lnu.sePublications
Change search
Refine search result
1 - 26 of 26
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 1.
    Allen, Peter M.
    et al.
    Anglia Ruskin University, UK.
    Radhakrishnan, Hema
    University of Manchester, UK.
    Rae, Sheila
    Anglia Ruskin University, UK.
    Calver, Richard I.
    Anglia Ruskin University, UK.
    Theagarayan, Baskar
    Anglia Ruskin University, UK.
    Nelson, Paul
    Prism Training Consultancy, UK.
    Osuobeni, Ebi
    Anglia Ruskin University, UK.
    Sailoganathan, Ananth
    Anglia Ruskin University, UK.
    Price, Holly
    Anglia Ruskin University, UK.
    O'Leary, Daniel J.
    Anglia Ruskin University, UK.
    Aberration control and vision training as an effective means of improving accommodation in individuals with myopia.2009In: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, ISSN 0146-0404, E-ISSN 1552-5783, Vol. 50, no 11, p. 5120-5129Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: To test the efficacy of a novel dual treatment for improving accommodative accuracy and dynamics in young persons with myopia.

    METHODS: Ninety-three young persons with myopia (mean spherical equivalent, -3.0 +/- 1.8 D; age 16.8 +/- 2.1 years; spherical aberration +0.06 +/- 0.04 microm) participated in the study. Custom-designed soft contact lenses were used to alter ocular SA to -0.10 microm to improve accommodative accuracy and reduce any lag of accommodation. A vision training regimen was performed for 18 minutes per day for up to 6 weeks to improve speed of dynamic accommodation. Control groups had contact lenses with no added SA and/or no exercises. To avoid any effects of natural levels of negative aberration on the results of the study, all participants who had negative SA were excluded.

    RESULTS: The treatment contact lenses produced a significant reduction in lag of accommodation (P < 0.05) at all proximal viewing distances measured. The vision training measurement and treatment resulted in a significant increase in distance facility rate for all groups compared with their own baselines (P < 0.05). Near facility rate improved in the vision training treatment group only compared with its baseline (P < 0.05). Both positive and negative response times for distant viewing were significantly shorter in all groups after training compared with their baseline values (P < 0.05). At near, the positive response times were decreased significantly (P < 0.05) in both groups, whereas the negative response times decreased significantly only in the vision training treatment group.

    CONCLUSIONS: After 3 months, the dual treatments (altering SA and vision training) used in the study were effective in modifying accommodation. The static accommodative response to targets at proximal distances was increased by the altered SA contact lenses and rates of dynamic accommodation improved with vision training.

  • 2.
    Baptista, Antonio M. G.
    et al.
    University of Minho, Portugal.
    Joel, Monteiro
    Centro Hospitalar do Alto Ave, Portugal.
    Vieira, Marco
    Centro Hospitalar do Alto Ave, Portugal.
    Reimão, Pedro
    Centro Hospitalar do Alto Ave, Portugal.
    Rocha, Paulo
    University of Porto, Portugal.
    Rocha-Sousa, Amandio A.
    University of Porto, Portugal.
    Freitas, Cristina
    Hospital de Braga, Portugal.
    Macedo, António Filipe
    University of Minho, Portugal.
    Marques, Ana Patricia
    Nova University of Lisbon, Portugal.
    Santana, Rui
    Nova University of Lisbon, Portugal.
    Causes of Vision Impairment in Portugal: A hospital based study2015In: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, ISSN 0146-0404, E-ISSN 1552-5783, Vol. 56, no 7, article id 2118Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose 

    Causes of vision impairment (VI) are influenced by factors such as race or socio-economic circumstances. Because of this collecting national information is important for planning reduction of vision loss. The aim of this study was to determine causes of vision impairment in a population visiting ophthalmology departments in public hospitals in Portugal.

    Methods 

    This study was designed according with the guidelines of the Vancouver Economic Burden of Vision Loss Group (IOVS, 2010, V51/4/1801). Recommendations are to collect hospital data during 1 year to determine causes of VI. We selected four public hospitals that are expected to have over 120-140K appointments per year. Files are analysed weekly to detect patients with vision impairment. Inclusion criteria are: visual acuity with the current refractive correction equal or less than 0.5 (20/40) in the better-seeing eye and/or a visual field of less than 20 degrees. Patients were selected by trained hospital staff (medics and orthoptists) and inserted in a database. Diagnoses were classified according the ICD9. Data collected included fundamental demographic information, main diagnosis, secondary diagnosis and comorbidities.

    Results 

    We have now 2462 patients selected that correspond to 4 to 33 weeks of data collection. The number of weeks is variable because we did not start all hospitals simultaneously. From the current number of cases detected, 58% are female, 1.9% are under 20, 8.2% are between 20 and 50 and 89.9% are 50 years or older. The leading causes of vision impairment among these patients are diabetic retinopathy (DR), cataract (C), glaucoma (GC) and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Using the North American definition of VI the proportions are 26.8% for DR, 25.5% for C, 10.4% for GC and 8.2% for AMD. The remaining causes of VI have percentages below 5% and in total they correspond to approximately 29% of the cases detected.

    Conclusions 

    Our results show that the most common causes of vision impairment are eye diseases related with systemic conditions and aging of the population. Vision impairment was relatively low under the age of 20 and the causes were mostly inherited diseases. Numbers reported now will be more accurate at the end of the study but they already highlight the importance of targeting conditions such as diabetes.

  • 3.
    Baskaran, Karthikeyan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Theagarayan, Baskar
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Carius, Staffan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Computer Science, Physics and Mathematics.
    Gustafsson, Jörgen
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Ocular Aberrations in the Peripheral Visual Field With a Commercial Open-View Aberrometer2010In: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, ISSN 0146-0404, E-ISSN 1552-5783, Vol. 51, no 5, article id 3951Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PurposeThe interest in off-axis aberrations has increased with the discovery of a possible link between myopia development and peripheral optics. The most common technology to measure the off-axis aberrations is a Shack-Hartmann wavefront aberrometer. This is the first study to report peripheral aberrations in a large sample of emmetropic population with a commercial open-view Shack-Hartmann aberrometer. MethodsThe commercial open-view Shack-Hartmann aberrometer COAS-HD VR was used to measure the aberrations in the peripheral vision. Aberrations of the right eye of 30 emmetropes (24 {+/-} 4 years) were studied. Off-axis aberrations were measured in steps of 10{degrees} out to {+/-} 30{degrees} in the horizontal visual field. The subjects turned their eye to view the off-axis fixation target (light emitting diode placed at 3 meters) during the measurement. The resulting wavefront aberrations were parameterized with Zernike coefficients for a 5 mm diameter pupil. All analyzes are reported according to optical society of America (OSA) recommended standards. ResultsAberrations from the 2nd to 6th order and the total higher-order root-mean-square (HO RMS) were analyzed using one-way ANOVA. The defocus C02 was significantly myopic in the nasal visual field (+20{degrees}, +30{degrees}) whereas there was no significant difference in the temporal visual field. Astigmatism C22 increased quadratically from {+/-}10{degrees} in the periphery and coma C13 showed a linear increase across the horizontal visual field (p < 0.05). The spherical aberration C04 and the total HO RMS showed a significant change at {+/-}30o. ConclusionsOur results showed that in young emmetropes there was a significant increase of HO RMS at {+/-}30{degrees}, which is expected. Astigmatism, horizontal coma, and spherical aberration vary systematically across the horizontal visual field in agreement with Seidel theory. The findings of our study with a large sample of emmetropic population agree with the previous studies done with laboratory built aberrometers.

  • 4. Bharadwaj, S.R.
    et al.
    Hoenig, MP
    Sivaramkrishnan, VC
    Baskaran, Karthikeyan
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Simonian, D
    Mau, K
    Rastani, S
    Schor, CM
    Variation of Binocular-Vertical Fusion Amplitude with Convergence.2007In: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, ISSN 0146-0404, E-ISSN 1552-5783, Vol. 48, no 4, p. 1592-1600Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Carneiro de Freitas, Rui
    et al.
    Hospital de Braga, Portugal.
    Freitas, Cristina
    Hospital de Braga, Portugal.
    Leite, Ricardo
    Hospital de Braga, Portugal.
    Sousa, Keissy
    Hospital de Braga, Portugal.
    Mendes-Ferreira, José
    Hospital de Braga, Portugal.
    Soares, Andreia
    Hospital de Braga, Portugal.
    Rubin, Gary S.
    UCL-Institute of Ophthalmology, UK.
    Rocha-Sousa, Amandio A.
    University of Porto, Portugal.
    Santana, Rui
    Nova University of Lisbon, Portugal.
    Macedo, António Filipe
    University of Minho, Portugal.
    Prevalence of Visual Impairment in Portugal: study design and initial results2015In: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, ISSN 0146-0404, E-ISSN 1552-5783, Vol. 56, no 7, article id 2119Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose 

    Information about the prevalence of visual impairment is fundamental to define policies that deal with vision loss. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of visual impairment (VI) in the population looking for eye care in public hospitals in Portugal.

    Methods 

    We designed an observation, cross-sectional prospective study (Prevalence and Costs of Visual Impairment in Portugal: PC-VIP study) to investigate the prevalence of VI in patients attending outpatient appointments in four public hospitals in Portugal. Hospital selected provide from general eye care (3-6 ophthalmologists) to high-specialized eye care (40+ ophthalmologists) that in total have between 120-140K hospital appointments per year. Files of patients are analysed weekly to detect patients with VI. Inclusion criteria were: visual acuity equal or worse than 0.5 (USA definition 20/40) in the better eye and/or a visual field of less than 20deg. Cases are selected by trained hospital staff and inserted in a database. Data collected included demographic information, acuity from both eyes, qualitative information about visual field (good, reduced, requires investigation), main diagnosis, secondary diagnosis and comorbidities. Diagnoses were classified according with ICD9.

    Results 

    We have now detected 2462 cases of VI that correspond to 4 to 33 weeks of data collection. The number of weeks is variable because collection did not start simultaneously in all sites. From the number of cases detected, 58% were female, 1.9% were under 20y, 8.2% were between 20y and 50y and 89.9% were ≥50y. The mean prevalence of visual impairment was 13.6% (SD=5.6) using the USA definition and it was 7.0%(SD=4.1) using the WHO definition (acuity equal or worse than 0.3 or ~20/63). With a methodology that controls for demographics the lowest and highest estimates were calculated. Considering the USA definition, the prevalence in the general population would be in the range 0.4 -0.4% (age<40y) and 0.8-2.4% (age>=40y). Considering WHO definition, it would be 0.2-0.5% (age<40y) and 0.4-1.0% (age>=40y).

    Conclusions 

    A hospital-based study can provide effective estimates of the prevalence of visual impairment in a population. Estimates for the country are in agreement with the expected results that can be deducted from neighbour countries and self-reported visual impairment in census 2001.

  • 6.
    Gierow, Peter
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Kacz, Lucyna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Effect of Age and Gender on Dry Eye according to Tests and Symptoms2018In: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, ISSN 0146-0404, E-ISSN 1552-5783, Vol. 59, no 9Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Gierow, Peter
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Larsson, Nathalie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Boström, Johanna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Comparison oF Different Tests for Evaluation of the Meibomian Glands2015In: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, ISSN 0146-0404, E-ISSN 1552-5783, Vol. 56, no 7Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Henrysson, Ida
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry. Linnaeus Univ, Dept Med & Optometry, Bergen, Norway..
    Theagarayan, Baskar
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Binocular Vision, Reading Ability and Associated Symptoms in School Children2015In: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, ISSN 0146-0404, E-ISSN 1552-5783, Vol. 56, no 7, p. 530-Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate relationship between binocular vision, reading ability and any associated symptoms in School Children.

    Methods: The study was conducted in a School in western Sweden. A sample of 54 Children aged between 10 and 12 years were invited to participate in this study. A consent form and a letter with information was sent to their parents. Children with at least 20/25 and N6 visual acuity and good Stereopsis were included. After receiving consent forms, 27 Children participated in all the measurements. Amplitude of accommodation was measured using push-up method both monocularly and binocularly. Accommodative facility was measured using ± 2.00 D flippers at 40 cm both monocularly and binocularly. Near point of convergence was measured using a Royal Air Force (RAF) ruler and both break and recovery points were documented. All the Children performed a group of reading ability tests to detect whether they have any reading difficulties. A questionnaire called "The College of Optometrists in Vision Development Quality of Life (COVD-QOL)" was filled by their parents together with their Children. A score of 20 or more is considered as symptomatic.

    Results: Mean amplitude of accommodation was OD 10.8 ± 4.0 D, OS 11.8 ± 4.1 D and OU 14.2 ± 3.7 D. Amplitude of accommodation was low in terms of Hofstetter's formula. Based on age, 59% of the Children were below expected value. The accommodative facility was lower than expected, with mean values of OD 5.5 ± 4.0 cpm, OS 5.5 ± 4.0 cpm and OU 5.0 ± 3.5 cpm. Mean near point of convergence was 6.0 ± 5.4 cm for break and 6.6 ± 5.9 cm for recovery. In the reading ability tests all the Children had normal values. Three Children received ≥ 20 points on the symptom questionnaire COVD-QOL, which is considered to be high. All of these three Children had values below normal limits for the amplitude of accommodation and/or the accommodative facility. Regression analysis showed no significant correlation between binocular vision tests, reading ability and symptom score (r < 0.6; p > 0.05).

    Conclusions: Amplitude of accommodation and accommodative facility was lower than expected values for their age. Near point of convergence values reached the expected normal level. There was no significant correlation between binocular vision tests, reading ability and associated symptoms in this sample of Swedish Children.

  • 9.
    Hernández-Moreno, Laura
    et al.
    University of Minho, Portugal.
    Massof, Robert W.
    Johns Hopkins Wilmer Eye Institute, USA.
    Sousa, Sofia
    University of Minho, Portugal.
    Cima, Joana
    Nova University of Lisbon, Portugal.
    Costa, J.P.M.
    University of Minho, Portugal.
    Monteiro, Joel
    Centro Hospitalar do Alto Ave, Portugal.
    Baptista, Antonio M. G.
    University of Minho, Portugal.
    Moreno, Natacha
    Hospital Santa Maria Maior de Barcelos, Portugal.
    Santana, Rui
    Nova University of Lisbon, Portugal.
    Macedo, António Filipe
    University of Minho, Portugal.
    The Portuguese version of the activity inventory2015In: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, ISSN 0146-0404, E-ISSN 1552-5783, Vol. 56, no 7, article id 1368Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To characterize interventions needed by the population with visual impairment or to assess interventions in vision rehabilitation validated and standardized instruments used in different cultural contexts are necessary. The aim of this work was to characterize the functional status of a sample of people with visual impairment with the Portuguese version of the activity inventory (AI)

    Methods: A group of participants in the study Prevalence and Costs of Visual Impairment in Portugal (PC-VIP) was recruit to face-to-face interviews and the activity inventory was administered. The AI examines 50 goals split between three objectives: social functioning, recreation and daily living. Goals rated ‘not important’ were skipped, but for all other goals the participant was asked to rate its difficulty on a five point scale ranging from ‘not difficult’ to ‘impossible without help’. The difficulty responses were Rasch analysed (Winsteps v3.81.0) to produce a continuous measure of visual ability (AI score). Additional information about distance and near visual acuity (ETDRS scale), contrast sensitivity (MARS test) and critical print size (MNREAD test) was collected.

    Results: A total of 94 persons participated in this study. Some participants were not able to read or recognize letters due to their poor vision or poor literacy and were excluded from further analysis. Data reported here are from 62 participants, median age 63y (range=12-85) and the most common cause of visual impairment were retinal diseases. Mean presenting acuity in the better eye was 0.93logMAR (SD=0.5). The mean difficulty (item measure) in the AI was -0.33 logits (SD=0.96). The most difficult items were "sew or do needlework", "read the newspaper", "drive" and the easiest items were "provide care for a pet", "eat your meals", "use the restroom in a public place". The mean ability score (person measures) was 1.11 logits (SD=2.04). The ability measures in the AI were correlated with distance visual acuity (r=-0.57, p<.001), near visual acuity (r=-0.66, p<0.001), contrast sensitivity (r=0.62, p<.001) and critical print size (r=-0.60, p<.001).

    Conclusions: Our results indicate that the AI scores in a sample of people Portuguese people with visual impairment were in line with what has been found in other cultural contexts. The visual ability measured by the AI was correlated with visual function assessed by different visual tests, which shows that this instrument can be used with confidence.

  • 10.
    Ingling, Allen W
    et al.
    Aeon Imaging, USA.
    Muller, Matthew S
    Aeon Imaging, USA.
    Green, Jason J
    Indiana Univ, USA.
    Gast, Thomas
    Aeon Imaging, USA ; Indiana Univ, USA.
    Haggerty, Bryan
    Indiana Univ, USA.
    Baskaran, Karthikeyan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry. Indiana Univ, USA.
    Clendenon, Jeffrey
    Aeon Imaging, USA.
    Stanfield, Kenneth A
    Aeon Imaging, USA.
    Elsner, Ann E
    Aeon Imaging, USA ; Indiana Univ, USA.
    Fixation stability readily obtained from confocal color fundus imaging2015In: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, ISSN 0146-0404, E-ISSN 1552-5783, Vol. 56, no 7, p. 515-515Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PurposeStabile fixation underpins most visual tasks such as reading, and is important for accurate assessment of visual function and treatment. Retinal imaging instruments average images over time to improve the signal to noise ratio, discarding useful eye movement data. We determined whether the frame-to-frame motion of the retina during non-mydriatic color fundus imaging could provide fixation stability measures, e.g. Bivariate Contour Ellipse Area (BCEA). MethodsNon-mydriatic color fundus images were acquired using the Digital Light Ophthalmoscope (DLO). Twenty subjects with varied fundus pigmentation were tested without mydriasis. The DLO uses a digital light projector with LED light sources to provide the illumination for both confocal imaging and fixation stimuli. The DLO projects a series of lines across the fundus that is synchronized to the 2D CMOS sensor, providing high contrast confocal imaging. Monochromatic 40 deg images were acquired with alternating red and green LED illumination at 14.3 Hz and overlayed to present a pseudo-color image to the operator in real time. To reduce pupil constriction and patient discomfort, the green LED was long-pass filtered with a 570 nm filter. A 1.5mm entrance pupil and time-averaged power of &lt;30 uW were used. Images were aligned automatically with custom software (MATLAB) using cross-correlation and 2D translation. A canvas of twice the image size was used to allow image alignment despite moderate eye movements. Blinks and large saccades were discarded and BCEA was computed. ResultsThe image alignment algorithm successfully aligned nearly all the frames, rejecting 3.7%, and allowing fixation stability to be computed from color fundus image data. The BCEA for 1 standard deviation was 2.97 log minarc2 for all subjects and both the red and yellow-orange illumination. There was no difference between the BCEA for red or yellow-orange illumination (t = .86). ConclusionsThe color DLO records sufficiently high quality images to reliably calculate measures of fixation stability. Despite recruiting an especially challenging population that included dark fundi, small pupils, high refractive errors, and media issues, we achieved success in all subjects tested to date.

  • 11.
    Lewis, Peter
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Holm, Victoria
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Baskaran, Karthikeyan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Gustafsson, Jörgen
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Dynamic Stimulus Presentation Facilitates Peripheral Resolution Acuity2013In: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, ISSN 0146-0404, E-ISSN 1552-5783, Vol. 54, article id e-abstract 574Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Peripheral high-contrast resolution is sampling limited; the center to center spacing between ganglion cells ultimately limiting visual performance (Thibos et al., 1987). Although retinal image motion in the fovea has a detrimental effect on visual acuity, previous studies have suggested that retinal image motion may be advantageous in the peripheral visual field (Bex et al., 2003; Brown, 1972; Macedo et al., 2010). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of drift motion on peripheral resolution acuity.

    Methods: Peripheral high-contrast resolution acuity in a group of 26 subjects (age 23.5 ± 3.2 years) was initially determined using a 2-alternative forced-choice Bayesian algorithm; the threshold value defined as the spatial frequency resulting in a 75% correct response rate. The stimuli used to measure static visual acuity were stationary Gabor-patches with a visible diameter of 2° and were presented at 20° in the nasal visual field. We determined the percentage correct response rate for varying velocities using drifting Gabor patches of the same spatial frequency as determined during measurement of static visual acuity. The sine-wave gratings drifted within the Gaussian envelope at one of 10 angular velocities, varying from 0.2 to 2.0 degrees/second in 0.2 degrees/second steps.

    Results: Results showed an overall improvement in the subjects’ performance for all velocities. There was a significant difference in the percentage of correct responses between static stimulus presentation and for velocities of between 0.4 to 1.2 degrees/second (p < 0.05, One-way repeated measures ANOVA with Bonferroni post hoc tests). The average “correct response” for static stimulus presentation was 76 ± 2 %, improving to at least 85 % for velocities between 0.4 to 1.2 degrees/second. At velocities greater than 1.2 degrees/second performance was still better than for static stimulus presentation, but showed a gradual decline with increasing speed.

    Conclusions: In line with previous studies stimulus motion has a positive effect on peripheral high-contrast resolution acuity. Presenting moving stimuli may benefit patients who rely on peripheral visual function, such as those with central visual field loss subsequent to AMD.

  • 12.
    Lima Ramos, Pedro
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry. Univ Minho, Portugal.
    Santana, Rui
    Univ Nova Lisboa, Portugal.
    Sousa, Ines
    Univ Minho, Portugal.
    Rocha-Sousa, Amandio A.
    Univ Porto, Portugal.
    Macedo, António Filipe
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry. Univ Minho, Portugal.
    Prevalence of Visual Impairment in the Municipality of Braga -Portugal using capture-recapture methods2018In: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, ISSN 0146-0404, E-ISSN 1552-5783, Vol. 59, no 9Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Lundström, Linda
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Venkataraman, Abinaya Priya
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Lewis, Peter
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Unsbo, Peter
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Spatiotemporal contrast sensitivity in the 10 degrees visual field2016In: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, ISSN 0146-0404, E-ISSN 1552-5783, Vol. 57, no 12Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Macedo, António Filipe
    et al.
    Universty of Minho, Portugal.
    Borges Ferreira, Marisa
    TEM-All with the Mutiple Sclerosis, Portugal ; Universty of Minho, Portugal.
    Parreira, Marta Gamito
    TEM-All with the Mutiple Sclerosis, Portugal.
    Sousa, Inês
    Universty of Minho, Portugal.
    Figueiredo, José
    Private Hospital of Braga, Portugal.
    Cerqueira, João José
    University of Minho, Portugal ; Hospital de Braga, Portugal.
    Silva Pereira, Paulo
    University of Minho, Portugal.
    Anti-saccades in early stages of multiple sclerosis2015In: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, ISSN 0146-0404, E-ISSN 1552-5783, Vol. 56, no 7, article id 2911Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Eye movements disability is common finding in multiple sclerosis (MS) but the exact stage at which changes are visible is not clear. The aim of study was to assess if anti-saccade (AS) planning and execution are altered at early stages of the disease.

    Methods: A total of 48 participants with MS selected by a neurologist (JJC) at Hospital de Braga and 52 controls participated in this study. Inclusion criteria: relapsing-remitting course, EDSS≤3, 1 month or more without MS crisis, and normal or corrected visual acuity. Exclusion criteria (MS and Control): cognitive impairment, traumatic brain injury or stroke. The mean age in the MS group was 37y and 33y in the control group. Eye movements were monitored using a binocular infrared eyetracker running at 250Hz(RED250, SMI Gmb Germany), precision <0.4deg, stimuli were presented in a 22 monitor (Dell P2210). Code for running the experiment and data analysis was written using the Matlab (Mathworks Inc). Participants were seated in a room dim light at 74cm from the monitor and head movements were minimized by a headband. The task was to fixate, after a variable period between steady fixation and the stimulus of 1250ms or 1600ms, participants looked as quickly as possible for the opposite direction where the target (a 30x30mm cross) was presented (anti-saccade movement). Each subject performed 40 trails.

    Results: The main results were the proportion of the directional errors (wherein the participant voluntarily looked for the wrong side), and latencies for: i) anti-saccades, ii) pro-saccades (movement in the same direction of the stimulus) and iii) correction (reaction time that the participant takes from the error fixation until to start the movement). The mean number of errors was 28%(SD=19) in MS group and 16%(SD=11) in the control group, mean difference 12%, t(74)=3.83, p<.001. Anti-saccades latency was 330msec (SD=61) in the MS group and 294ms(SD=59) in the control group, mean difference 36ms, F(1,98)=10.99, p<.05. The mean of the correction latency value was 178ms(SD=111) in the MS group and 129ms(SD=107) in the control group with a mean difference of 49ms, F(1,98)=6, p<.05. No statistically significant differences were found in accuracy and pro-saccade latency between groups.

    Conclusions: This study shows that anti-saccades latency and errors are increased at early stages of multiple sclerosis. Anti-saccades might be a sensitive tool to assess functional status in people with this condition.

  • 15.
    Macedo, António Filipe
    et al.
    UCL Institute of Ophthalmology, UK ; University of Minho, Portugal.
    Crossland, Michael D.
    UCL Institute of Ophthalmology, UK ; NIHR Biomedical Research Centre for Ophthalmology, UK.
    Rubin, Gary S.
    UCL Institute of Ophthalmology, UK ; NIHR Biomedical Research Centre for Ophthalmology, UK.
    Investigating unstable fixation in patients with macular disease2011In: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, ISSN 0146-0404, E-ISSN 1552-5783, Vol. 52, no 3, p. 1275-1280Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose.: To assess the effect on visual acuity of compensating fixation instability by controlling retinal image motion in people with macular disease.

    Methods.: Ten patients with macular disease participated in this study. Crowded and noncrowded visual acuity were measured using an eye tracking system to compensate for fixation instability. Four conditions, corresponding to four levels of retinal image motion, were tested: no compensation (normal motion), partial compensation (reduced motion), total compensation (no motion), and overcompensation (increased motion). Fixation stability and the number of preferred retinal loci were also measured.

    Results.: Modulating retinal image motion had the same effect on crowded and noncrowded visual acuity (P = 0.601). When fixation instability was overcompensated, acuity worsened by 0.1 logMAR units (P < 0.001) compared with baseline (no compensation) and remained equal to baseline for all other conditions.

    Conclusions.: In people with macular disease, retinal image motion caused by fixation instability does not reduce either crowded or noncrowded visual acuity. Acuity declines when fixation instability is overcompensated, showing limited tolerance to increased retinal image motion. The results provide evidence that fixation instability does not improve visual acuity and may be a consequence of poor oculomotor control.

  • 16.
    Macedo, António Filipe
    et al.
    University of Minho, Portugal.
    Encarnacao, Tito J.
    University of Minho, Portugal.
    Baptista, Antonio M.
    University of Minho, Portugal.
    Temporal Processing in the Peripheral Retina2012In: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, ISSN 0146-0404, E-ISSN 1552-5783, Vol. 53, no 14, article id 4830Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: There is an increasing number of reports in the literature about the possible influence of the peripheral refraction in myopia development. The aim of this work was to determine whether the peripheral refractive differences lead to changes in visual performance. We used a forced choice procedure to assess the speed and accuracy (visual processing) of people with and without myopia at detecting the direction of a Gabor patch presented at different retinal locations.

    Methods: Visual processing was measured twice in random order at 6 retinal locations: 10, 20 and 30 degrees eccentricity at the temporal and at the nasal retina. We tested the dominant eye of 8 adults (aged 19 to 33 years) with moderate myopia (spherical equivalent ranging from -4.25 to -2.00 D) and 8 age-matched adults without myopia (spherical equivalent from -0.63 to 0.75 D). Participants’ task was to report via bottom press whether the Gabor patch, with suprathreshold contrast and spatial frequency, was tilted 30º to the right or to the left. The target was preceded by a 50 msec duration cue, exposed for variable periods of 10, 30, 60, 90 and 140 msec, selected in random order, and followed by a noise mask until response was given. For each block, processing time was determined using the method of constant stimuli based in 400 trials per retinal location (80 trials per exposure). Threshold was defined as the exposure time yielding 75% of correct responses; results were analysed using linear mixed models (SPSS, v18).

    Results: The mean processing time in the group with myopia was 73 msec and in the group without myopia was 66 msec; the difference between groups was not statistically significant (p = 0.087). There was a statistically significant difference between the nasal and temporal retina, mean difference was 13 msec (p = 0.002) with smaller processing time in the nasal retina.

    Conclusions: For the type of paradigm used in this study, there was no difference in processing time of the peripheral retina between people with and people without myopia. Despite extensive reports in the literature about different refraction patterns in this study we found evidences that this does not translate into functional changes.

  • 17.
    Macedo, António Filipe
    et al.
    University of Minho, Portugal.
    Moreno, Laura H.
    University of Minho, Portugal.
    Silva, Rui S.
    University of Minho, Portugal.
    Crossland, Michael D.
    Anglia Ruskin University, UK ; Moorfields Eye Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, UK.
    Smartphones in visual impairment2014In: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, ISSN 0146-0404, E-ISSN 1552-5783, Vol. 55, no 13, article id 4150Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose 

    We have previously shown that electronic devices can be used by people with relatively low visual acuity and contrast sensitivity. The aim of this study was to determine if people with visual impairment use smartphones to compensate their visual deficits.

    Methods 

    An online survey was advertised to people with visual impairment using personal contacts, social media and online discussion groups. This survey was administered in two languages: English and Portuguese. The first author is fluent in both languages and ensured accurate translation. The questionnaire was designed to collect basic demographic information and self-reported cause of visual impairment. Participants were asked to specify whether they used smartphones, and if so which operating system they used, what they used the device for, and which accessibility functions they used.

    Results 

    In total 131 responses were obtained: 75 to the English and 56 to the Portuguese survey. 93% of the respondents were younger than 64 years and 25% had no perception of light. From the total number of 131 respondents, 101 used smartphone. Of these, 57% used an Apple OS, 22% used Android and 15% used Symbian. 98% of smartphone users made phone calls with their device and sending text messages was reported by 93%. Internet navigation was used by 84%, photo capabilities were used by 53% to help them to see and by 73% for other purposes. 80% also used apps on their device. Speech navigation was used by 67% of respondents, ability to enlarge print was used by 58% and a large screen was important to 40%. Font type and contrast changes were less commonly used. Only 14% received information about these devices from a vision care professional. Other sources included online search, recommendations from friends or blind associations.

    Conclusions 

    Smartphones are widely used by people with visual impairment. The current accessibility features such as speech navigation and large print allow people with visual impairment to use of these devices not only as phones but also as an electronic low vision aid.

  • 18.
    Macedo, António Filipe
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry. Univ Minho, Portugal.
    Santos, Diana
    Univ Minho, Portugal.
    Hernandez-Moreno, Laura
    Univ Minho, Portugal.
    Leitao, Marta
    Univ Minho, Portugal.
    Latham, Keziah
    Anglia Ruskin Univ, UK.
    Linhares, Joao
    Univ Minho, Portugal.
    Exploring barriers to physical activity faced by people with vision loss2018In: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, ISSN 0146-0404, E-ISSN 1552-5783, Vol. 59, no 9Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Marques, Ana Patricia
    et al.
    Nova University of Lisbon, Portugal.
    Macedo, António Filipe
    University of Minho, Portugal.
    Rocha-Sousa, Amandio A.
    Unversity of Porto, Portugal.
    Baptista, Antonio M. G.
    University of Minho, Portugal.
    Rubin, Gary S.
    UCL-Institute of Ophthalmology, UK.
    Monteiro, Joel
    Centro Hospitalar do Alto Ave, Portugal.
    Hernández-Moreno, Laura
    University of Minho, Portugal.
    Cima, Joana
    Nova University of Lisbon, Portugal.
    Santana, Rui
    Nova University of Lisbon, Portugal.
    Estimating the cost of visual impairment: initial results2015In: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, ISSN 0146-0404, E-ISSN 1552-5783, Vol. 56, no 7, article id 2134Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Vision loss can have a substantial human and economic impact on individuals and society that include disability, loss of productivity and reduction in quality of life. The purpose of this study was to estimate economic burden of visual impairment in Portugal.

    Methods: A prevalence-based cost of illness approach was adopted to estimate costs of vision impairment. We estimated direct medical costs and indirect economic costs. Direct medical hospital costs were determined using a bottom up approach. For those meeting the inclusion criteria (visual acuity of 20/40 or 0.5decimal or worse in the better eye and/or visual field of less than 20deg) we estimated direct costs by collecting information from administrative records that included: physician’s office visits, emergency and outpatient visits. We developed a survey based in parts of the annotated cost questionnaire-HERU Discussion Paper N.03/01 (UK Working Party on Patient Costs) and the Service Receipt Inventory-European Version. Using the questionnaire that we developed, in face-to-face interviews, we collect direct medical expenditures supported by patients that included: costs with medical prescriptions, low vision aids and devices. With the same questionnaire we collected information for indirect costs calculations. Indirect costs were calculated by estimating the value of productivity losses including employment participation, absenteeism and caregiver costs.

    Results: Results presented here correspond to 442 patients that met the inclusion criteria. The four main causes of visual impairment in this sample were Diabetic Retinopathy, Cataract, Glaucoma and Age-related macular degeneration. Direct medical hospital costs were accountable for 12% of total costs calculated. Patient expenditures represented 25% of expenses with visual impairment and indirect costs corresponded to 63% of the total. From this data we estimated that the average annual direct cost per patient with VI was 958 euro and average annual indirect cost was 1655 euro.

    Conclusions: With the instruments and methodology that was adopted we were able quantify direct medical hospital costs as well as indirect costs of visual impairment. Results of this study show that more than half of the costs with VI are indirect. This highlights that particular attention should be given to costs that arise for individuals with vision loss.

  • 20.
    Marques, Ana Patricia
    et al.
    Nova University of Lisbon, Portugal.
    Macedo, António Filipe
    University of Minho, Portugal.
    Rocha-Sousa, Amandio A.
    University of Porto, Portugal.
    Perelman, Julian
    Nova University of Lisbon, Portugal.
    Baptista, António M.
    University of Minho, Portugal.
    Santana, Rui
    Nova University of Lisbon, Portugal.
    Emergence of intravitreal injections in a National Health System: 2002-20122014In: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, ISSN 0146-0404, E-ISSN 1552-5783, Vol. 55, no 13, article id 6088Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose 

    Intravitreal injections of antivascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) are an innovative procedure with well-proven benefits to preserve vision in certain eye conditions. The aim of this study was to examine the diffusion of this treatment in the Portuguese National Health System.

    Methods 

    We used a database of all in-patient and day cases stays from all Portuguese public hospitals during period 2002-2012. We selected cases based on four procedures, ICD-9-CM codes: 1414, 1475, 1479, 149. Given that these procedures are not specific for intravitreal injections it is likely that our results captured cases that are not anti-VEGF injections. Because we were only interested in the diffusion of new anti-VEGF treatments we included years 2002-2005 as baseline because during that period drugs anti-VEGF were not licenced. We calculated absolute values, yearly rates of episodes and rates of patients treated per 100,000 habitants.

    Results 

    Our final sample included 98,408 episodes, 52% performed in men. The total number of episodes increased from 1,815 in 2002 to 25,106 in 2012 (mean annual increase of 32%). These values corresponded to an increase in ratios per 100,000 from 17.4 to 238.77. The highest increase was observed between 2007 and 2009 with an increase of 337%. The number of treated patients was six times higher in 2012 with 11,937 treated compared with 1,561 in 2002 (mean annual increase of 24%). The highest increase was also observed between 2006 and 2009. In 2012, 86.2% of the procedures were performed as day cases, representing an increase of 78.3% as compared to 2002. The percentage of patients older than 60 years increased from 60% in 2002 to 80% in 2012. Five diagnoses (See Figure: wet AMD, diabetic macular oedema, oedema of the retina, retinal neovascularization and non-specific AMD) were associated with 73% of these procedures in 2012, in contrast with only 16% in 2002.

    Conclusions 

    The number of procedures grew exponentially since anti-VGEF treatments were approved. The aging of the population and the expected growth in conditions such as diabetes and AMD are likely to increase the demand for these procedures in years to come. These factors are likely to impose tremendous challenges to health services. That will happen not only due to the price of the procedures but also for number of physicians and other staff needed in Ophthalmology departments.

     View

  • 21. Mircheff, A K
    et al.
    Gierow, Peter
    University of Southern California School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California.
    Lee, L M
    Lambert, R W
    Akashi, R H
    Hofman, F M
    Class II antigen expression by lacrimal epithelial cells. An updated working hypothesis for antigen presentation by epithelial cells1991In: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, ISSN 0146-0404, E-ISSN 1552-5783, Vol. 32, no 8, p. 2302-2310Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been suggested that aberrant expression of Class II histocompatibility antigens (HLA) is involvedin T cell activation and leads to autoimmunity. Although Class II antigen expression was foundin various nonlymphoid tissues, including salivary glands, its expression on lacrimal epithelial cells hasnot been reported. In this study, 12 cadaver lacrimal glands were analyzed for HLA-DR and for thenumbers and distributions of T suppressor cells (Ts), T helper cells (Th), B cells, and macrophages.None of these cases exhibited the high numbers of inflammatory cells, tissue damage, and fibrosischaracteristic of Sjogren's syndrome. The HLA-DR-positive epithelial cells were detected in ten cases;they represented from less than 1% to more than 70% of the epithelial cells. In these ten positive cases,there were greater numbers of T cells per millimeter squared (229 ± 94 [mean ± the standard error ofthe mean]) than in the two HLA-DR-negative cases (37 ± 1 [mean ± range]). Three lacrimal glandspecimens tested were negative for immunoglobulin (Ig) G-bearing B cells, and two of the three specimenstested had IgA-bearing cells. Acinar cells were isolated from rat and rabbit lacrimal glands andcultured overnight in serum-free media supplemented with several potential mediators of Class IIantigen expression: interferon-7, carbachol, or isoproterenol. Freshly isolated cells did not expressClass II antigens at detectable levels, but in most experiments, they began to express the antigen evenin the absence of putative mediators. In light of results from recent studies of antigen presentation andepithelial cell membrane dynamics, these findings suggest a hypothesis in which Class II antigen-expressingepithelial cells present antigenic peptides that are generated in the intracellular compartmentsin communication with the basal-lateral membrane assembly and recycling pathway. 

  • 22.
    Mohlin, Camilla
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Petrus-Reurer, Sandra
    Karolinska Institutet;Karolinska University Hospital.
    Lanner, Fredrik
    Karolinska Institutet;Karolinska University Hospital.
    Sandholm, Kerstin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Nilsson, Per H.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Univ Oslo, Norway.
    Nilsson, Bo
    Uppsala University.
    Nilsson Ekdahl, Kristina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Uppsala University.
    Is the polarized secretion of complement factor H of importance in age-related macular degeneration?2018In: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, ISSN 0146-0404, E-ISSN 1552-5783, Vol. 59, no 9Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Moreno, Laura Hernandez
    et al.
    Univ Minho, Portugal.
    Perdomo, Natacha Moreno
    Hosp Santa Maria Maior EPE, Portugal.
    Lima Ramos, Pedro
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry. Univ Minho, Portuga.
    Lewis, Peter
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Linhares, Joao
    Univ Minho, Portugal.
    Senra, Hugo
    Anglia Ruskin, UK.
    Santana, Rui
    Univ Nova Lisboa, Portugal.
    Macedo, António Filipe
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry. Univ Minho, Portugal.
    Visual and psychological outcomes in patients with and without low vision diagnosed with similar eye diseases - initial results.2018In: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, ISSN 0146-0404, E-ISSN 1552-5783, Vol. 59, no 9Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Radhakrishnan, Hema
    et al.
    University of Manchester, UK ; The Vision Cooperative Research Centre, Australia.
    Allen, Peter M.
    The Vision Cooperative Research Centre, Australia ; Anglia Ruskin University, UK.
    Calver, Richard I.
    The Vision Cooperative Research Centre, Australia ; Anglia Ruskin University, UK.
    Theagarayan, Baskar
    The Vision Cooperative Research Centre, Australia ; Anglia Ruskin University, UK.
    Price, Holly
    The Vision Cooperative Research Centre, Australia ; Anglia Ruskin University, UK.
    Rae, Sheila
    The Vision Cooperative Research Centre, Australia ; Anglia Ruskin University, UK.
    Sailoganathan, Ananth
    The Vision Cooperative Research Centre, Australia ; Anglia Ruskin University, UK.
    O'Leary, Daniel J.
    The Vision Cooperative Research Centre, Australia.
    Peripheral refractive changes associated with myopia progression2013In: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, ISSN 0146-0404, E-ISSN 1552-5783, Vol. 54, no 2, p. 1573-1581Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the changes in peripheral refraction profiles associated with myopia progression and treatment modalities used in the Cambridge Anti-Myopia Study.

    METHODS: one hundred and seventy-seven myopes in the age range of 14 to 22 years were enrolled in the study. The mean spherical equivalent refractive error was 3.12 1.87 diopters (D) and the refractive error of each participant was corrected with contact lenses. The participants were randomly assigned to one of four treatment groups, which included: altered spherical aberration and vision training, altered spherical aberration only, vision training only, and control. Peripheral refractive error was measured using an open field autorefractor in the central 60° of the retina in 10° steps. The refractive error was measured using cycloplegic autorefraction. Two-year refractive progression data and initial peripheral refraction measurements were available in 113 participants. Measurements of peripheral refraction and cycloplegic refraction were obtained at three visits over 2 years in 12-month intervals for 92 participants.

    RESULTS: All subjects showed a relative peripheral hyperopia, especially in the nasal retina. A limited magnitude of myopia progression of -0.34 ± 0.36 D over 2 years was found in each of the four groups on average. There were no significant differences in the rate of progression between any of the treatment groups (P > 0.05). Initial peripheral J45 astigmatic refractive error at 20° and 30° in the nasal retina was weakly correlated with progression of myopia over 2 years (r = -0.27, P = 0.004 and r = -0.20, P = 0.040, respectively; n = 113). The change in spherical equivalent peripheral refractive error at 30° nasal retina over time was also significantly correlated with progression of myopia especially at 24 months (r = -0.24, P = 0.017, n = 92).

    CONCLUSIONS: Relative peripheral hyperopia is associated with myopia. Myopia progression may be weakly linked to changes in the peripheral refraction profiles in the nasal retina. However, a causative link between peripheral refractive error and myopia progression could not be established.

  • 25.
    Theagarayan, Baskar
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Sörman, Yelene
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Effect of Age on Amplitude of Accommodation in a Swedish Population2015In: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, ISSN 0146-0404, E-ISSN 1552-5783, Vol. 56, no 7Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Venkataraman, Abinaya Priya
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Lewis, Peter
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Lundström, Linda
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Optical Correction and Stimulus Motion to Improve Vision in Eccentric Preferred Retinal Locus2016In: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, ISSN 0146-0404, E-ISSN 1552-5783, Vol. 57, no 12, article id Meeting Abstract: 5175Article in journal (Refereed)
1 - 26 of 26
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf