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  • 1. Gislén, Anna
    et al.
    Gustafsson, Jörgen
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Kröger H.H, Ronald
    The accommodative pupil responses of children and young adults at low and intermediate levels of ambient illumination2008In: Vision Research, ISSN 0042-6989, E-ISSN 1878-5646, Vol. 48, no 8, p. 989-993Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Accommodative pupil constrictions were compared between 27 children (9-10 years) and 13 young adults (22-26 years) in order to clarify the issue whether or not children have such a response. Accommodative stimuli of 4 and 7 diopters were used to elicit the response and experiments were performed at 5 and 100 lux in order to investigate whether the level of ambient light has different effects on developing and mature visual systems. The accommodative pupil response is present in children, but weaker than in adults. Different levels of ambient light lead to only minor additional differences between children and adults. The weaker accommodative pupil response of children may be a consequence of their superior accommodative ranges, which make it unnecessary to close the pupil to increase depth of field. Adults, in contrast, may do better with smaller pupils that reduce accommodative demand because of increased depth of field. A mature human visual system may furthermore be better tuned to handle dimmer and thus noisier images in the photopic range than the developing visual system of a child. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 2.
    Lewis, Peter
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Rosén, Robert
    KTH, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Unsbo, Peter
    KTH, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Jörgen
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Resolution of static and dynamic stimuli in the peripheral visual field.2011In: Vision Research, ISSN 0042-6989, E-ISSN 1878-5646, Vol. 51, no 16, p. 1829-1834Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a clinical setting, emphasis is given to foveal visual function, and tests generally only utilize static stimuli. In this study, we measured static (SVA) and dynamic visual acuity (DVA) in the central and peripheral visual field on healthy, young emmetropic subjects using stationary and drifting Gabor patches. There were no differences between SVA and DVA in the peripheral visual field; however, SVA was superior to DVA in the fovea for both velocities tested. In addition, there was a clear naso-temporal asymmetry for both SVA and DVA for isoeccentric locations in the visual field beyond 10° eccentricity. The lack of difference in visual acuity between static and dynamic stimuli found in this study may reflect the use of drift-motion as opposed to displacement motion used in previous studies.

  • 3.
    Venkataraman, Abinaya Priya
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Lewis, Peter
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Unsbo, Peter
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Lundström, Linda
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Peripheral resolution and contrast sensitivity: Effects of stimulus drift2017In: Vision Research, ISSN 0042-6989, E-ISSN 1878-5646, Vol. 133, p. 145-149Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Optimal temporal modulation of the stimulus can improve foveal contrast sensitivity. This studyevaluates the characteristics oftheperipheral spatiotemporal contrast sensitivity function in normal-sighted subjects.The purpose is to identify a temporal modulation that can potentially improve the remaining peripheral visual function in subjects with central visual field loss. High contrast resolution cut-off for grating stimuli with four temporal frequencies (0, 5, 10 and 15 Hz drift) was first evaluated in the 10° nasal visual field.Resolution contrast sensitivity for all temporal frequencies was then measured at four spatial frequencies between 0.5 cycles per degree (cpd) and the measured stationary cut-off. All measurements were performed with eccentric optical correction. Similar to foveal vision, peripheral contrast sensitivity is highest for a combination of low spatial frequency and 5 to 10 Hz drift. At higher spatial frequencies, there was a decrease in contrast sensitivity with 15 Hz drift.Despitethis decrease, the resolution cut-off did not vary largely between the different temporal frequencies tested. ​ Additional measurements of contrast sensitivity at 0.5 cpd and resolution cut-off for stationary (0 Hz) and 7.5 Hz stimuli performed at 10, 15, 20 and 25° in the nasal visual field also showed the same characteristics across eccentricities.

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