In the formalism of quantum theory, a state of a system is represented by a density operator. Mathematically, a density operator can be decomposed into a weighted sum of (projection) operators representing an ensemble of pure states (a state distribution), but such decomposition is not unique. Various pure states distributions are mathematically described by the same density operator. These distributions are categorized into classical ones obtained from the Schatten decomposition and other, non-classical, ones. In this paper, we define the quantity called the state entropy. It can be considered as a generalization of the von Neumann entropy evaluating the diversity of states constituting a distribution. Further, we apply the state entropy to the analysis of non-classical states created at the intermediate stages in the process of quantum measurement. To do this, we employ the model of differentiation, where a system experiences step by step state transitions under the influence of environmental factors. This approach can be used for modeling various natural and mental phenomena: cell's differentiation, evolution of biological populations, and decision making.
This paper is aimed to dissociate nonlocality from quantum theory. We demonstrate that the tests on violation of the Bell type inequalities are simply statistical tests of local incompatibility of observables. In fact, these are tests on violation of the Bohr complementarity principle. Thus, the attempts to couple experimental violations of the Bell type inequalities with "quantum nonlocality" is really misleading. These violations are explained in the quantum theory as exhibitions of incompatibility of observables for a single quantum system, e.g., the spin projections for a single electron or the polarization projections for a single photon. Of course, one can go beyond quantum theory with the hidden variables models (as was suggested by Bell) and then discuss their possible nonlocal features. However, conventional quantum theory is local.
Recently, the methods of quantum theory (QT), especially quantum information and probability, started to be widely applied outside of physics: in cognitive, social and political sciences, psychology, economics, finances, decision making, molecular biology and genetics. Such models can be called quantum-like, in contrast to real quantum physical cognitive and biological models. Quantum-like means that only the information and probability structures of QT are explored. This approach matches the information interpretation of QT well (e.g., Zeilinger and Brukner, Fuchs and Mermin, D'Ariano), as well as the informational viewpoint on physics in general (e.g., Wheeler's it from bit paradigm). In this paper, we propose a quantum-like model of an information laser by precessing the assumptions on the structure of state spaces of information processors, information atoms (i-atoms) and information fields. The basic assumption is the discrete structure of state spaces related to quantization of an information analog of energy. To analyze a possible structure of the state space of i-atoms leading to the possibility to create information lasers, we have to develop a purely information version of quantum thermodynamics. We did this by placing the main attention on the derivation of the conditions for the equilibrium of information exchange between i-atoms and a quantized information field.
We start with a review on classical probability representations of quantum states and observables. We show that the correlations of the observables involved in the Bohm-Bell type experiments can be expressed as correlations of classical random variables. The main part of the paper is devoted to the conditional probability model with conditioning on the selection of the pairs of experimental settings. From the viewpoint of quantum foundations, this is a local contextual hidden-variables model. Following the recent works of Dzhafarov and collaborators, we apply our conditional probability approach to characterize (no-)signaling. Consideration of the Bohm-Bell experimental scheme in the presence of signaling is important for applications outside quantum mechanics, e.g., in psychology and social science. The main message of this paper (rooted to Ballentine) is that quantum probabilities and more generally probabilities related to the Bohm-Bell type experiments (not only in physics, but also in psychology, sociology, game theory, economics, and finances) can be classically represented as conditional probabilities.
The recent years were characterized by increasing interest to applications of the quantum formalism outside physics, e.g., in psychology, decision-making, socio-political studies. To distinguish such approach from quantum physics, it is called quantum-like. It is applied to modeling socio-political processes on the basis of the social laser model describing stimulated amplification of social actions. The main aim of this paper is establishing the socio-psychological interpretations of the quantum notions playing the basic role in lasing modeling. By using the Copenhagen interpretation and the operational approach to the quantum formalism, we analyze the notion of the social energy. Quantum formalizations of such notions as a social atom, s-atom, and an information field are presented. The operational approach based on the creation and annihilation operators is used. We also introduce the notion of the social color of information excitations representing characteristics linked to lasing coherence of the type of collimation. The Bose–Einstein statistics of excitations is coupled with the bandwagon effect, one of the basic effects of social psychology. By using the operational interpretation of the social energy, we present the thermodynamical derivation of this quantum statistics. The crucial role of information overload generated by the modern mass-media is emphasized. In physics laser’s resonator, the optical cavity, plays the crucial role in amplification. We model the functioning of social laser’s resonator by “distilling” the physical scheme from connection with optics. As the mathematical basis, we use the master equation for the density operator for the quantum information field.
The aim of this paper is to attract the attention of experimenters to the original Bell (OB) inequality that was shadowed by the common consideration of the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) inequality. There are two reasons to test the OB inequality and not the CHSH inequality. First of all, the OB inequality is a straightforward consequence to the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) argumentation. In addition, only this inequality is directly related to the EPR-Bohr debate. The second distinguishing feature of the OB inequality was emphasized by Itamar Pitowsky. He pointed out that the OB inequality provides a higher degree of violations of classicality than the CHSH inequality. For the CHSH inequality, the fraction of the quantum (Tsirelson) bound Q(CHSH) = 2 root 2 to the classical bound C-CHSH = 2, i.e., F-CHSH = Q(CHSH)/C-CHSH= root 2 is less than the fraction of the quantum bound for the OB inequality Q(OB) = 3/2 to the classical bound C-OB = 1, i.e., F-OB = Q(OB)/C-OB = 3/2. Thus, by violating the OB inequality, it is possible to approach a higher degree of deviation from classicality. The main problem is that the OB inequality is derived under the assumption of perfect (anti-) correlations. However, the last few years have been characterized by the amazing development of quantum technologies. Nowadays, there exist sources producing, with very high probability, the pairs of photons in the singlet state. Moreover, the efficiency of photon detectors was improved tremendously. In any event, one can start by proceeding with the fair sampling assumption. Another possibility is to use the scheme of the Hensen et al. experiment for entangled electrons. Here, the detection efficiency is very high.
We introduce the general class of symmetric two-qubit states guaranteeing the perfect correlation or anticorrelation of Alice and Bob outcomes whenever some spin observable is measured at both sites. We prove that, for all states from this class, the maximal violation of the original Bell inequality is upper bounded by 32" role="presentation">32 and specify the two-qubit states where this quantum upper bound is attained. The case of two-qutrit states is more complicated. Here, for all two-qutrit states, we obtain the same upper bound 32" role="presentation">32 for violation of the original Bell inequality under Alice and Bob spin measurements, but we have not yet been able to show that this quantum upper bound is the least one. We discuss experimental consequences of our mathematical study.
We present a new conceptual approach for modeling of fluid flows in random porous media based on explicit exploration of the treelike geometry of complex capillary networks. Such patterns can be represented mathematically as ultrametric spaces and the dynamics of fluids by ultrametric diffusion. The images of p-adic fields, extracted from the real multiscale rock samples and from some reference images, are depicted. In this model the porous background is treated as the environment contributing to the coefficients of evolutionary equations. For the simplest trees, these equations are essentially less complicated than those with fractional differential operators which are commonly applied in geological studies looking for some fractional analogs to conventional Euclidean space but with anomalous scaling and diffusion properties. It is possible to solve the former equation analytically and, in particular, to find stationary solutions. The main aim of this paper is to attract the attention of researchers working on modeling of geological processes to the novel utrametric approach and to show some examples from the petroleum reservoir static and dynamic characterization, able to integrate the p-adic approach with multifractals, thermodynamics and scaling. We also present a non-mathematician friendly review of trees and ultrametric spaces and pseudo-differential operators on such spaces.
Recently p-adic (and, more generally, ultrametric) spaces representing tree-like networks of percolation, and as a special case of capillary patterns in porous media, started to be used to model the propagation of fluids (e.g., oil, water, oil-in-water, and water-in-oil emulsion). The aim of this note is to derive p-adic dynamics described by fractional differential operators (Vladimirov operators) starting with discrete dynamics based on hierarchically-structured interactions between the fluids' volumes concentrated at different levels of the percolation tree and coming to the multiscale universal topology of the percolating nets. Similar systems of discrete hierarchic equations were widely applied to modeling of turbulence. However, in the present work this similarity is only formal since, in our model, the trees are real physical patterns with a tree-like topology of capillaries (or fractures) in random porous media (not cascade trees, as in the case of turbulence, which we will be discussed elsewhere for the spinner flowmeter commonly used in the petroleum industry). By going to the "continuous limit" (with respect to the p-adic topology) we represent the dynamics on the tree-like configuration space as an evolutionary nonlinear p-adic fractional (pseudo-) differential equation, the tree-like analog of the Navier-Stokes equation. We hope that our work helps to come closer to a nonlinear equation solution, taking into account the scaling, hierarchies, and formal derivations, imprinted from the similar properties of the real physical world. Once this coupling is resolved, the more problematic question of information scaling in industrial applications will be achieved.
P-adic numbers serve as the simplest ultrametric model for the tree-like structures arisingin various physical and biological phenomena. Recently p-adic dynamical equations started to beapplied to geophysics, to model propagation of fluids (oil, water, and oil-in-water and water-in-oilemulsion) in capillary networks in porous random media. In particular, a p-adic analog of theNavier–Stokes equation was derived starting with a system of differential equations respectingthe hierarchic structure of a capillary tree. In this paper, using the Schauder fixed point theoremtogether with the wavelet functions, we extend the study of the solvability of a p-adic field analogof the Navier–Stokes equation derived from a system of hierarchic equations for fluid flow in acapillary network in porous medium. This equation describes propagation of fluid’s flow throughGeo-conduits, consisting of the mixture of fractures (as well as fracture’s corridors) and capillarynetworks, detected by seismic as joint wave/mass conducts. Furthermore, applying the Adomiandecomposition method we formulate the solution of the p-adic analog of the Navier–Stokes equationin term of series in general form. This solution may help researchers to come closer and find morefacts, taking into consideration the scaling, hierarchies, and formal derivations, imprinted from theanalogous aspects of the real world phenomena.