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  • 1.
    Andreasson, Jesper
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Johansson, Thomas
    University of Gothenburg.
    ‘Doing for group exercise what McDonald's did for hamburgers’: Les Mills, and the fitness professional as global traveller2016In: Sport, Education and Society, ISSN 1357-3322, E-ISSN 1470-1243, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 148-165Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyses fitness professionals’ perceptions and understanding of their occupational education and pedagogical pursuance, framed within the emergence of a global fitness industry. The empirical material consists of interviews with personal trainers and group fitness instructors, as well as observations in their working environment. In addition, printed material from different occupational organisations and educational companies has been included. The narratives of the fitness professionals and a case study of Les Mills are presented and analysed through the concept of the McDonaldisation of society, or more specifically of fitness culture. The results show that, even though gym and fitness franchises differ from hamburger restaurant chains, there are crucial similarities, but also differences. One can, for example, discern a tendency towards the construction of predesigned and highly monitored programmes, such as the one developed by Les Mills. Homogenisation is also apparent when looking at the body ideals produced, as fitness professionals work on their own or clients’ bodies, which makes it possible to anticipate a global body ideal. The social and cultural patterns of self-regulation and self-government found in gym and fitness culture can be understood and analysed in a global context. What we find is an intriguing and complex mixture of regulation, control and standardisation, on the one hand, and a struggle to express the body, to be ‘free’ and to transgress the boundaries set by the commercial global fitness industry, on the other.

  • 2.
    Ferry, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå University.
    Lund, Stefan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Pupils in upper secondary school sports: Choices based on what?2018In: Sport, Education and Society, ISSN 1357-3322, E-ISSN 1470-1243, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 270-282Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the fields of both education and sport, the possession of capital and habitus influences an individual’s lifestyles and choices, which in turn affects the social selection within these fields. In this article, we will study the Swedish system of school sports as an overlap between the fields of education and sport, and thus viewed as a double dominated field. From a cultural sociological perspective, the purpose of this article is to analyse and explain how the organisational conditions and pupils’ social characteristics interact with upper secondary pupils’ choices of different school sports programmes in Sweden. Based on registry data on secondary school sports pupils, the results show that the supply of school sports requires specific forms of social dispositions that have an impact on which categories of pupils choose to participate. Among the students participating in school sports, there is a higher proportion of pupils who: are of Swedish origin (p < 0.05), are boys (p < 0.05), attend academic study programmes (p < 0.05), and have parents with high educational capital (p < 0.05). Furthermore, based on 677 pupils’ questionnaire responses, collected through two studies on school sports in Sweden, the results show that the choice between different types of school sports programmes is related to the intersection between pupils’ sex and possession of educational and sporting capital. One important conclusion is that the overlap between the fields of education and sports exacerbates gender and class biases, and that the supply of school sports in Sweden appeals to a narrow or rather specific taste for sport and education, particularly favouring boys with highly educated parents and an interest in team sports.

  • 3.
    Gerdin, Göran
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    ‘It's not like you are less of a man just because you don't play rugby': boys' problematisation of gender during secondary school physical education lessons in New Zealand2017In: Sport, Education and Society, ISSN 1357-3322, E-ISSN 1470-1243, Vol. 22, no 8, p. 890-904Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite clear messages from current physical education (PE) curricula about the importance of adopting socially critical perspectives, dominant discourses of gender relating to physical activity, bodies and health are being reproduced within this school subject. By drawing on interview data from a larger ethnographic account of boys’ PE, this paper aims to contribute to our understanding of boys’ experiences of gendered discourses in PE, particularly by acknowledging boys not only as docile or disciplined bodies but also as active subjects in negotiating power relations. In the analysis of the data, particular emphasis is placed on whether the boys recognise the influence of gendered discourses and power relations in PE, how they act upon this knowledge and how they understand themselves as gendered subjects through these particular discourses/power relations. Using Foucault’s (1985. The use of pleasure: The history of sexuality, vol. 2. London: Penguin Books) framework related to the ‘modes of subjectivation’, this paper explores boys’ problematisation of dominant discourses of gender and power relations in PE. In summary, these boys perform gendered selves within the context of PE, via negotiation of gendered discourses and power relations that contribute to an alternative discourse of PE which creates spaces and opportunities for the production of more ethical and diverse masculinities.

  • 4.
    Gerdin, Göran
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Philpot, Rod
    University of Auckland, New Zealand.
    Smith, Wayne
    University of Auckland, New Zealand.
    It is only an intervention, but it can sow very fertile seeds: graduate physical education teachers' interpretations of critical pedagogy2018In: Sport, Education and Society, ISSN 1357-3322, E-ISSN 1470-1243, no 3, p. 203-215Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The role that school health and physical education (HPE) plays in the making of physically active and healthy citizens continues to be rearticulated within the field of HPE practice. In Australasia, for example, this is evident in HPE curricula changes that now span almost two decades with ongoing advocacy for greater recognition of socially-critical perspectives of physical activity and health. This paper reports on one part of a larger collaborative project that focussed on how HPE teachers understand and enact socially-critical perspectives in their practice. The paper draws on interview data obtained from 20 secondary school HPE teachers, all of whom graduated from the same physical education teacher education (PETE) programme in New Zealand, a programme that espouses a socially-critical orientation. The teaching experience of the study participants ranged from 1 to 22 years of service. The preliminary analysis involved deduction of common themes in relation to the research questions and then, drawing on the theoretical framework of Bourdieu (1990), these themes were analysed in more detail to gain insight into how and why the graduate teachers’ expressed their particular understanding of HPE and critical pedagogy. The findings suggested that this PETE programme did have some impact on the participant teachers’ perceptions of physical activity and health, and the role of socially-critical thinking. However, there was also evidence to suggest that many of them did not have a clear understanding of the transformative agenda of critical pedagogy. We conclude by suggesting that although this PETE programme did plant ‘seeds’ that had an impact on the graduate teachers’ awareness and thinking about socially-critical issues in relation to physical activity and health, it did not necessarily turn them into critical pedagogues.

  • 5.
    Gerdin, Göran
    et al.
    University of Auckland, New Zealand.
    Pringle, Richard
    University of Auckland, New Zealand.
    The politics of pleasure: an ethnographic examination exploring the dominance of the multi-activity sport-based physical education model2017In: Sport, Education and Society, ISSN 1357-3322, E-ISSN 1470-1243, Vol. 22, no 2, p. 194-213Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Kirk (2010) warns that physical education (PE) exists in a precarious situation as the dominance of the multi-activity sport-techniques model, and its associated problems, threatens the long-term educational survival of PE. Yet he also notes that although the model is problematic it is highly resistant to change. In this paper, we draw on the results of a year-long visual ethnography at an all boys-secondary school in Aotearoa New Zealand to examine the workings of power that legitimate this model of PE. Our findings illustrate that the school conflates PE and sport, to position PE as an appropriate masculine endeavour and valued source of enjoyment, as it articulates with good health, social development and competitiveness. We argue that student experiences of pleasure within PE – as co-constitutive with discourses of fitness, health, sport and masculinity – (re)produce the multi-activity sport-based form of PE as educationally appropriate and socio-culturally relevant, thus making the model somewhat resistant to change. We stress that our study should not be read as a vindication of this PE model.

  • 6.
    Lund, Stefan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Regulation and deregulation in education policy: new reforms and school sports in Swedish upper secondary education2014In: Sport, Education and Society, ISSN 1357-3322, E-ISSN 1470-1243, Vol. 19, no 3, p. 241-257Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the 1990s, neoliberal reforms in Sweden increased local school actors’ possibilities to develop school profiles regarding both organization and content. This restructuring has increased the total number of school sports programs as well as the possibilities for upper secondary schools and sports clubs to develop elite and amateur sports on a local level. In a new educational reform, the Swedish Government criticizes parts of the Swedish school sports system. The Government believes that the majority of local school sports programs and courses obstruct the maintenance of national equivalence, that upper secondary schools use school sports to attract pupils for economic reasons and that some pupils involved in school sports may fail to reach the academic or vocational goals of regular upper secondary education. Using critical discourse analysis, the present paper illustrates how educational policies are linked to wider symbolic meaning systems in an attempt to legitimize, define and organize upper secondary schools and to characterize pupils as either eligible or ineligible to participate in school sports. The analyses are based on various types of empirical data: policy documents, official letters from the sports movement on the government bill and indepth interviews. The results indicate that the reform represents a shift in the policy rhetoric: from a normative rhetoric highlighting pupils’ social and emotional reasons for choosing school sports, to a rational rhetoric emphasizing efficiency, standardization and regulation of pupils’ educational choices. Using school sports as an example, the paper shows how the main aim of the reform to raise educational standards and maintain national equivalence is achieved through social differentiation, meaning that pupils with the right performance indicators are selected for participation in programs to which they are suited.

  • 7. Lundvall, Suzanne
    et al.
    Meckbach, Susanne
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Widening participation in sport-related studies in higher education: An exploratory study of symbolic struggles2012In: Sport, Education and Society, ISSN 1357-3322, E-ISSN 1470-1243, Vol. 17, no 5, p. 671-686Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on widening participation in higher education and the low recruitment of students from diverse backgrounds within sport-related programs. The purpose of the study has been to describe and increase the understanding of how the preconditions and premises for choosing to study 'sport' appear to students from diverse backgrounds, who have started their studies. An interview study was carried out with eight students from three institutes, based on a purposeful sample. The study draws on Bourdieu's analytical concepts of habitus, capital and practical sense. The findings indicate that the interviewees had sufficient symbolic and cultural capital to enable a 'practical sense' that choice and action were possible, including evaluating the consequences of choice. For some, this meant a choice that crossed boundaries. Achieving a greater widening of the recruitment to higher education in sport-related programs seems to need clarification of transformable capital. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

  • 8.
    Moen, Kjersti Mordal
    et al.
    Inland Norway Univ Appl Sci, Norway.
    Westlie, Knut
    Inland Norway Univ Appl Sci, Norway.
    Gerdin, Göran
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Smith, Wayne
    Univ Auckland, New Zealand.
    Linnér, Susanne
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Philpot, Rod
    Univ Auckland, New Zealand.
    Schenker, Katarina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Larsson, Lena
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Caring teaching and the complexity of building good relationships as pedagogies for social justice in health and physical education2019In: Sport, Education and Society, ISSN 1357-3322, E-ISSN 1470-1243Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Health and Physical Education (HPE) profession has increasingly advocated for caring teacher-student relationships. In this paper, we draw on data from an international research project called 'EDUHEALTH' [Education for Equitable Health Outcomes - The Promise of School Health and Physical Education] to explore caring teaching and the complexity of building good relationships as pedagogies for social justice in HPE. The data reported on in this paper were generated through 20 HPE lesson observations and interviews with 13 HPE teachers across schools in Sweden, Norway and New Zealand. In our analysis of the data, we employed Nel Noddings 'Care Theory' [(1984. Caring, a feminine approach to ethics & moral education. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press; 1997). Pedagogisk filosofi [Philosophy of education]. Oslo: Ad Notam Gyldendal] to study the constitution of relationships and caring teaching in HPE practice. The findings demonstrate that caring teaching is inevitably built on developing good relationships, and that developing such good relationships is a complex process influenced by three key elements. First, teachers have to develop knowledge about their students on a societal, group and personal level; second, teachers have to reflect on the individual, environmental and relational aspects required for building good relationships; and third, teachers have to implement caring teaching strategies, such as planning, caring actions and doing 'the little things'. Drawing on Nodding's care theory, we conclude that pedagogies for social justice are enacted when teachers use their own knowledge and knowledge about the students, together with reflection and caring teaching strategies, to arrange a learning environment that promotes inclusion and equitable outcomes for all students.

  • 9.
    Mooney, Amanda
    et al.
    Deakin Univ, Australia.
    Gerdin, Göran
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Challenging gendered inequalities in boys’ physical education through video-stimulated reflections2018In: Sport, Education and Society, ISSN 1357-3322, E-ISSN 1470-1243, Vol. 23, no 8, p. 761-772Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite research over the past three decades that has examined links between masculinity, sport and Physical Education (PE), exclusionary practices and cultures that privilege some boys and masculinities at the expense of marginalised others are still commonly reported. With an historical legacy as a masculinity-making device, attempts to disrupt hegemonic and heteronormative cultures and pedagogies in PE that perpetuate gendered inequalities have had a modest influence, at best. This paper examines the use of visual methodologies to better understand the role of boys’ PE and sport in the construction of gender and sexuality. We argue that visual methodologies can capture social practices and spaces in ways that words alone cannot, hence enabling more nuanced interrogations and insights into gendered experiences in PE to be made. Data draws from video-stimulated reflections (VSR) of PE classes in two all-boys’ secondary schools in Australia and New Zealand. The Australian data examines VSR interviews with a female teacher involved in a Year 8 (aged 13-14 years) PE class. The New Zealand data is drawn from VSR interviews conducted during a year-long (visual) ethnography of two Year 10 (aged 14-15 years) PE classes with a male teacher. Drawing on Foucault (1980, Power/knowledge: Selected interviews and other writings 1972-1977 (C. Gordon, L. Marshall, J. Mepham & K. Soper, Trans.) New York, NY: Pantheon Books, 1988, Power/knowledge: Selected interviews and other writings 1972-1977 (C. Gordon, L. Marshall, J. Mepham & K. Soper, Trans.) New York, NY: Pantheon Books), we consider how these methodologies work to expose and obscure practices and pedagogies that contribute to gendered experiences for students and teachers that both privilege and marginalise. Using the tools of discourse, power and technologies of the self, our findings illustrate how VSR can serve as a collaborative (re)production of the visual material through moments of embodied dissonance. We argue that this ‘uncomfortableness’ can facilitate productive learnings about gendered/sexualised bodies and power in PE through critical reflection and ethical self-work. This knowledge, we believe, is key in disrupting and transforming taken-for-granted practices that continue to perpetuate inequitable gendered experiences in PE.

  • 10.
    Schenker, Katarina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Health(y) Education in Health and Physical Education, Sport, Education and Society2018In: Sport, Education and Society, ISSN 1357-3322, E-ISSN 1470-1243, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 229-243Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Teachers in the school subject Health and Physical Education (HPE) need to be able both to teach health and to do so in a healthy (equitable) way. The health field has, however, met with difficulties in finding its form within the subject. Research indicates that HPE can be excluding, meaning that it may give more favours to some pupils (bodies) than to others [cf. Webb, L. A., Quennerstedt, M., & Öhman, M. (2008). Healthy bodies: Construction of the body and health in physical education. Sport, Education and Society13(4), 353–372.; Webb, L., & Quennerstedt, M. (2010). Risky bodies: Health surveillance and teachers’ embodiment of health. QSE. International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education23(7), 785–802; Williamson, B. (2015). Algorithmic skin: Health-tracking technologies, personal analytics and the biopedagogies of digitized health and physical education. Sport, Education and Society20(1), 133–151], and thereby being unhealthy for unfavoured pupils. The purpose of this study is therefore to investigate how HPE teacher education students in Sweden interpret health in HPE and discuss possible implications for future education in the school subject. The study involves 81 Bachelor/Master theses, connected to the HPE school subject and examined at six different Swedish universities. All the student theses were examined in 2012. Of the identified theses, 30 can be related more or less directly to health in physical education. These are the ones further scrutinized here. The contents of the selected essays may be categorized on the basis of tests as tools to measure health/ill health/performance, the knowledge required to teach health and also health as part of pedagogy. In sum, the theses display a reproductive approach to the subject, which involves the risk that the subject will subsequently function as disciplining, standardizing and excluding for some pupils, especially for those who do not engage in sports in their leisure time. In order to develop HPE’s potential into becoming healthier and more equal, researchers, teacher education and teachers do not primarily need to perceive health from the activity and individual perspectives, but rather from a power relations and equity perspective aiming towards equality.

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