirable tourism transport futures2019In: Journal of Sustainable Tourism, ISSN 0966-9582, E-ISSN 1747-7646, Vol. 27, no 2, p. 173-188Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The challenge of mitigating climate change is critical to desirable tourism transportation futures, although to date relatively little attention has been paid to this aspect of sustainable tourism. This introductory article to the special issues on 'Desirable Tourism Transport Futures' explores approaches to transitioning the tourism sector to a sustainable emissions path. It starts by describing an undesirable tourism transport future associated with a business-as-usual scenario, which will inevitably cause the climate mitigation goals outlined in the Paris Climate Accord to soon become unattainable. We then outline a scenario for a climatically desirable future, and its social and economic implications. It is important that desirable tourism transport futures are critically considered in terms of both spatial and temporal scale. The scenarios that inform this editorial provide some insights at the long-term macro-scale. These scenarios are associated with desirable and undesirable elements that will no doubt continue to be the subject of much debate and contestation. While these scenarios will represent both opportunities and threats to the full spectrum of tourism industry stakeholders, they should also inform manifold avenues of future research at a critical moment in the evolution of tourism transportation and the pursuit of the UN Sustainable Development Goals.

  • 23.
    Riber Larsen, Gunvor
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Guiver, Jo W.
    Univ Cent Lancashire, Sch Sports Tourism & Outdoors, Inst Transport & Tourism, Preston PR1 2HE, Lancs, England.
    Understanding tourists' perceptions of distance: a key to reducing the environmental impacts of tourism mobility2013In: Journal of Sustainable Tourism, ISSN 0966-9582, E-ISSN 1747-7646, Vol. 21, no 7, p. 968-981Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper seeks to understand how tourists might reduce their travel distances by better understanding their perception and "performance" of distances to destinations. Travel accounts for 75% of tourism's GHG emissions, the majority from flying. Tourist travel distances are growing rapidly, as are emissions, with little evidence of the reductions required to comply with emission reduction targets. This research used discourse analysis of in-depth interviews with Danish tourists to explore how they understand distance. Respondents rarely referred to physical distance (e. g. kilometres), but instead to scales including cost, time and cultural difference to express relative distances. Some distances were seen as "zonal", (e.g. "away from home" or "sun and sea" or winter sports destinations), others "ordinal", having degrees of difference, time or costs to cross. The desire for distance also resulted from links tourists make between physical distance and reaching cultural dissimilarity. Sometimes travel itself was integral with the holiday experience. While cost and time savings were important, the total holiday price was more important than the journey price. Measures are suggested for reducing the distances travelled and changing the modes used, and so reducing environmental impacts, including changing leave allowances, better marketing of nearby destinations with cultural differences, and promoting slow travel.

  • 24.
    Ritchie, Brent W.
    et al.
    University of Queensland, Australia.
    Sie, Lintje
    University of Queensland, Australia.
    Gössling, Stefan
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. Lund University, Sweden.
    Dwyer, Larry
    Griffith University, Australia;University of Ljubljana, Slovenia;University of New South Wales, Australia.
    Effects of climate change policies on aviation carbon offsetting: a three-year panel study2019In: Journal of Sustainable Tourism, ISSN 0966-9582, E-ISSN 1747-7646Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Air travel is predicted to grow over the coming decades contributing to carbon emissions. Airlines have offered voluntary carbon offsetting for over a decade, yet less than 10% of air travellers purchase them. Previous studies ignore the broader policy or social context of sustainable transport and aviation offsetting. In a natural experiment, a panel of the same Australian residents was tracked over a three-year period before and after the historic COP21. A novel hierarchical model was also tested using Partial Least Squares SEM. Although behaviour specific attitudes and social norms were more influential at encouraging aviation carbon offsetting, global policy knowledge and effectiveness of climate change policies play an important role. Although no changes in ratings were detected over a three-year period, the effect of social norms on encouraging aviation offsetting became stronger in later years. Implications and future research directions to better understand the political and social context of carbon offsetting and sustainable transport are provided.

  • 25. Scott, D
    et al.
    Peeters, P
    Gössling, Stefan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Can tourism deliver its ‘aspirational’ emission reduction targets?2010In: Journal of Sustainable Tourism, ISSN 0966-9582, E-ISSN 1747-7646, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 393-408Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Scott, Danel
    et al.
    University of Waterloo, Canada.
    Hall, C. Michael
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. University of Canterbury, New Zealand ; University of Oulu, Finland ;University of Eastern Finland ; University of Johannesburg, South Africa ; University of Mauritius, Mauritius.
    Gössling, Stefan
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. Lund University ; Western Norway Research Institute, Norway.
    A report on the Paris Climate Change Agreement and its implications for tourism: why we will always have Paris2016In: Journal of Sustainable Tourism, ISSN 0966-9582, E-ISSN 1747-7646, Vol. 24, no 7, p. 933-948Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACT: Sustained international diplomatic efforts culminated in the signing of the Paris Climate Agreement by 196 countries in December 2015. This paper provides an overview of the key provisions of the agreement that are most relevant to the tourism sector: much strengthened and world-wide participation in greenhouse gas emission reduction ambitions, an enduring framework for increased ambitions over time, improved transparency in emissions reporting and a greater emphasis on climate risk management through adaptation. The declared carbon emission reduction ambitions of the tourism sector and international aviation are found to be broadly compatible with those of the Paris Agreement, however, claims of reduced emission intensity in the tourism sector since 2005 and a roadmap by which emission reduction ambitions for 2020 and 2035 might realistically be achieved both remain equivocal. The need for international tourism leadership to improve sectoral scale emission monitoring capacity to meet the increasing requirements for transparency, convene an assessment of risks from climate change and climate policy, foster greater collaboration on destination climate resilience and accelerate technological, policy and social innovation to put tourism firmly on a pathway to the low-carbon economy are all emphasized, as is the need for dialogue between tourism and tourism researchers.

  • 27.
    Scott, Daniel
    et al.
    Univ Waterloo, Canada ; Western Norway Res Inst, Norway.
    Gössling, Stefan
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. Western Norway Res Inst, Norway.
    Hall, C. Michael
    Univ Canterbury, New Zealand ; Univ Oulu, Finland ; Univ Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Peeters, Paul
    NHTV Breda Univ Appl Sci, Netherlands.
    Can tourism be part of the decarbonized global economy?: The costs and risks of alternate carbon reduction policy pathways2016In: Journal of Sustainable Tourism, ISSN 0966-9582, E-ISSN 1747-7646, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 52-72Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Global leaders agree on the need to substantially decarbonize the global economy by 2050. This paper compares potential costs associated with different policy pathways to achieve tourism sector emission reduction ambitions (-50% by 2035) and transform the sector to be part of the mid-century decarbonizedeconomy (-70% by 2050). Investment in emissions abatement within the tourism sector, combined with strategic external carbon offsets, was found to beapproximately 5% more cost effective over the period 2015-2050 than exclusive reliance on offsetting. The cost to achieve the -50% target through abatement and strategic offsetting, while significant, represents less than 0.1% of the estimated global tourism economy in 2020 and 3.6% in 2050. Distributed equally among all tourists (international and domestic), the cost of a low-carbon tourism sector is estimated at US$11 per trip, equivalent to many current travel fees or taxes. Exclusive reliance on offsetting would expose the sector to extensive and continued carbon liability costs beyond mid-century and could beperceived as climate inaction, increasing reputational risks and the potential for less efficient regulatory interventions that could hinder sustainable tourismdevelopment. Effective tourism sector leadership is needed to develop a strategic tourism policy framework and emission measurement and reporting system.

  • 28.
    Scott, Daniel
    et al.
    University of Waterloo, Canada ; Research Centre for Sustainable Tourism, Norway.
    Hall, C. Michael
    University of Canterbury, New Zealand.
    Gössling, Stefan
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. Research Centre for Sustainable Tourism, Norway ; Lund University.
    A review of the IPCC Fifth Assessment and implications for tourism sector climate resilience and decarbonisation2016In: Journal of Sustainable Tourism, ISSN 0966-9582, E-ISSN 1747-7646, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 8-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in 2013–2014 was the most comprehensive analysis of anthropogenic climate change, its impacts, and potential responses. It concluded that climate change is “unequivocal” and human activities are the dominant cause. Avoidance of “dangerous” climate change will require sustained substantial reductions of emissions by mid-century and that net emissions decrease to zero before 2100. This paper describes, reviews and explains the place of tourism in AR5 and AR5's relevance for tourism's future, including impacts, adaptation, vulnerabilities, and mitigation. Tourism's position in AR5 has strengthened, particularly with respect to the recognition of transboundary impacts, the sector's contribution to climate change and its mitigation requirements. Major regional knowledge gaps persist. A lack of understanding of the integrated impacts of climate change and the effectiveness of adaptation strategies potentially hinders the development of resilient tourism operations and destinations. Uncertainties regarding tourist response to climate change impacts and mitigation policy impede predictions of tourism demand. The implications of different decarbonization pathways for the future of international tourism represent a key knowledge gap. The limited response of key tourism organizations to AR5 contributes to the risks climate change poses to the sector.

  • 29.
    Strzelecka, Marianna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Boley, B. Bynum
    Univ Georgia, USA.
    Strzelecka, Celina
    Univ Wroclaw, Poland.
    Empowerment and resident support for tourism in rural Central and Eastern Europe (CEE): the case of Pomerania, Poland2017In: Journal of Sustainable Tourism, ISSN 0966-9582, E-ISSN 1747-7646, Vol. 25, no 4, p. 554-572Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite empowerment being a crucial component of sustainable tourism, few scholars have quantitatively operationalized empowerment and looked at how it applies to rural societies within the post-communist European Union (EU) member states. Knowing the high priority of sustainable rural development goals within the EU, empowering residents within these post-communist societies has become a pertinent issue especially where those societies appear more reluctant to engaging in democratic ways of decision-making. In response to this gap, this study tests the cross-cultural validity of the Resident Empowerment through Tourism Scale, and then evaluates how empowerment predicts residents' support for tourism within the municipality of Choczewo, Pomerania, Poland. Using a theoretical perspective that blends Social Exchange Theory with Weber's Theory of Formal and Substantive Rationality, these non-economic empowerment dimensions are coupled with a measure of resident perceptions of economically benefiting from tourism to see if rural residents in Choczewo, Poland, are more swayed by the economic or non-economic benefits of tourism. Results show that residents within this Central and Eastern Europe setting are more influenced by the pride and self-esteem boost associated with psychological empowerment and the perceptions of increased community cohesion (i.e. social empowerment) than the economic promises of tourism.

  • 30.
    Strzelecka, Marianna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. Jagiellonian University, Poland.
    Woosnam, Kyle M.
    University of Georgia, USA.
    Nisbett, Gwendelyn S.
    University of North Texas, USA.
    Self-efficacy mechanism at work: the context of environmental volunteer travel2018In: Journal of Sustainable Tourism, ISSN 0966-9582, E-ISSN 1747-7646, Vol. 26, no 11, p. 2002-2020Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As public funding to support nature conservation continues to decline, building a commitment to ecological restoration through volunteer travel is key to addressing a range of environmental concerns. This study contributes the first utilization of Bandura’s self-efficacy (SE) mechanism in the context of environmental volunteer travel demonstrating how environmental stewardship, hedonic experience, and environmental SE relate to one another in this particular setting. The study results suggest that while environmental volunteer travelers appear to be driven by one’s beliefs that participation in ecological restoration is a worthwhile activity; motivations to participate in ecological restoration projects can be strengthened or weakened depending on the promise of hedonic experiences. These results shed light on the likely shift in what motivates young adults to engage in travel and volunteering in ecological restoration projects around the world. This is important because a better understanding of what can persuade young adults to travel and engage in ecological restoration enables for the tailoring of environmental volunteering programs to meet individuals’ expectations.

  • 31.
    Truong, V. Dao
    et al.
    North West Univ, South Africa ; Natl Econ Univ, Vietnam.
    Hall, C. Michael
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. Univ Canterbury, New Zealand ; Univ Oulu, Finland ; Univ Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Corporate social marketing in tourism: to sleep or not to sleep with the enemy?2017In: Journal of Sustainable Tourism, ISSN 0966-9582, E-ISSN 1747-7646, Vol. 25, no 7, p. 884-902Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Social marketing is regarded as an effective consumer-oriented approach to promoting behavioural change and improved well-being for individuals, communities and society. However, its potential for tourism, especially sustainable tourism, remains under-researched. This article examines the utilisation of social marketing by tourism businesses. A search strategy identified 14 behavioural change programmes that involved tourism businesses. Half of these programmes label themselves social marketing; the others tend to be part of corporate social responsibility efforts, using a form of corporate social marketing (CSM). Most programmes seek to encourage pro-environmental behaviours in tourists, tourism businesses and other stakeholders including suppliers. Although tourism businesses can develop social marketing programmes alone, typically they collaborate with public and non-profit agencies as partners and sponsors. The strength of the tie between the promoted behaviour and the sale of a company's product varies considerably. It is suggested that social marketing can make significant contributions to environmentally sustainable tourism. However, this research also suggests that social marketing is not a substitute for, but rather an essential complement to, technological and regulatory approaches to climate change. Changing behaviour is a long process: without a long-term commitment from private sector companies, CSM programmes will fail to achieve behavioural change goals.

1 - 31 of 31
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