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  • 1.
    Alpenberg, Jan
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för ekonomistyrning och logistik (ELO).
    Motives and structure behind capital investments in ice hockey arenas – the Swedish way2019Ingår i: Sport in Society: Cultures, Media, Politics, Commerce, ISSN 1743-0437, E-ISSN 1743-0445Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    An unprecedented number of large ice hockey arenas were built in Sweden between 2000-2014. This study explores the motives and rationale behind these capital investments in Swedish ice hockey arenas. Based on a multiple data gathering methods, this research conclude that capital investments in sport arenas are primarily driven by the need for rationalization and improvement of events, increasing societal image building through sport and an increasing focus on social enrichment in the competition for attracting citizens and companies to municipalities. Close collaborations between local politicians, club executives and entrepreneurs have provided creative financial solutions for the new arenas. The ice hockey arena projects have been legitimized from a societal perspective through either overly optimistic or manipulated sophisticated capital investment methods, which provided the necessary support for the political decision rationale that has been dominating these projects. A consequence of the arena projects, is an increased commercialization and professionalization of Swedish hockey.

  • 2.
    Andreasson, Jesper
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för idrottsvetenskap (ID).
    Johansson, Thomas
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Negotiating female fitness doping: Gender, identity and transgressions2019Ingår i: Sport in Society: Cultures, Media, Politics, Commerce, ISSN 1743-0437, E-ISSN 1743-0445, s. 1-17Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    On the basis of qualitatively gathered interview material and data from various postings on a pro-doping online community called Flashback, the aim of this article is to describe and analyse how female users of performance and image enhancing drugs (PIED) understand and negotiate their use in relation to gender and the body. Positioned within post-structural feminism, the results show that there is an increasing amount of knowledge that not only targets but is also developed by and for women concerning PIED use. Traditionally scholars have connected female PIED use more or less exclusively to female bodybuilders, but as new body and femininity ideals develop the demographics of female fitness doping are widening. Although PIED use in the context of gym and fitness culture remains primarily a masculine domain, the results point towards a development in which women are increasingly becoming more integrated into a fitness community of PIED users.

  • 3.
    Andreasson, Jesper
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för idrottsvetenskap (ID).
    Johansson, Thomas
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Negotiating violence: mixed martial arts as a spectacle and sport2019Ingår i: Sport in Society: Cultures, Media, Politics, Commerce, ISSN 1743-0437, E-ISSN 1743-0445, Vol. 22, nr 7, s. 1183-1197Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Drawing on qualitative interviews with Mixed martial arts (MMA) athletes and stakeholders, this study aims to investigate the relationship between, on the one hand, MMA as a spectacle and imaginary world, and on the other, the fighters’ experiences of violence, pain and ‘the real’. Analytically, we are influenced by the literature on the spectacle and on hyperreality. The results show that athletes’ negotiations concerning the sport largely connect to a particular way of approaching violence – culturally and in terms of physical experience. On the one hand, there is a desire to portray MMA as a civilized and regulated sport. The athletes develop different strategies by which to handle or renegotiate the physical force and violence in the cage. On the other hand, however, the fighters’ bodily control and management of their fear sometimes breaks down. When the spectacle of the octagon becomes ‘real’, the legitimacy of the sport is questioned.

  • 4.
    Andreasson, Jesper
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för idrottsvetenskap (ID).
    Johansson, Thomas
    University of Gothenburg.
    Online doping: The new self-help culture of ethnopharmacology2016Ingår i: Sport in Society: Cultures, Media, Politics, Commerce, ISSN 1743-0437, E-ISSN 1743-0445, Vol. 19, nr 7, s. 957-972Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, but also internationally, official regimes and public health organizations conduct fairly comprehensive antidoping measures. As a consequence, numerous ‘new’ ways to learn about and access these types of drugs have emerged. Social media and different internet forums, for example, have become part of a new self-help culture in which people can anonymously approach these substances, discuss their experiences of using them and minimize the possibility of encounters with the police. This article focuses on how the use of performance- and image-enhancing drugs (PED) is perceived and negotiated socially in the context of an internet-mediated and online community calledFlashback. The results are in accordance with similar studies on internet bodybuilding communities. That is, even though the participants to a certain degree are aware of the risks and health costs of this kind of physical regime, the gains of using PED clearly dominate the discussions. Adding to this research, this article found that in the imaginary world of online bodybuilding a number of ideas about the ‘genetic max’, as well as the ultimate possibility of exceeding one’s limits, and creating something special and extraordinary, circulate. These stories confirm in many ways the legitimate mission of searching for the ultimate bodybuilding adventure, using different means and methods to transcend the limits of the self/body.

  • 5.
    Andreasson, Jesper
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för idrottsvetenskap (ID).
    Johansson, Thomas
    University of Gothenburg.
    Danielsson, Tom
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för idrottsvetenskap (ID).
    Becoming an Ironman triathlete: Extreme exercise, gender equality and the family puzzle2018Ingår i: Sport in Society: Cultures, Media, Politics, Commerce, ISSN 1743-0437, E-ISSN 1743-0445, Vol. 21, nr 9, s. 1351-1363Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Departing from a qualitative research approach, this article focuses on Swedish amateur Ironman triathletes and their family life. The purpose of the paper is to investigate how an elite amateur lifestyle is upheld and balanced with the demands of a sustainable family and social life. The results indicate that the process of becoming and staying an Ironman creates tensions in intimate relationships, making it hard to bring the family life puzzle together. Although the participants interviewed often talk about family life in terms of sharing things fairly equally, in terms of gender equity and involved parenthood, this seemingly is not always an easy ideal to fulfil in practice. On a broader cultural level, these findings can thus be contextualized in relation to discourses associated with the gendering of families and functions, and, of course, the gender of sport and performance.

  • 6.
    Carlsson, Bo
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för idrottsvetenskap (ID). Malmö University, Sweden.
    'Science Slam' and sportification processes in science2019Ingår i: Sport in Society: Cultures, Media, Politics, Commerce, ISSN 1743-0437, E-ISSN 1743-0445, Vol. 22, nr 9, s. 1623-1637Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Sport's relation to society could be grasped in its connection to science. Thus, there seem to exist two parallel processes: the scientification of sport and the sportification of science. Undoubtedly, science has become an important part in the development of sport, particularly in elite sport. As regards the relation between science and sport, an opposite trend has also been observed, in which sport logic influences the (popular) presentation of science. In this respect, this essay talks about the 'sportification of science', by making reference to 'Science Slam' and 'Grand Prix in Science'.

  • 7.
    Carlsson, Bo
    et al.
    Malmö University.
    Backman, Jyri
    Malmö University.
    The blend of normative uncertainty and commercial immaturity in Swedish ice hockey2015Ingår i: Sport in Society: Cultures, Media, Politics, Commerce, ISSN 1743-0437, E-ISSN 1743-0445, Vol. 18, nr 3, s. 290-312Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    By describing and analysing normative uncertainties and the commercial immaturity in Swedish ice hockey (Swedish Hockey League/Swedish Ice Hockey Association), this article focuses on the tension and dialectics in Swedish sport; increasingly greater commercial attempts (i.e. entrepreneurship, ‘Americanization’, multi-arenas, innovations and public limited companies) have to be mixed with a generally non-profit making organization (e.g. the Swedish Sports Confederation) and its traditional values of health, democracy and youth sports and fosterage. In this respect, the elite ice hockey clubs are situated in a legal culture of two parallel norm systems: the tradition of selfregulation in sport and in civil law (e.g. commercial law). Indeed, the incoherent blend of idealism and commercialism in Swedish elite hockey appears to be fertile ground for hazardous (sports) management and indebtedness. This mix of ‘uncertainty’ and ‘immaturity’ has given rise to various financial trickeries and negligence, which have subsequently developed into legal matters. Consequently, the legal system appears to have become a playground for Swedish ice hockey. This article reflects on the reasons and the rationale in this frictional development by focusing on a legal case that comes under the Business Reorganisation Act. The analysis reveals support for a ‘soft’ juridification process in Swedish ice hockey in order to handle the charging tension of the two parallel norm systems.

  • 8.
    Carlsson, Bo
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för idrottsvetenskap (ID).
    Jonasson, Kalle
    Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Kutte
    Malmö University, Sweden.
    Introduction: the blend of science and sport2019Ingår i: Sport in Society: Cultures, Media, Politics, Commerce, ISSN 1743-0437, E-ISSN 1743-0445, Vol. 22, nr 9, s. 1497-1500Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 9.
    Ekholm, David
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Dahlstedt, Magnus
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Rönnbäck, Julia
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för samhällsstudier (SS).
    Problematizing the absent girl: sport as a means of emancipation and social inclusion2019Ingår i: Sport in Society: Cultures, Media, Politics, Commerce, ISSN 1743-0437, E-ISSN 1743-0445, Vol. 22, nr 6, s. 1043-1061Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Absence from sport participation among girls from ethno-cultural minorities is often highlighted as an inclusion policy challenge. Based on 35 interviews with community sports coaches, managers and partners, we explore how the absence of girls is problematized in four Swedish sports-based interventions, focusing on how problems, as well as the means and the ends of social inclusion, are articulated. The girls are assessed as being in need of social change due to their alleged social exclusion. Absence is explained by "patriarchal norms" as well as by the introvert conduct of the girls themselves. Girls-only sports activities performed by female coaches as role models are described as a way for girls to gain social inclusion and to become emancipated from subjugating norms. In conclusion, participation in community sport is highlighted in discourse as crucial for adopting powers of emancipation. A similar discourse could be recognized elsewhere, inside and outside the realm of sport.

  • 10.
    Jonasson, Kalle
    Malmö University.
    Electronic sport and its impact on future sport2010Ingår i: Sport in Society: Cultures, Media, Politics, Commerce, ISSN 1743-0437, E-ISSN 1743-0445, Vol. 13, nr 2, s. 287-299Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    According to public health and media discourses, the mere mentioning of computer gaming (E-sport) as a form of sports might be considered subversive. As a matter of fact, the two practices are considered to be oppositional. Sports are often regarded as virtuous, whereas computer gaming is looked upon as a vice. In this light, the basic aim of this essay is to discuss and analyse the ‘sporting qualities’ of competitive computer gaming in relation to the definition of sport. The reasoning will also forecast the future of competitive computer gaming. How might this new form of ‘sport’ develop and what impact will it have on future sports in general? We answer the question by presenting three possible scenarios. Might it even be that we are standing on the threshold of a new phase in the evolution of sports?

  • 11.
    Jonasson, Kalle
    Stockholm University ; Malmö University.
    Modern sport between purity and hybridity2014Ingår i: Sport in Society: Cultures, Media, Politics, Commerce, ISSN 1743-0437, E-ISSN 1743-0445, Vol. 17, nr 10, s. 1306-1316Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Issues of purity are central to modern sport, as well as to modernity in general. This paper ponders the role of purity in modern sport by also including its counterpart, hybridity, in the discussion. In sport studies, the concept of the ‘human’ is identified as something taken for granted, and therefore remains under-theorized. Bruno Latour's conception of modernity and scientific practice is here combined with Sigmund Loland's analogy between scientific experiments and sport competitions. Purity is assumed to be related to the idea of modern sport as a practice, which revolves around distilling samples of ‘humanness’ that should not be polluted by non-human interference. This paper argues that while modern sport strives to minimize non-human impact, it acknowledges the hybrid material that sport results are moulded from. The concept ‘Human’ is therefore not an a priori in modern sport but an a posteriori.

  • 12.
    Peterson, Tomas
    et al.
    Malmö University.
    Schenker, Katarina
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för idrottsvetenskap (ID).
    Social entrepreneurship in a sport policy context2018Ingår i: Sport in Society: Cultures, Media, Politics, Commerce, ISSN 1743-0437, E-ISSN 1743-0445, Vol. 21, nr 3, s. 452-467Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates social entrepreneurship in relation to government state policies in Sweden and to the Swedish sports movement. Social entrepreneurship within sport comprises three elements that need to be qualified: the social element, entrepreneurship and sport. We wish to offer both a specific and a wider definition of social entrepreneurship in sport; specific in the sense that we try to define the concept theoretically, and wider in that we place the concept in a societal context where we relate it to different sectors in society. The method can be described as ethnographically inspired case studies. Four cases are presented. Previous research and the cases have helped us to formulate theses concerning sport' and profit' as means for social entrepreneurship, social' being normatively defined in the public sector, and entrepreneurial activities being understood as acts, crossing boundaries between the different sectors of society, leading to conflicts.

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