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  • 1.
    Caesar, Sofia
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Ahnesjö, Jonas
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Forsman, Anders
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Testing the role of co-adapted genes versus bet hedging for mating strategies in colour polymorphic pygmy grasshoppers2007In: Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, ISSN 0024-4066, E-ISSN 1095-8312, Vol. 90, p. 491-499Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Forsman, Anders
    Department of Zoology, Uppsala University.
    Adaptive variation in head size in Vipera berus L. populations1991In: Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, ISSN 0024-4066, E-ISSN 1095-8312, Vol. 43, no 4, p. 281-296Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Härlin, Mikael
    University of Gothenburg.
    Biogeographic patterns and the evolution of eureptantic nemerteans1996In: Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, ISSN 0024-4066, E-ISSN 1095-8312, Vol. 58, no 3, p. 325-342Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The origin and evolution of the eureptantic nemerteans is discussed from a biogeographic point of view. It is most likely that East Indian Ocean was part of the ancestral distribution of the Eureptantia. The area cladogram estimated by Brooks parsimony analysis (BPA) is to a high degree congruent with a vicariance explanation of the evolution of the Eureptantia and suggests an ancestral distribution concordant with the Tethys Sea. A general area cladogram based on a combined BPA analysis of eureptantic nemerteans and acanthuroid fishes is reconstructed and suggested as a hypothesis of the relationships between east Indian Ocean, west Indian Ocean, west Pacific Ocean, east Atlantic Ocean, west Atlantic Ocean, and the Mediterranean. This tree is compared with cladograms from the same areas based on other taxa.

  • 4.
    Härlin, Mikael
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, Institutionen för biovetenskaper och processteknik.
    The logical priority of the tree over characters and some of its consequences for taxonomy1999In: Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, ISSN 0024-4066, E-ISSN 1095-8312, Vol. 68, no 4, p. 497-503Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present paper is to explore the role of the character in phylogenetic systematics. I argue that too much emphasis is put on particular characters rather than congruence both in the choice of phylogenetic hypotheses and in taxonomic decisions. This means that the logical priority of the tree over the characters is neglected. To a large extent, this is a result of not paying enough attention to the individuality thesis which states that clades are historical individuals and hence contingent in nature.

  • 5.
    Karpestam, Einat
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Merilaita, Sami
    Åbo Akademi University, Finland.
    Forsman, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Body size influences differently the detectabilities of colour morphs of cryptic prey2014In: Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, ISSN 0024-4066, E-ISSN 1095-8312, Vol. 113, no 1, p. 112-122Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Body size and coloration may contribute to variation in performance and fitness among individuals, for instance by influencing vulnerability to predators. Yet, the combined effect of size and colour pattern on susceptibility to visual predators has received little attention, particularly in camouflaged prey. In the colour polymorphic pygmy grasshopper Tetrix subulata (Linnaeus, 1758) females are larger than males although there is a size overlap between sexes. We investigated how body size and colour morph influenced detection of these grasshoppers, and whether differences in protective value among morphs change with size. We conducted a computer-based experiment and compared how human ‘predators’ detected images of large, intermediate or small grasshoppers belonging to black, grey or striped colour morphs when embedded in photographs of natural grasshopper habitats. We found that time to detection increased with decreasing size, that differences in time to detection of the black, grey and striped morphs depended differently on body size, and that no single morph provided superior or inferior protection in all three size classes. By comparing morph frequencies in samples of male and female grasshoppers from natural populations we also examined whether the joint effects of size and colour morph on detection could explain evolutionary dynamics in the wild. Morph frequency differences between sexes were largely in accordance with expectations from the results of the detection experiment. Our results demonstrate that body size and colour morph can interactively influence detection of camouflaged prey. This may contribute to the morph frequency differences between male and female pygmy grasshoppers in the wild. Such interactive effects may also influence the dynamics of colour polymorphisms, and contribute to the evolution of ontogenetic colour change and sexual dichromatism.

  • 6.
    Karpestam, Einat
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Merilaita, Sami
    Åbo Akademi University, Finland.
    Forsman, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Natural levels of colour polymorphism reduce performance of visual predators searching for camouflaged prey2014In: Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, ISSN 0024-4066, E-ISSN 1095-8312, Vol. 112, no 3, p. 546-555Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Polymorphism, the coexistence of two or more variants within a population, has served as a classic model system to address questions about the evolution and maintenance of intra-specific variation. It has been hypothesized that natural level of colour polymorphism may impair the search efficiency of visually oriented predators. To test this polymorphism protects hypothesis, we asked human participants to search for images of natural black, striped or grey Tetrix subulata grasshopper colour morphs presented against photographs of their natural habitat on computer screens. Fewer grasshoppers were detected when morphs were presented in mixed than in uniform sequences. All three morphs benefitted to comparable degrees, in terms of reduced detection, from being presented in polymorphic sequences. Our findings demonstrate that natural levels of polymorphic variation can impede the efficiency of visually oriented predators and increase survival of prey. This protective effect supports the limited attention hypothesis, explains why predators develop ‘search images’, may account for the spread and establishment of novel colour variants, and contribute to maintenance of polymorphisms.

  • 7.
    Sunde, Johanna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Forsman, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Mate choice is not consistent with short-term effects of intraspecific admixture in the common rough woodlouse (Porcellio scaber)2016In: Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, ISSN 0024-4066, E-ISSN 1095-8312, Vol. 119, no 2, p. 359-369Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Theory posits that individuals should exhibit mate preferences in part based on genetic relatedness such that fitness is maximized. Intraspecific genetic admixture can have different effects depending on the genetic characteristics and evolutionary history of the individuals and populations involved. We investigated whether female mate choice behavior in the common rough woodlouse (Porcellio scaber) matched the fitness consequences of genetic admixture. We found that most females from two populations that were in sequence introduced to one male from each population mated with both males, and further that monandrous females (females that only mated with one male) predominantly mated with males from their own population. To test for effects of genetic admixture, females from four populations were divided into two replicate pairs and assigned to mate either with a male from the same population as the female (pure) or with a male from the other population (admixed). The effect of mating treatment on the proportion of females that produced eggs and hatched young, as well as on the number and viability of offspring depended on female source population. Mating treatment had opposing effects in two of the populations, whereas there were no detectable effects in the other two populations. Contrary to what was expected, the mating patterns did not match the observed effects of genetic admixture. We discuss alternative adaptive and non-adaptive explanations for the observed patterns.

  • 8.
    Tinnert, Jon
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Forsman, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    The role of dispersal for genetic and phenotypic variation: insights from comparisons of sympatric pygmy grasshoppers2017In: Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, ISSN 0024-4066, E-ISSN 1095-8312, Vol. 122, no 1, p. 84-97Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Patterns of genetic and phenotypic variation within and among populations are influenced by a complex interplay of ecological and evolutionary processes. Theory posits that gene flow should increase diversity within and reduce differentiation between populations. Evaluating these predictions is potentially complicated by selection, population dynamics and plasticity that may also affect genetic and phenotypic variation. Here, we compare genetic and morphological variation between sympatric populations of two pygmy grasshopper species, Tetrix subulata and T. undulata, that differ in dispersal capacity. We found that genetic differentiation between populations is lower on average in the generally dispersive T. subulata compared with the mostly sedentary T. undulata, suggesting that genetic structure in the latter species has been less influenced by the homogenizing effects of migration. Our results also provided weak support for the hypothesis that neutral genetic diversity within populations should be higher in T. subulata than in T. undulata. We further found that body size varied among populations in both species, but the differences seen in T. subulata did not parallel those seen in T. undulata, indicating that the two species have unique plasticity responses or that they have responded differently to shared selective regimes. Our findings illustrate the utility of the pairwise comparative approach and further highlight that results and conclusions may not be transferrable even between closely related species.

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