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  • 1. Öhrvik, Veronica E
    et al.
    Büttner, Barbara E
    Rychlik, Michael
    Lundin, Eva
    Witthöft, Cornelia M.
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, Uppsala.
    Folate bioavailability from breads and a meal assessed with a human stable-isotope area under the curve and ileostomy model.2010In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 92, no 3, p. 532-538Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Recent data revealed differences in human absorption kinetics and metabolism between food folates and folic acid supplements and fortificant.

    OBJECTIVE: The objective was to determine folate bioavailability after ingestion of breads or a breakfast meal fortified with either 5-CH(3)-H(4) folate or folic acid by using a stable-isotope area under the curve (AUC) and ileostomy model.

    DESIGN: In a randomized crossover trial, healthy ileostomists (n = 8) ingested single doses of whole-meal bread that contained ap 450 nmol (200 micro g) of either (6S)-[(13)C(5)]5-CH(3)-H(4) folate or [(13)C(5)]folic acid or a breakfast meal that contained ap 450 nmol (200 micro g) [(13)C(5)]folic acid. We collected blood from the subjects during 12 h postdose for assessment of plasma kinetics. Nonabsorbed folate was assessed from labeled folate contents in stomal effluent 12 and 24 h postdose.

    RESULTS: The median (range) plasma AUC(0 rarr 12) (AUC from 0 to 12 h after ingested dose) of 66 nmol sdot h/L (34-84 nmol sdot h/L) after ingestion of bread that contained (6S)-[(13)C(5)]5-CH(3)-H(4) folate was significantly greater (P lt 0.001) than that after ingestion of [(13)C(5)]folic acid in fortified bread [28 nmol sdot h/L (15-38 nmol sdot h/L)] and a fortified breakfast meal [26 nmol sdot h/L (15-60 nmol sdot h/L)]. Both labeled doses resulted in increases of plasma [(13)C(5)]5-CH(3)-H(4) folate. However, the kinetic variables C(max) (maximum plasma concentration) and T(max) [time (min) of maximum plasma concentration] varied after ingestion of the different folate forms. The stomal folate content was lt 10% of the ingested dose and did not vary significantly after ingestion of test foods that contained (6S)-[(13)C(5)]5-CH(3)-H(4) folate [median (range): 13 nmol (10-31 nmol)] or [(13)C(5)]folic acid [median (range): 25 nmol (8-42 nmol)] (P = 0.33).

    CONCLUSIONS: Our data confirm differences in plasma absorption kinetics for reduced folates and synthetic folic acid administered with the test foods. Stomal folate contents indicated almost complete bioavailability of labeled folate from the breads or breakfast meal.

  • 2.
    Öhrvik, Veronica E
    et al.
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, Uppsala.
    Olsson, Johan C
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, Uppsala.
    Sundberg, Birgitta E
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, Uppsala.
    Witthöft, Cornelia M.
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, Uppsala.
    Effect of 2 pieces of nutritional advice on folate status in Swedish women: a randomized controlled trial.2009In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 89, no 4, p. 1053-1058Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Ten years after the introduction of mandatory folic acid fortification in the United States, Canada, and Costa Rica, the issue is still under debate in several countries, and Sweden recently decided against mandatory fortification.

    OBJECTIVE: The objective was to determine the folate status of women after an intervention involving 2 Swedish dietary recommendations: a food recommendation (bread) and a complete meal recommendation (breakfast).

    DESIGN: Fifty-one free-living women with normal folate status participated in a 12-wk controlled intervention trial. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of the following interventions: apple juice (control group; n = 17), a breakfast providing 125 microg folate (breakfast group; n = 17), or 5 slices of whole-meal bread to be eaten over the course of the day, which provided 70 microg folate (bread group; n = 17). Folate status was assessed on the basis of concentrations of erythrocyte folate, serum folate, and plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) at baseline and at weeks 8 and 12 of the trial.

    RESULTS: In the breakfast group, initial median concentrations of erythrocyte folate (805 nmol/L) increased by 172 nmol/L (95% CI: 24, 293; P = 0.02) relative to the control. The relative increase in initial serum folate (2 nmol/L, 95% CI: 0, 5; P = 0.06) was nonsignificant. The initial tHcy concentration (8.7 micromol/L) decreased by 2.3 micromol/L (95% CI: -1, -3.4; P < 0.01). In the bread group, the initial tHcy concentration (9.1 micromol/L) decreased nonsignificantly by 1.4 micromol/L (95% CI: 0, -2.8; P = 0.08) relative to the control group, whereas other outcomes were stable.

    CONCLUSIONS: The folate status of the subjects improved after regular consumption of the breakfast meal. The additional folate intake from the bread maintained the folate status but was not sufficient to improve it.

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