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  • 1.
    Alatalo, Rauno V.
    et al.
    University of Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Eriksson, Dag
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Larsson, Kjell
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Exploitation competition influences the use of foraging sites by tits: Experimental evidence1987In: Ecology, ISSN 0012-9658, E-ISSN 1939-9170, Vol. 68, no 2, p. 284-290Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In coniferous forests of central Sweden, tits (Paridae) and the Goldcrest, Regulus regulus, exploit nonrenewable resources in their group territories during winter. The smaller and socially subordinate species, the Goldcrest and the Coal Tit, Parus ater, forage on the outermost tree parts, while the larger and dominant Willow Tit, Parus montanus, and Crested Tit, Parus cristatus, forage on the inner tree parts. We removed Coal Tits and Goldcrests in three flocks in early winter to see if their absence would cause changes in the foraging patterns of the two dominant species. In late winter, Crested Tits foraged farther outward on branches of spruce in experimental flocks than they did in the control flocks. In spruce, Willow Tits foraged nearer the trunk than Crested Tits, and they did not respond to the experiment. In pine, Willow Tits, however, did move from branches to twigs in the absence of Coal Tits and Goldcrests. The experiment indicates that exploitation competition directly based on food depletion, without any interference, may influence the use of foraging sites by tits in coniferous forests.

  • 2.
    Forsman, Anders
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Ahnesjö, Jonas
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Caesar, Sofia
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    A model of ecological and evolutionary consequences of color polymorphism2008In: Ecology, ISSN 0012-9658, E-ISSN 1939-9170, Vol. 89, p. 34-40Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Forsman, Anders
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Åberg, Viktor
    Associations of variable coloration with niche breadth and conservation status among Australian reptiles2008In: Ecology, ISSN 0012-9658, E-ISSN 1939-9170, Vol. 89, p. 1201-1207Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Hansson, Lars-Anders
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Bianco, Giuseppe
    Lund University.
    Ekvall, Mikael
    Lund University.
    Heuschele, Jan
    Lund University.
    Hylander, Samuel
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Yang, Xi
    Lund University.
    Instantaneous threat escape and differentiated refuge demand among zooplankton taxa2016In: Ecology, ISSN 0012-9658, E-ISSN 1939-9170, Vol. 97, no 2, p. 279-285Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most animals, including aquatic crustacean zooplankton, perform strong avoidance movements when exposed to a threat, such as ultraviolet radiation (UVR). We here show that the genera Daphnia and Bosmina instantly adjust their vertical position in the water in accordance with the present UVR threat, i.e., seek refuge in deeper waters, whereas other taxa show less response to the threat. Moreover, Daphnia repeatedly respond to UVR pulses, suggesting that they spend more energy on movement than more stationary taxa, for example, during days with fluctuating cloud cover, illustrating nonlethal effects in avoiding UVR threat. Accordingly, we also show that the taxa with the most contrasting behavioral responses differ considerably in photoprotection, suggesting different morphological and behavioral strategies in handling the UVR threat. In a broader context, our studies on individual and taxa specific responses to UVR provide insights into observed spatial and temporal distribution in natural ecosystems.

  • 5.
    Hansson, Lars-Anders
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Hylander, Samuel
    Lund University.
    Sommaruga, Ruben
    University of Innsbruck.
    Escape from UV threats in zooplankton: A cocktail of behavior and protective pigmentation2007In: Ecology, ISSN 0012-9658, E-ISSN 1939-9170, Vol. 88, no 8, p. 1932-1939Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to avoid environmental threats, organisms may respond by altering behavior or phenotype. Using experiments performed in high-latitude Siberia and in temperate Sweden, we show for the first time that, among freshwater crustacean zooplankton, the defense against threats from ultraviolet radiation (UV) is a system where phenotypic plasticity and behavioral escape mechanisms function as complementary traits. Freshwater copepods relied mainly on accumulating protective pigments when exposed to UV radiation, but Daphnia showed strong behavioral responses. Pigment levels for both Daphnia and copepods were generally higher at higher latitudes, mirroring different UV threat levels. When released from the UV threat, Daphnia rapidly reduced (within 10 days) their UV protecting pigmentation—by as much as 40%—suggesting a cost in maintaining UV protective pigmentation. The evolutionary advantage of protective pigments is, likely, the ability to utilize the whole water column during daytime; conversely, since the amount of algal food is generally higher in surface waters, unpigmented individuals are restricted to a less preferred feeding habitat in deeper waters. Our main conclusion is that different zooplankton taxa, and similar taxa at different latitudes, use different mixes of behavior and pigments to respond to UV radiation.

  • 6.
    Neuheimer, Anna B.
    et al.
    University of Hawaii, USA.
    Hartvig, Martin
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Heuschele, Jan
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Hylander, Samuel
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Kiorboe, Thomas
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Olsson, Karin H.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Sainmont, Julie
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Andersen, Kan Haste
    National Institute of Aquatic Resources - DTU Aqua, Denmark.
    Adult and offspring size in the ocean over 17 orders of magnitude follows two life history strategies2015In: Ecology, ISSN 0012-9658, E-ISSN 1939-9170, Vol. 96, no 12, p. 3303-3311Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Explaining variability in offspring vs. adult size among groups is a necessary step to determine the evolutionary and environmental constraints shaping variability in life history strategies. This is of particularly interest for life in the ocean where a diversity of offspring development strategies is observed along with variability in physical and biological forcing factors in space and time. We compiled adult and offspring size for 408 pelagic marine species covering >17 orders of magnitude in body mass including Cephalopoda, Cnidaria, Crustaceans, Ctenophora, Elasmobranchii, Mammalia, Sagittoidea, and Teleost. We find marine life following one of two distinct strategies, with offspring size being either proportional to adult size (e.g. Crustaceans, Euratatoria, Elasmobranchii and Mammalia) or invariant with adult size (e.g. Cephalopoda, Cnidaria, Sagittoidea, Teleosts and possibly Ctenophora). We discuss where these two strategies occur and how these patterns (along with the relative size of the offspring) may be shaped by physical and biological constraints in the organism's environment. This adaptive environment along with the evolutionary history of the different groups shape observed life history strategies and possible group-specific responses to changing environmental conditions (e.g. production and distribution).

  • 7.
    Wennersten, Lena
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Johansson, Jenny
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Karpestam, Einat
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Forsman, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Higher establishment success in more diverse groups of pygmy grasshoppers under seminatural conditions2012In: Ecology, ISSN 0012-9658, E-ISSN 1939-9170, Vol. 93, no 12, p. 2519-2525Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Large founder groups and habitat match have been shown to increase the establishment success of reintroduced populations. Theory posits that the diversity of founder groups should also be important, but this has rarely been investigated. Here, experimental introductions of color-polymorphic Tetrix subulata pygmy grasshoppers into outdoor enclosures were used to test whether higher phenotypic diversity promotes establishment success. We show that the number of individuals present one year after introduction increases with color morph diversity in founder groups. Variance in establishment success did not decrease with increasing founder diversity, arguing against an important contribution of sampling effects or evolutionary rescue. Color morphs in T. subulata covary with a suite of other functionally important traits and utilize different resources. The higher establishment success in more diverse founder groups may therefore result, in part, from niche complementarity. Variation in establishment among groups was not associated with differences among source populations in reproductive capacities.

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