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  • 1.
    Hadadgar, Arash
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden;Isfahan Univ Med Sci, Iran.
    Changiz, Tahereh
    Isfahan Univ Med Sci, Iran.
    Masiello, Italo
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Dehghani, Zahra
    Isfahan Univ Med Sci, Iran.
    Mirshahzadeh, Nahidossadat
    Isfahan Univ Med Sci, Iran.
    Zary, Nabil
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Applicability of the theory of planned behavior in explaining the general practitioners eLearning use in continuing medical education2016In: BMC Medical Education, ISSN 1472-6920, E-ISSN 1472-6920, Vol. 16, article id 215Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: General practitioners (GP) update their knowledge and skills by participating in continuing medical education (CME) programs either in a traditional or an e-Learning format. GPs' beliefs about electronic format of CME have been studied but without an explicit theoretical framework which makes the findings difficult to interpret. In other health disciplines, researchers used theory of planned behavior (TPB) to predict user's behavior. Methods: In this study, an instrument was developed to investigate GPs' intention to use e-Learning in CME based on TPB. The goodness of fit of TPB was measured using confirmatory factor analysis and the relationship between latent variables was assessed using structural equation modeling. Results: A total of 148 GPs participated in the study. Most of the items in the questionnaire related well to the TPB theoretical constructs, and the model had good fitness. The perceived behavioral control and attitudinal constructs were included, and the subjective norms construct was excluded from the structural model. The developed questionnaire could explain 66 % of the GPs' intention variance. Conclusions: The TPB could be used as a model to construct instruments that investigate GPs' intention to participate in e-Learning programs in CME. The findings from the study will encourage CME managers and researchers to explore the developed instrument as a mean to explain and improve the GPs' intentions to use eLearning in CME.

  • 2.
    Thulesius, Hans
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Sallin, Karl
    Lynoe, Niels
    Löfmark, Rurik
    Proximity morality in medical school--medical students forming physician morality "on the job": grounded theory analysis of a student survey.2007In: BMC Medical Education, ISSN 1472-6920, E-ISSN 1472-6920, Vol. 7, article id 27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The value of ethics education have been questioned. Therefore we did a student survey on attitudes about the teaching of ethics in Swedish medical schools.

    METHODS: Questionnaire survey on attitudes to ethics education with 409 Swedish medical students participating. We analyzed > 8000 words of open-ended responses and multiple-choice questions using classic grounded theory procedures.

    RESULTS: In this paper we suggest that medical students take a proximity morality stance towards their ethics education meaning that they want to form physician morality "on the job". This involves comprehensive ethics courses in which quality lectures provide "ethics grammar" and together with attitude exercises and vignette reflections nurture tutored group discussions. Goals of forming physician morality are to develop a professional identity, handling diversity of religious and existential worldviews, training students described as ethically naive, processing difficult clinical experiences, and desisting negative role modeling from physicians in clinical or teaching situations, some engaging in "ethics suppression" by controlling sensitive topic discussions and serving students politically correct attitudes.

    CONCLUSION: We found that medical students have a proximity morality attitude towards ethics education. Rather than being taught ethics they want to form their own physician morality through tutored group discussions in comprehensive ethics courses.

  • 3.
    Unalan, Pemra C
    et al.
    Marmara Univ, Turkey.
    Uzuner, Arzu
    Marmara Univ, Turkey.
    Cifçili, Serap
    Marmara Univ, Turkey.
    Akman, Mehmet
    Marmara Univ, Turkey.
    Hancioğlu, Sertaç
    Yukaricigil Primary Care Unit, Turkey.
    Thulesius, Hans
    Region Kronoberg, Sweden;Lund university, Sweden.
    Using theatre in education in a traditional lecture oriented medical curriculum.2009In: BMC Medical Education, ISSN 1472-6920, E-ISSN 1472-6920, Vol. 9, article id 73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Lectures supported by theatrical performance may enhance learning and be an attractive alternative to traditional lectures. This study describes our experience with using theatre in education for medical students since 2001.

    METHODS: The volunteer students, coached by experienced students, were given a two-week preparation period to write and prepare different dramatized headache scenarios during three supervised meetings. A theatrical performance was followed by a student presentation about history taking and clinical findings in diagnosing headache. Finally, a group discussion led by students dealt with issues raised in the performance. The evaluation of the theatre in education lecture "A Primary Care Approach to Headache" was based on feedback from students.

    RESULTS: More than 90% of 43 responding students fully agreed with the statement "Theatrical performance made it easier to understand the topic". More than 90% disagreed with the statements "Lecture halls were not appropriate for this kind of interaction" and "Students as teachers were not appropriate". Open-ended questions showed that the lesson was thought of as fun, good and useful by most students. The headache questions in the final exam showed results that were similar to average exam results for other questions.

    CONCLUSION: Using theatrical performance in medical education was appreciated by most students and may facilitate learning and enhance empathy and team work communication skills.

  • 4.
    Wijk, Hanna
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Ponzer, Sari
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Heikkilä, Kristiina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Kihlstroem, Lars
    Karolinska University Hospital.
    Nordquist, Jonas
    Karolinska Institutet;Karolinska University Hospital.
    Factors influencing effectiveness in postgraduate medical education - a qualitative study of experiences of the responsible clinical consultants2019In: BMC Medical Education, ISSN 1472-6920, E-ISSN 1472-6920, Vol. 19, article id 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BackgroundMedical education leaders are important for educational quality in postgraduate medical education. Their work tasks are complex and contain different components. However, factors that are influencing leaders effectiveness in completing these tasks are unexplored. Understanding and developing these factors is most likely essential to strengthen postgraduate medical education and to consequently improve the quality in health care delivery. This study explores the experiences of factors that influence effectiveness of clinical consultants responsible for postgraduate medical education at clinical departments. Effectiveness was defined as fulfillment of work tasks.MethodsA qualitative study was performed with data gathered through semi-structured face-to-face interviews with 17 consultants responsible for postgraduate medical education. Data was analyzed by qualitative content analysis.ResultsFindings clustered into four themes of factors influencing effectiveness: individual (being an expert, social competence), relational (support and cooperation, communication), attitudinal (shared vision, organizational values, colleagues' attitudes) and structural (organizational characteristics, regulations and guidelines, conditions for the role). The factors were experienced to influence effectiveness in a positive or a negative direction.Conclusions This study shed light on the complex and interrelated factors experienced to have impact on the role of consultant responsible for postgraduate medical education. Viewing the result through the concept of power, the role mainly relies on personal power sources like expert and referent power whereas power connected to the position often are lacking. To increase effectiveness of the role, a differentiated strategy which involves activities at both individual, group and organizational levels is needed.

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