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  • 1.
    Bagheri, Maryam
    et al.
    Sharif Univ Technol, Iran.
    Sirjani, Marjan
    Mälardalen University;Reykjavik Univ, Iceland.
    Khamespanah, Ehsan
    Reykjavik Univ, Iceland;Univ Tehran, Iran.
    Khakpour, Narges
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM).
    Akkaya, Ilge
    Univ Calif Berkeley, USA.
    Movaghar, Ali
    Sharif Univ Technol, Iran.
    Lee, Edward A.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, USA.
    Coordinated actor model of self-adaptive track-based traffic control systems2018In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 143, p. 116-139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Self-adaptation is a well-known technique to handle growing complexities of software systems, where a system autonomously adapts itself in response to changes in a dynamic and unpredictable environment. With the increasing need for developing self-adaptive systems, providing a model and an implementation platform to facilitate integration of adaptation mechanisms into the systems and assuring their safety and quality is crucial. In this paper, we target Track-based Traffic Control Systems (TTCSs) in which the traffic flows through pre-specified sub-tracks and is coordinated by a traffic controller. We introduce a coordinated actor model to design self-adaptive TTCSs and provide a general mapping between various TTCSs and the coordinated actor model. The coordinated actor model is extended to build large-scale self-adaptive TTCSs in a decentralized setting. We also discuss the benefits of using Ptolemy II as a framework for model-based development of large-scale self-adaptive systems that supports designing multiple hierarchical MAPE-K feedback loops interacting with each other. We propose a template based on the coordinated actor model to design a self-adaptive TTCS in Ptolemy II that can be instantiated for various TTCSs. We enhance the proposed template with a predictive adaptation feature. We illustrate applicability of the coordinated actor model and consequently the proposed template by designing two real-life case studies in the domains of air traffic control systems and railway traffic control systems in Ptolemy II.

  • 2.
    Boucké, N.
    et al.
    Katholieke University Leuven.
    Weyns, Danny
    Katholieke University Leuven.
    Holvoet, Tom
    Katholieke University Leuven.
    Composition of architectural models: Empirical analysis and language support2010In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 83, no 11, p. 2108-2127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Managing the architectural description (AD) of a complex software system and maintaining consistency among the different models is a demanding task. To understand the underlying problems, we analyse several non-trivial software architectures. The empirical study shows that a substantial amount of information of ADs is repeated, mainly by integrating information of different models in new models. Closer examination reveals that the absence of rigorously specified dependencies among models and the lack of support for automated composition of models are primary causes of management and consistency problems in software architecture. To tackle these problems, we introduce an approach in which compositions of models, together with relations among models, are explicitly supported in the ADL. We introduce these concepts formally and discuss a proof-of-concept instantiation of composition in xADL and its supporting tools. The approach is evaluated by comparing the original and revised ADs in an empirical study. The study indicates that our approach reduces the number of manually specified elements by 29%, and reduces the number of manual changes to elements for several realistic change scenarios by 52%.

  • 3.
    Caporuscio, Mauro
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Computer Science.
    Ghezzi, Carlo
    Politecnico di Milano, Italy.
    Engineering Future Internet applications: The Prime approach2015In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 106, p. 9-27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Future Internet is envisioned as a worldwide environment connecting a large open-ended collection of heterogeneous and autonomous resources, namely Things, Services and Contents, which interact with each other anywhere and anytime. Applications will possibly emerge dynamically as opportunistic aggregation of resources available at a given time, and will be able to self-adapt according to the environment dynamics. In this context, engineers should be provided with proper modeling and programming abstractions to develop applications able to benefit from Future Internet, by being at the same time fluid, as well as dependable. Indeed, such abstractions should (i) facilitate the development of autonomous and independent interacting resources (loose coupling), (ii) deal with the run-time variability of the application in terms of involved resources (flexibility), (iii) provide mechanisms for run-time resources discovery and access (dynamism), and (iv) enable the running application to accommodate unforeseen resources (serendipity).

    To this end, Prime (P-Rest at design/run tIME) defines the P-REST architectural style, and a set of P-REST oriented modeling and programming abstractions to provide engineers with both design-time and run-time support for specifying, implementing and operating P-RESTful applications.

  • 4.
    Caporuscio, Mauro
    et al.
    Università dell Aquila, Italy.
    Marco, Antinisca Di
    Università dell Aquila, Italy.
    Inverardi, Paola
    Università dell Aquila, Italy.
    Model-based system reconfiguration for dynamic performance management2007In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 80, no 4, p. 455-473Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, growing attention focused on run-time management of Quality of Service (QoS) of complex software systems. In this context, system reconfiguration is considered a useful technique to manage QoS. Several reconfiguration approaches to performance management exist that help systems to maintain performance requirements at run time. However, many of them use prefixed strategies that are in general coded in the application or in the reconfiguration framework.

    In this work we propose a framework to manage performance of software systems at run time based on monitoring and model-based performance evaluation. The approach makes use of software architectures as abstractions of the managed system to avoid unnecessary details that can heavily affect the model evaluation in terms of complexity and resolution time.

  • 5.
    Galster, Matthias
    et al.
    Univ Canterbury, Canterbury, New Zealand.
    Avgeriou, Paris
    Univ Groningen, NL-9700 AB Groningen, Netherlands.
    Mannisto, Tomi
    Univ Helsinki, FIN-00014 Helsinki, Finland.
    Weyns, Danny
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Computer Science.
    Variability in software architecture: State of the art2014In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 91, p. 1-2Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Khakpour, Narges
    et al.
    Technical University of Braunschweig, Germany.
    Jalili, Saeed
    Tarbiat Modares University, Iran.
    Sirjani, Marjan
    Reykjavk University, Iceland.
    Goltz, Ursula
    Technical University of Braunschweig, Germany.
    Abolhasanzadeh:, Bahareh
    Tarbiat Modares University, Iran.
    HPobSAM for modeling and analyzing IT Ecosystems: Through a case study2012In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 85, no 12, p. 2770-2784Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The next generation of software systems includes systems composed of a large number of distributed, decentralized, autonomous, interacting, cooperating, organically grown, heterogeneous, and continually evolving subsystems, which we call IT Ecosystems. Clearly, we need novel models and approaches to design and develop such systems which can tackle the long-term evolution and complexity problems. In this paper, our framework to model IT Ecosystems is a combination of centralized control (top-down) and self-organizing (bottom-up) approach. We use a flexible formal model, HPobSAM, that supports both behavioral and structural adaptation/evolution. We use a detailed, close to real-life, case study of a smart airport to show how we can use HPobSAM in modeling, analyzing and developing an IT Ecosystem. We provide an executable formal specification of the model in Maude, and use LTL model checking and bounded state space search provided by Maude to analyze the model. We develop a prototype of our case study designed by HPobSAM using Java and Ponder2. Due to the complexity of the model, we cannot check all properties at design time using Maude. We propose a new approach for run-time verification of our case study, and check different types of properties which we could not verify using model checking. As our model uses dynamic policies to control the behavior of systems which can be modified at runtime, it provides us a suitable capability to react to the property violation by modification of policies.

  • 7.
    Perez-Palacin, Diego
    et al.
    Politecnico di Milano, Italy.
    Mirandola, Raffaela
    Politecnico di Milano, Italy.
    Merseguer, Jose
    University of Zaragoza, Spain.
    Accurate modeling and efficient QoS analysis of scalable adaptive systems under bursty workload2017In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 130, p. 24-41Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fulfillment of QoS requirements for systems deployed in the Internet is becoming a must. A widespread characteristic of this kind of systems is that they are usually subject to highly variable and bursty workloads. The allocation of resources to fulfill QoS requirements during the peak workloads could entail a waste of computing resources. A solution is to provide the system with self-adaptive techniques that can allocate resources only when and where they are required. We pursue the QoS evaluation of workload-aware self-adaptive systems based on stochastic models. In particular, this work proposes an accurate modeling of the workload variability and burstiness phenomena based on previous approaches that use Markov Modulated Poisson Processes. We extend these approaches in order to accurately model the variations of the workload strongly influence the QoS of the self-adaptive system. Unfortunately, this stochastic modeling may lead to a non tractable QoS analysis. Consequently, this work also develops an efficient procedure for carrying out the QoS analysis.

  • 8.
    Perez-Palacin, Diego
    et al.
    Politecnico di Milano, Italy.
    Mirandola, Raffaela
    Politecnico di Milano, Italy.
    Merseguer, José
    University of Zaragoza, Spain.
    On the relationships between QoS and software adaptability at the architectural level2014In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 87, no 1, p. 1-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern software operates in highly dynamic and often unpredictable environments that can degrade its quality of service. Therefore, it is increasingly important having systems able to adapt their behavior. However, the achievement of software adaptability can influence other software quality attributes, such as availability, performance or cost. This paper proposes an approach for analyzing tradeoffs between the system adaptability and its quality of service. The proposed approach is based on a set of metrics that allow the system adaptability evaluation. The approach can help software architects to guide decisions on system adaptation for fulfilling system quality requirements. The application and effectiveness of the approach are illustrated through examples and a wide set of experiments carried out with a tool we have developed.

  • 9.
    Perez-Palacin, Diego
    et al.
    University of Zaragoza, Spain.
    Mirandola, Raffaela
    Politecnico di Milano, Italy.
    Merseguer, José
    University of Zaragoza, Spain.
    QoS and energy management with Petri nets: A self-adaptive framework2012In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 85, no 12, p. 2796-2811Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy use is becoming a key design consideration in computing infrastructures and services. In this paper we focus on service-based applications and we propose an adaptation framework that can be used to reduce power consumption according to the observed workload. The adaptation guarantees a trade-off between energy consumption and system performance. The approach is based on the principle of proportional energy consumption obtained by scaling down energy for unused resources, considering both the number of servers switched on and their operating frequencies. Stochastic Petri nets are proposed for the modeling of the framework concerns, their analyses give results about the trade-offs. The application of the approach to a simple case study shows its usefulness and practical applicability. Finally, different types of workloads are analyzed with validation purposes.

  • 10.
    Weyns, Danny
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Computer Science, Physics and Mathematics.
    Malek, Sam
    George Mason University.
    Andersson, Jesper
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Computer Science, Physics and Mathematics.
    Schmerl, Bradley
    Carnegie Mellon University.
    Introduction to the special issue on state of the art in engineering self-adaptive systems2012In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 85, no 12, p. 2675-2677Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Weyns, Danny
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Computer Science. Katholieke Univ Leuven, Belgium.
    Mirandola, Raffaela
    Politecn Milan, Italy.
    Crnkovic, Ivica
    Chalmers University of Technology ; University of Gothenburg.
    Introduction to the special issue on "New frontiers in software architecture"2017In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 130, p. 57-58Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Winter, Jeff
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Rönkkö, Kari
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    SPI success factors within product usability evaluation2010In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 83, no 11, p. 2059-2072Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents an experience report where we compare 8 years of experience of product related usability testing and evaluation with principles for software process improvement (SPI). In theory the product and the process views are often seen to be complementary, but studies of industry have demonstrated the opposite. Therefore, more empirical studies are needed to understand and improve the present situation. We find areas of close agreement as well as areas where our work illuminates new characteristics. It has been identified that successful SPI is dependent upon being successfully combined with a business orientation. Usability and business orientation also have strong connections although this has not been extensively addressed in SPI publications. Reasons for this could be that usability focuses on product metrics whilst today's SPI mainly focuses on process metrics. Also because today's SPI is dominated by striving towards a standardized, controllable, and predictable software engineering process; whilst successful usability efforts in organisations are more about creating a creative organisational culture advocating a useful product throughout the development and product life cycle. We provide a study and discussion that supports future development when combining usability and product focus with SPI, in particular if these efforts are related to usability process improvement efforts.

  • 13.
    Winter, Jeff
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Rönkkö, Kari
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Rissanen, Mikko
    ABB Corporate Research.
    Identifying organizational barriers: A case study of usability work when developing software in the automation industry2014In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 88, p. 54-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates connections between usability efforts and organizational factors. This is an important field of research which so far appears to be insufficiently studied and discussed. It illustrates problems when working with software engineering tasks and usability requirements. It deals with a large company that manufactures industrial robots with an advanced user interface, which wanted to introduce usability KPIs, to improve product quality. The situation in the company makes this difficult, due to a combination of organizational and behavioural factors that led to a “wicked problem” that caused conflicts, breakdowns and barriers. Addressing these problems requires a holistic view that places context in the foreground and technological solutions in the background. Developing the right product requires communication and collaboration between multiple stakeholders. The inclusion of end users, who fully understand their own work context, is vital. Achieving this is dependent on organizational change, and management commitment. One step to beginning this change process may be through studying ways to introduce user-centred design processes.

1 - 13 of 13
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