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  • 1.
    Gössling, Stefan
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. Lund University.
    Urban transport justice2016In: Journal of Transport Geography, ISSN 0966-6923, E-ISSN 1873-1236, Vol. 54, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many cities in the world seek to establish more sustainable urban transport systems with a view to reduce accidents, congestion, air and noise pollution, and to improve social interactions, liveability and amenity values. Against this background, this paper frames urban transportation as an issue of justice: contemporary transport systems are characterized by injustice, as they tend to favour and prioritize motorized transport, accepting that considerable environmental and social burdens are put on more sustainable forms of transportation, other traffic participants and society as a whole. To conceptualize 'urban transport justice', the paper discusses three dimensions where injustices are apparent: Exposure to traffic risks and pollutants; distribution of space; and valuation of transport time. It is argued that public and political recognition of urban transport injustices provides significant argument for changes in urban planning, transport infrastructure development and traffic management. © 2016 Elsevier B.V..

  • 2.
    Gössling, Stefan
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Urban transport transitions: Copenhagen, City of Cyclists2013In: Journal of Transport Geography, ISSN 0966-6923, E-ISSN 1873-1236, Vol. 33, p. 196-206Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mobility growth poses considerable challenges to city planners around the world, as it entails problems of congestion, air pollution, and accidents. Many cities have thus sought to increase the share of sustainable transport, and specifically travel by bicycle. However, it appears that measures to foster cycling are often implemented on an ad hoc basis, lacking strategic focus and a more profound understanding of bicycle cultures. New insights can be gained from Copenhagen, Denmark, a selfdeclared City of Cyclists that has made considerable progress towards increasing the share of travel by bicycle, with the political goal to become the "world's best city for bicycling". In this article, the success, reproducibility and limitations of the Copenhagen bicycle strategy are discussed in an urban transport transitions framework, based on a content- and discourse analysis of the city's official documents to assess the respective role of market-based, command-and-control, and soft policy measures in encouraging bicycling. Results suggest that soft policies, integrated with command-and-control measures, and the consideration of bicyclist expectations and concerns with regard to perceptions of safety, speed and comfort have been key in achieving high bicycle trip shares. Integrating these in comprehensive planning frameworks appears to be an approach that is more likely to foster bicycle cultures that can result in urban transport transitions. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 3.
    Gössling, Stefan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. Western Norway Res Inst, N-6851 Sogndal, Norway.
    Cohen, Scott
    Univ Surrey, England.
    Why sustainable transport policies will fail: EU climate policy in the light of transport taboos2014In: Journal of Transport Geography, ISSN 0966-6923, E-ISSN 1873-1236, Vol. 39, p. 197-207Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is widespread consensus that current climate policy for passenger transportation is insufficient to achieve significant emission reductions in line with global climate stabilization goals. This article consequently has a starting point in the notion of 'path dependency' (Schwanen et al., 2011) and an observed 'implementation gap' (Banister and Hickman, 2013), suggesting that significant mitigation policies for transport do not emerge in the European Union because of various interlinked 'transport taboos', i.e. barriers to the design, acceptance and implementation of such transport policies that remain unaddressed as they constitute political risk. The paper argues that without addressing transport taboos, such as highly unequal individual contributions to transport volumes and emissions, social inequality of planned market-based measures, the role of lobbyism, and the various social and psychological functions of mobility, it will remain difficult to achieve significant emission reductions in passenger transport. Yet, transport taboos remain largely ignored among EU policy makers because their discussion would violate 'order', i.e. harm specific interests within neoliberal governance structures and the societal foundations and structures of transport systems built on these. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 4.
    Gössling, Stefan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. Western Norway Res Inst, Norway.
    Cohen, Scott Allen
    Univ Surrey, UK.
    Hares, Andrew
    Buckinghamshire New Univ, UK.
    Inside the black box: EU policy officers' perspectives on transport and climate change mitigation2016In: Journal of Transport Geography, ISSN 0966-6923, E-ISSN 1873-1236, Vol. 57, p. 83-93Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transport is a significant and growing contributor to climate change. To stay within 'safe' global warming guardrails requires substantial cuts in greenhouse gas emissions. This represents a global political consensus, but there is evidence that current legislation in the transport sector is not significant enough to achieve medium- and longer-term reduction goals. In focusing on the European Union, this paper investigates the perspectives of twelve policy officers in three Directorates-General (MOVE, CLIMA, ENV) of the European Commission with regard to their understanding of mitigation goals and timelines, responsibilities for policy development and implementation, and perceived efficiencies of these policies to achieve climate objectives in the transport sector. Results indicate diverging and common views on climate policy goals and political responsibilities, as well as barriers to policy-making, including lack of political leadership on climate change mitigation, resistance from member states, the favoring of economic growth over cuts in greenhouse gas emissions, pressure from industry and lobby groups, preferential treatment of aero- and automobility over more sustainable transport modes, policy implementation delays, insufficient forecasting and monitoring tools, and an overreliance on technologies to contribute to emission reductions. In offering a view inside the 'black box' of transport policy-making, the paper reveals fundamental institutional (structural) and individual (agency-based) barriers that will have to be overcome if significant emission cuts in the transport sector are to be achieved. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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