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  • 1.
    Calinescu, Radu
    et al.
    University of York, UK.
    Weyns, Danny
    Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.
    Gerasimou, Simos
    University of York, UK.
    Iftikhar, Muhammad Usman
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM).
    Habli, Ibrahim
    University of York, UK.
    Kelly, Tim
    University of York, UK.
    Engineering Trustworthy Self-Adaptive Software with Dynamic Assurance Cases2018In: IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, ISSN 0098-5589, E-ISSN 1939-3520, Vol. 44, no 11, p. 1039-1069Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Building on concepts drawn from control theory, self-adaptive software handles environmental and internal uncertainties by dynamically adjusting its architecture and parameters in response to events such as workload changes and component failures. Self-adaptive software is increasingly expected to meet strict functional and non-functional requirements in applications from areas as diverse as manufacturing, healthcare and finance. To address this need, we introduce a methodology for the systematic ENgineering of TRUstworthy Self-adaptive sofTware (ENTRUST). ENTRUST uses a combination of (1) design-time and runtime modelling and verification, and (2) industry-adopted assurance processes to develop trustworthy self-adaptive software and assurance cases arguing the suitability of the software for its intended application. To evaluate the effectiveness of our methodology, we present a tool-supported instance of ENTRUST and its use to develop proof-of-concept self-adaptive software for embedded and service-based systems from the oceanic monitoring and e-finance domains, respectively. The experimental results show that ENTRUST can be used to engineer self-adaptive software systems in different application domains and to generate dynamic assurance cases for these systems.

  • 2.
    Caporuscio, Mauro
    et al.
    Universita degli Studi dell''Aquila, Italy.
    Carzaniga, Antonio
    University of Colorado, USA.
    Wolf, Alexander L.
    University of Colorado, USA.
    Design and Evaluation of a Support Service for Mobile, Wireless Publish/Subscribe Applications2003In: IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, ISSN 0098-5589, E-ISSN 1939-3520, Vol. 29, no 12, p. 1059-1071Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the design and evaluation of a support service for mobile, wireless clients of a distributed publish/subscribe system. A distributed publish/subscribe system is a networked communication infrastructure where messages are published by senders and then delivered to the receivers whose subscriptions match the messages. Communication therefore does not involve the use of explicit addresses, but rather emerges from the dynamic arrangement of publishers and subscribers. Such a communication mechanism is an ideal platform for a variety of Internet applications, including multiparty messaging, personal information management, information sharing, online news distribution, service discovery, and electronic auctions. Our goal is to support such applications on mobile, wireless host devices in such a way that the applications can, if they chose, be oblivious to the mobility and intermittent connectivity of their hosts as they move from one publish/subscribe access point to another. In this paper, we describe a generic, value-added service that can be used in conjunction with publish/subscribe systems to achieve these goals. We detail the implementation of the service and present the results of our evaluation of the service in both wireline and emulated wireless environments.

  • 3.
    Caporuscio, Mauro
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Computer Science.
    Grassi, V.
    Univ Roma Tor Vergata, Italy.
    Marzolla, M.
    Univ Bologna, Italy.
    Mirandola, R.
    Politecn Milan, Italy.
    GoPrime: A Fully Decentralized Middleware for Utility-Aware Service Assembly2016In: IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, ISSN 0098-5589, E-ISSN 1939-3520, Vol. 42, no 2, p. 136-152Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern applications, e.g., for pervasive computing scenarios, are increasingly reliant on systems built from multiple distributed components, which must be suitably composed to meet some specified functional and non-functional requirements. A key challenge is how to efficiently and effectively manage such complex systems. The use of self-management capabilities has been suggested as a possible way to address this challenge. To cope with the scalability and robustness issues of large distributed systems, self-management should ideally be architected in a decentralized way, where the overall system behavior emerges from local decisions and interactions. Within this context, we propose GOPRIME, a fully decentralized middleware solution for the adaptive self-assembly of distributed services. The GOPRIME goal is to build and maintain an assembly of services that, besides functional requirements, fulfils also global quality-of-service and structural requirements. The key aspect of GOPRIME is the use of a gossip protocol to achieve decentralized information dissemination and decision making. To show the validity of our approach, we present results from the experimentation of a prototype implementation of GOPRIME in a mobile health application, and an extensive set of simulation experiments that assess the effectiveness of GOPRIME in terms of scalability, robustness and convergence speed.

  • 4.
    Galster, Matthias
    et al.
    Univ Canterbury.
    Weyns, Danny
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Computer Science.
    Tofan, Dan
    Univ Groningen.
    Michalik, Bartosz
    Avgeriou, Paris
    Univ Groningen.
    Variability in Software Systems-A Systematic Literature Review2014In: IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, ISSN 0098-5589, E-ISSN 1939-3520, Vol. 40, no 3, p. 282-306Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Variability (i.e., the ability of software systems or artifacts to be adjusted for different contexts) became a key property of many systems. Objective: We analyze existing research on variability in software systems. We investigate variability handling in major software engineering phases (e.g., requirements engineering, architecting). Method: We performed a systematic literature review. A manual search covered 13 premium software engineering journals and 18 premium conferences, resulting in 15,430 papers searched and 196 papers considered for analysis. To improve reliability and to increase reproducibility, we complemented the manual search with a targeted automated search. Results: Software quality attributes have not received much attention in the context of variability. Variability is studied in all software engineering phases, but testing is underrepresented. Data to motivate the applicability of current approaches are often insufficient; research designs are vaguely described. Conclusions: Based on our findings we propose dimensions of variability in software engineering. This empirically grounded classification provides a step towards a unifying, integrated perspective of variability in software systems, spanning across disparate or loosely coupled research themes in the software engineering community. Finally, we provide recommendations to bridge the gap between research and practice and point to opportunities for future research.

  • 5.
    Pettersson, Niklas
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Computer Science, Physics and Mathematics.
    Löwe, Welf
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Computer Science, Physics and Mathematics.
    Nivre, Joakim
    Uppsala University.
    Evaluation of accuracy in design pattern occurrence detection2010In: IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, ISSN 0098-5589, E-ISSN 1939-3520, Vol. 36, no 4, p. 575-590Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Detection of design pattern occurrences is part of several solutions to software engineering problems, and high accuracy ofdetection is important to help solve the actual problems. The improvement in accuracy of design pattern occurrence detection requiressome way of evaluating various approaches. Currently, there are several different methods used in the community to evaluateaccuracy. We show that these differences may greatly influence the accuracy results, which makes it nearly impossible to compare thequality of different techniques. We propose a benchmark suite to improve the situation and a community effort to contribute to, andevolve, the benchmark suite. Also, we propose fine-grained metrics assessing the accuracy of various approaches in the benchmarksuite. This allows comparing the detection techniques and helps improve the accuracy of detecting design pattern occurrences.

  • 6.
    Shevtsov, Stepan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM).
    Berekmeri, Mihaly
    Grenoble Institute of Technology, France.
    Weyns, Danny
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM). KU Leuven, Belgium.
    Maggio, Martina
    Lund University.
    Control-Theoretical Software Adaptation: A Systematic Literature Review2018In: IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, ISSN 0098-5589, E-ISSN 1939-3520, Vol. 44, no 8, p. 784-810Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern software applications are subject to uncertain operating conditions, such as dynamics in the availability of services and variations of system goals. Consequently, runtime changes cannot be ignored, but often cannot be predicted at design time. Control theory has been identified as a principled way of addressing runtime changes and it has been applied successfully to modify the structure and behavior of software applications. Most of the times, however, the adaptation targeted the resources that the software has available for execution (CPU, storage, etc.) more than the software application itself. This paper investigates the research efforts that have been conducted to make software adaptable by modifying the software rather than the resource allocated to its execution. This paper aims to identify: the focus of research on control-theoretical software adaptation; how software is modeled and what control mechanisms are used to adapt software; what software qualities and controller guarantees are considered. To that end, we performed a systematic literature review in which we extracted data from 42 primary studies selected from 1512 papers that resulted from an automatic search. The results of our investigation show that even though the behavior of software is considered non-linear, research efforts use linear models to represent it, with some success. Also, the control strategies that are most often considered are classic control, mostly in the form of Proportional and Integral controllers, and Model Predictive Control. The paper also discusses sensing and actuating strategies that are prominent for software adaptation and the (often neglected) proof of formal properties. Finally, we distill open challenges for control-theoretical software adaptation.

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