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  • 1.
    Abarca-Guerrero, Lilliana
    et al.
    Univ Tecnol Eindhoven, Netherlands.
    Maas, Ger
    Univ Tecnol Eindhoven, Netherlands.
    Hogland, William
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Desafíos en la gestión de residuos sólidos para las ciudades de países en desarrollo [Solid waste management challenges for cities in developing countries]2015Inngår i: Tecnología en Marcha, ISSN 0379-3982, Vol. 28, nr 2, s. 141-168Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Solid waste management is a challenge for the cities' authorities in developing countries mainly due to the increasing generation of waste, the burden posed on the municipal budget as a result of the high costs associated to its management, the lack of understanding over a diversity of factors that affect the different stages of waste management and linkages necessary to enable the entire handling system functioning. An analysis of literature on the work done and reported mainly in publications from 2005 to 2011, related to waste management in developing countries, showed that few articles give quantitative information. The analysis was conducted in two of the major scientific journals, Waste Management Journal and Waste Management and Research. The objective of this research was to determine the stakeholders' action/behavior that have a role in the waste management process and to analyze influential factors on the system, in more than thirty urban areas in 22 developing countries in 4 continents. A combination of methods was used in this study in order to assess the stakeholders and the factors influencing the performance of waste management in the cities. Data was collected from scientific literature, existing data bases, observations made during visits to urban areas, structured interviews with relevant professionals, exercises provided to participants in workshops and a questionnaire applied to stakeholders. Descriptive and inferential statistic methods were used to draw conclusions. The outcomes of the research are a comprehensive list of stakeholders that are relevant in the waste management systems and a set of factors that reveal the most important causes for the systems' failure. The information provided is very useful when planning, changing or implementing waste management systems in cities.

  • 2.
    Abromaitis, V.
    et al.
    Kaunas Univ Technol, Lithuania ; Wetsus, European Ctr Excellence Sustainable Water Technol, Netherlands.
    Racys, V.
    Kaunas Univ Technol, Lithuania.
    van der Marel, P.
    WLN, Netherlands.
    Ni, Gaofeng
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Dopson, Mark
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Wolthuizen, A. L.
    Wageningen Univ, Netherlands.
    Meulepas, R. J. W.
    Wetsus, European Ctr Excellence Sustainable Water Technol, Netherlands.
    Effect of shear stress and carbon surface roughness on bioregeneration and performance of suspended versus attached biomass in metoprolol-loaded biological activated carbon systems2017Inngår i: Chemical Engineering Journal, ISSN 1385-8947, E-ISSN 1873-3212, Vol. 317, s. 503-511Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The bioregeneration of activated carbon (AC) in biological activated carbon (BAC) systems is limited by sorption-desorption hysteresis and transport between the adsorbent and biomass. In this study, we investigated these limitations and whether a biofilm covering the AC surface is required. Consequently, BAC reactors were operated at different shear stress and AC surface smoothness, since this may affect biofilm formation. The experiments were carried out in BAC and blank reactors treating synthetic wastewater containing the pharmaceutical metoprolol. After start-up, all reactors removed metoprolol completely; however, after 840 h the removal dropped due to saturation of the AC. In the blank reactors, the removal dropped to 0% while in the BAC reactors removal recovered to >99%, due to increased biological activity. During the initial phase, the metoprolol was adsorbed, rather than biodegraded. At the end, the AC from the BAC reactors had higher pore volume and sorption capacity than from the blank reactors, showing that the AC had been bioregenerated. At high shear (G = 25 s(-1)), the rough AC granules (R-a = 13 mu m) were covered with a 50-400 gm thick biofilm and the total protein content of the biofilm was 2.6 mg/gAC, while at lower shear (G = 8.8 s(-1)) the rough AC granules were only partly covered. The biofilm formation at lower shear (G = 8.8 s(-1)) on smooth AC granules (R-a = 1.6 mu m) was negligible. However, due to the presence of suspended biomass the reactor performance or bioregeneration were not reduced. This showed that direct contact between the AC and biomass was not essential in mixed BAC systems. The microbial analyses of the suspended biomass and the biofilm on AC surface indicated that metoprolol was mainly biodegraded in suspension. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 3.
    Abudaya, Mohammed
    et al.
    Natl Res Ctr, Palestine.
    Ulman, Aylin
    Univ British Columbia, Canada.
    Salah, Jehad
    Minist Agr, Palestine.
    Fernando, Daniel
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM). Manta Trust, UK;Blue Resources Trust, Sri Lanka.
    Wor, Catarina
    Univ British Columbia, Canada.
    di Sciara, Giuseppe Notarbartolo
    Tethys Res Inst, Italy.
    Speak of the devil ray (Mobula mobular) fishery in Gaza2018Inngår i: Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries, ISSN 0960-3166, E-ISSN 1573-5184, Vol. 28, nr 1, s. 229-239Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Little is known about the giant devil ray (Mobula mobular), an endangered species endemic to the Mediterranean. Gaza is the only region where this species is targeted, hence, this fishery was studied to address the knowledge gap on fishery interactions, species behavior, and life-history traits. Devil rays have been frequenting this maritime area for at least the past 50 years for a short window from February to April. Landings are reported from 2005 to 2016, along with disc-width (DW) measurements for recent years. A total of 304 M. mobular (over 90% males) were landed in Gaza from 2014 to 2016, most which were mature and appeared to be mating (over 90% of males had sperm-filled claspers), providing critical insight that this area may serve as a mating ground. Yearly landings are shown here to closely match the allowed fishing distance from shore, which changes regularly, indicating that the rays are normally caught between 6 and 12 n.m. offshore. Width-weight conversion parameters are calculated for the first time for this species: a = 2.68 x 10(-6) and b = 4.39. Fresh protein drives this local fishery, as food security is a major issue. An export market for gill plates was reported intermittently, and is no longer possible due to strict trade restrictions. We highlight the lack of awareness of fishers regarding the IUCN's Red List 'Endangered' status of devil rays, and stress the urgent need for national protection of this species, particularly due to the species' very slow life-history traits and probable usage of this area as a mating ground.

  • 4.
    Acuna, Lillian G.
    et al.
    Fundación Ciencia & Vida, Chile ; Universidad Andres Bello, Chile.
    Pablo Cardenas, Juan
    Fundación Ciencia & Vida, Chile ; Universidad Andres Bello, Chile.
    Covarrubias, Paulo C.
    Fundación Ciencia & Vida, Chile ; Universidad Andres Bello, Chile.
    Jose Haristoy, Juan
    Fundación Ciencia & Vida, Chile.
    Flores, Rodrigo
    Fundación Ciencia & Vida, Chile.
    Nuñez, Harold
    Fundación Ciencia & Vida, Chile.
    Riadi, Gonzalo
    Universidad de Talca, Chile.
    Shmaryahu, Amir
    Fundación Ciencia & Vida, Chile.
    Valdes, Jorge
    Center for Systems Biotechnology, Chile.
    Dopson, Mark
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Rawlings, Douglas E.
    University of Stellenbosch, South Africa.
    Banfield, Jillian F.
    University of California, USA.
    Holmes, David S.
    Fundación Ciencia & Vida, Chile ; Universidad Andres Bello, Chile.
    Quatrini, Raquel
    Fundación Ciencia & Vida, Chile ; Universidad Andres Bello, Chile.
    Architecture and Gene Repertoire of the Flexible Genome of the Extreme Acidophile Acidithiobacillus caldus2013Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, nr 11, artikkel-id e78237Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Acidithiobacillus caldus is a sulfur oxidizing extreme acidophile and the only known mesothermophile within the Acidithiobacillales. As such, it is one of the preferred microbes for mineral bioprocessing at moderately high temperatures. In this study, we explore the genomic diversity of A. caldus strains using a combination of bioinformatic and experimental techniques, thus contributing first insights into the elucidation of the species pangenome. Principal Findings: Comparative sequence analysis of A. caldus ATCC 51756 and SM-1 indicate that, despite sharing a conserved and highly syntenic genomic core, both strains have unique gene complements encompassing nearly 20% of their respective genomes. The differential gene complement of each strain is distributed between the chromosomal compartment, one megaplasmid and a variable number of smaller plasmids, and is directly associated to a diverse pool of mobile genetic elements (MGE). These include integrative conjugative and mobilizable elements, genomic islands and insertion sequences. Some of the accessory functions associated to these MGEs have been linked previously to the flexible gene pool in microorganisms inhabiting completely different econiches. Yet, others had not been unambiguously mapped to the flexible gene pool prior to this report and clearly reflect strain-specific adaption to local environmental conditions. Significance: For many years, and because of DNA instability at low pH and recurrent failure to genetically transform acidophilic bacteria, gene transfer in acidic environments was considered negligible. Findings presented herein imply that a more or less conserved pool of actively excising MGEs occurs in the A. caldus population and point to a greater frequency of gene exchange in this econiche than previously recognized. Also, the data suggest that these elements endow the species with capacities to withstand the diverse abiotic and biotic stresses of natural environments, in particular those associated with its extreme econiche.

  • 5.
    Aguirre-Gutierrez, Jesus
    et al.
    Naturalis Biodivers Ctr, Netherlands;Univ Oxford, UK;Univ Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    WallisDeVries, Michiel F.
    De Vlinderstichting, Netherlands;Wageningen Univ, Netherlands.
    Marshall, Leon
    Naturalis Biodivers Ctr, Netherlands;Univ Namur, Belgium.
    van't Zelfde, Maarten
    Naturalis Biodivers Ctr, Netherlands;Leiden Univ, Netherlands.
    Villalobos-Arambula, Alma R.
    Univ Guadalajara, Mexico.
    Boekelo, Bastiaen
    Wageningen Univ & Res, Netherlands.
    Bartholomeus, Harm
    Wageningen Univ & Res, Netherlands.
    Franzén, Markus
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM). UFZ, Helmholtz Ctr Environm Res, Germany.
    Biesmeijer, Jacobus C.
    Naturalis Biodivers Ctr, Netherlands;Leiden Univ, Netherlands.
    Butterflies show different functional and species diversity in relationship to vegetation structure and land use2017Inngår i: Global Ecology and Biogeography, ISSN 1466-822X, E-ISSN 1466-8238, Vol. 26, nr 10, s. 1126-1137Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    AimBiodiversity is rapidly disappearing at local and global scales also affecting the functional diversity of ecosystems. We aimed to assess whether functional diversity was correlated with species diversity and whether both were affected by similar land use and vegetation structure drivers. Better understanding of these relationships will allow us to improve our predictions regarding the effects of future changes in land use on ecosystem functions and services. LocationThe Netherlands. MethodsWe compiled a dataset of c.3 million observations of 66 out of 106 known Dutch butterfly species collected across 6,075 sampling locations during a period of 7 years, together with very high-resolution maps of land use and countrywide vegetation structure data. Using a mixed-effects modelling framework, we investigated the relationship between functional and species diversity and their main land use and vegetation structure drivers. ResultsWe found that high species diversity does not translate into high functional diversity, as shown by their different spatial distribution patterns in the landscape. Functional and species diversity are mainly driven by different sets of structural and land use parameters (especially average vegetation height, amount of vegetation between 0.5 and 2m, natural grassland, sandy soils vegetation, marsh vegetation and urban areas). We showed that it is a combination of both vegetation structural characteristics and land use variables that defines functional and species diversity. Main conclusionsFunctional diversity and species diversity of butterflies are not consistently correlated and must therefore be treated separately. High functional diversity levels occurred even in areas with low species diversity. Thus, conservation actions may differ depending on whether the focus is on conservation of high functional diversity or high species diversity. A more integrative analysis of biodiversity at both species and trait levels is needed to infer the full effects of environmental change on ecosystem functioning.

  • 6.
    Ahsan, Murshidul
    et al.
    Bangladesh Agricultural University (BAU), Bangladesh.
    Hasan, Badrul
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM). Uppsala University .
    Algotsson, Magnus
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Sarenbo, Sirkku
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Handling and Welfare of Bovine Livestock at Local Abattoirs in Bangladesh2014Inngår i: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science, ISSN 1088-8705, E-ISSN 1532-7604, Vol. 17, nr 4, s. 340-353Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) allows rope casting and the tying of legs for nonhuman animals laughter without stunning. Thehandling and welfare of bovine livestock (Bosindicus and Bubalus bubalis) were studied in 8 local abattoirs in 5 districts of Bangladesh. A totalof 302 animals were evaluated. At the local abattoirs, approximately 1/3 of the cattle and water buffalo were eithere maciated orinjured/sick. The size and vigor of the animals determined the casting method. Small and weak animals were cast on concrete floors by lifting a foreleg followed by pushing, or simply by twisting the head of the animal and then binding the legs with rope. Vigorous animals such as buffalo were castusing ropes and human force. Bleeding was slow and flaying was sometimes initiated before the animals were unconscious. Pulling and tearing of the trachea and pouring of water into the exposed trache a shortly after cutting were also observed in some cases.The over all animal handling was unnecessarily rough and he OIE standards were not implemented. Animals are subjected to considerable mistreatment, and there is an urgent need for the training nde ducation of the staff in a battoirs concerning humanes laughtering practices as well as a need to build moderns laughtering plants in Bangladesh.

  • 7.
    Akram, Neelam
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    From genes to ecological function in marine bacteria2013Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Bacteria in the sea are constantly exposed to environmental challenges (e.g. variations in nutrient concentrations, temperature and light conditions), and therefore appropriate gene expression response strategies to cope with them efficiently are evolved. This thesis investigates some interconnected questions regarding such adaptive strategies employed by marine bacteria.

    The recently discovered ability of bacteria to use the membrane protein proteorhodopsin (PR) to harvest light energy for cell metabolism were investigated in Vibrio sp. AND4 and Dokdonia sp. MED134. PR phototrophy in AND4 promoted survival during starvation, the molecular basis for which were the upregulation of the PR gene by nutrient limitation rather than light. MED134, in contrast, uses PR phototrophy to grow better, and we discovered that the light-stimulated growth was stronger in seawater with the single carbon compound alanine compared to a mixture of complex organic matter. Thus, differences between bacteria in PR gene expression regulation in response to light, nutrients or organic matter quality critically determine the ecological role of PR phototrophy in the sea.

    Current observations that membrane transporters (including PR) are highly expressed in seawater inspired a comparative analysis of transporter distributions in marine bacteria. Totally, 192 transporter families were found in 290 genome-sequenced strains. Consistent differences, but also similarities, in the number of transporters were found between major bacterial groups. Interestingly, sodium transporters were found to be more abundant in PR-containing SAR11. These findings suggest that bacteria have inherently distinctive potentials to adapt to resource variations in the sea.

    To examine links between transcriptional responses and growth of bacteria under controlled environmental settings, a mesocosm phytoplankton bloom experiment was performed. Transcriptional analysis of the microbial community (i.e. metatranscriptomics) revealed 2800 categories of functional genes (SEED functions), of which around 10% were overrepresented in either the bloom mesocosms or the controls. Importantly, these functions indicated potential metabolic mechanisms (e.g. TonB mediated nutrient transport) by which bacteria took advantage of the bloom conditions.

    This thesis combines analyses of model organisms with community analysis and highlights the possibilities to identify important mechanisms that underlie the ecological success of different bacteria in the marine environment. 

  • 8.
    Akram, Neelam
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Palovaara, Joakim
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Forsberg, Jeremy
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Lindh, Markus V.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Milton, Debra L.
    Luo, Haiwei
    Gonzalez, Jose M.
    Pinhassi, Jarone
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Regulation of proteorhodopsin gene expression by nutrient limitation in the marine bacterium Vibrio sp AND42013Inngår i: Environmental Microbiology, ISSN 1462-2912, E-ISSN 1462-2920, Vol. 15, nr 5, s. 1400-1415Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Proteorhodopsin (PR), a ubiquitous membrane photoprotein in marine environments, acts as a light-driven proton pump and can provide energy for bacterial cellular metabolism. However, knowledge of factors that regulate PR gene expression in different bacteria remains strongly limited. Here, experiments with Vibrio sp. AND4 showed that PR phototrophy promoted survival only in cells from stationary phase and not in actively growing cells. PR gene expression was tightly regulated, with very low values in exponential phase, a pronounced peak at the exponential/stationary phase intersection, and a marked decline in stationary phase. Thus, PR gene expression at the entry into stationary phase preceded, and could therefore largely explain, the stationary phase light-induced survival response in AND4. Further experiments revealed nutrient limitation, not light exposure, regulated this differential PR expression. Screening of available marine vibrios showed that the PR gene, and thus the potential for PR phototrophy, is found in at least three different clusters in the genus Vibrio. In an ecological context, our findings suggest that some PR-containing bacteria adapted to the exploitation of nutrient-rich micro-environments rely on a phase of relatively slowly declining resources to mount a cellular response preparing them for adverse conditions dispersed in the water column.

  • 9.
    Alakangas, Linda J.
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM). SKB, Äspo Hard Rock Lab, Oskarshamn.
    Mathurin, Frédéric A.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Faarinen, Mikko
    ALS Scandinavia AB Luleå.
    Wallin, Bill
    Geokema AB, Lidingö.
    Åström, Mats E.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Sampling and Characterizing Rare Earth Elements in Groundwater in Deep-Lying Fractures in Granitoids Under In Situ High-Pressure and Low-Redox Conditions2014Inngår i: Aquatic geochemistry, ISSN 1380-6165, E-ISSN 1573-1421, Vol. 20, nr 4, s. 405-418Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Several countries are preparing to dispose of radioactive nuclear waste deep underground in crystalline rock. This type of bedrock is commonly extensively fractured and consequently carries groundwater that serves as a medium for transporting metals and radionuclides. A group of metals of particular interest in this context is the rare earth elements (REEs), because they are analogues of actinides contained within radioactive waste and are tracers of hydrological pathways and geochemical processes. Concentrations of REEs are commonly low in these groundwaters, leading to values below detection limits of standard monitoring methods, particularly for the heavy REEs. We present a new technical set-up for monitoring REEs (and other trace metals) in groundwater in fractured crystalline rock. The technique consists of passing the fracture groundwater, commonly under high pressure and containing reduced chemical species, through a device that maintains the physicochemical character of the groundwater. Within the device, diffusive gradient in thin-film (DGT) discs are installed in triplicate. With this set-up, we studied REEs in groundwater in fractures at depths of approximately -144, -280, and -450 m in granitoids in the A"spo Hard Rock Laboratory in southern Sweden. The entire REE suite was detected (concentrations down to 0.1 ng L-1) and was differently fractionated among the groundwaters. The shallowest groundwater, composed of dilute modern Baltic Sea water, was enriched in the heavy REEs, whereas the deeper groundwaters, dominated by old saline water, were depleted in the heavy REEs. Deployment periods varying from 1 to 4 weeks delivered similar REE concentrations, indicating stability and reproducibility of the experimental set-up. The study finds that 1 week of deployment may be enough. However, if the overall setting and construction allow for longer deployment times, 2-3 weeks will be optimal in terms of reaching reliable REE concentrations well above the detection limit while maintaining the performance of the DGT samplers.

  • 10.
    Ali, Muatasem Latif
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Riskkommunikation generellt exemplifierat genom branden i Halmstad 20122017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    A chemical accident can cause damage in individuals, groups or entire communities. The injury may concern human life, property or the environment. An accident can affect a large part of society and requires cooperation between the actors involved. Different stakeholders need to be informed, but it is not certain how a message should be delivered and who should do it.

    The study's purpose is to study risk communication generally, as exemplified by the accident in Halmstad September 21, 2012, when a fire broke out in a warehouse in Halmstad harbor. How the involved persons experienced communication,

    What factors could affect the communication at such types of critical situations.

    In the study, two methods have been used. The first used method was a web-survey of people working in civil protection in Halmstad municipality, environmental office in Halmstad, the public living in the municipality, police, Coast Guard, industries and media. The second method was semi-structured interviews addressed to some of those affected who worked in media, police, coast guard, the company, emergency services and the local authority.

    This study showed that there were differences between the respondents' answers on how respondents perceived that there were risks to human health or the environment in this accident. Many of the respondents who responded to the survey felt that the risk communication worked well after the fire. This survey and semi- structured interviews showed that respondents felt that the municipality's website was a good information channel and the internet and social media could be a good source for the responsible authorities to quickly disseminate information to the public. This study showed that the municipality and emergency services were actors most concerned in this context when it came to communicating risks in major accidents where chemicals were involved and all respondents had great confidence to the emergency services and municipality. 

  • 11.
    Almqvist, Maria
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Vanvårdens inverkan på nötkreaturs välfärd och hälsa2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Farmers are required to make sure that cattles basic needs are met, but still every year cases of neglect occur where the farmer has not complied within the animal welfare law and regulations. The aim of this study was to investigate how cattle are affected physically and behaviourally by neglect in the form of underfeeding, starvation and lack of sanitation, which animals are most vulnerable to the impact and what prospects they have to recover. The study was conducted as a literature study and the results show that these types of neglect have a large impact on the cattle welfare. Underfeeding and starvation causes physical changes leading to reduced milk production, reduced muscle mass, impaired immune function, poor reproductive performance and changes in rumen microflora leading to decreased number of microbes and pH change. Physical changes due to the lack of sanitation consist of increased vulnerability to hoof diseases and mastitis, burns, and increased sensitivity to temperature. The behaviourally changes that occur because of underfeeding and starvation include changes in eating habits, reduced lying time and reduced sleeping time. Insufficient sanitation cause behavioural changes including changes in laying time, increased agression, and slower movement. Pregnant cows and cows at peak lactation are sensitive to underfeeding and starvation, but also calves. Cattle kept in groups are most at risk for being contaminated. If the neglect is not too severe or prolonged, recovery can take place but in more serious cases of neglect, there is danger of the cattle’s life.

  • 12.
    Alneberg, Johannes
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Karlsson, Christofer M. G.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Divne, Anna-Maria
    Uppsala University.
    Bergin, Claudia
    Uppsala University.
    Homa, Felix
    Uppsala University.
    Lindh, Markus V.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM). Lund University.
    Hugerth, Luisa W.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology;Karolinska Institutet.
    Ettema, Thijs J. G.
    Uppsala University.
    Bertilsson, Stefan
    Uppsala University.
    Andersson, Anders F.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Pinhassi, Jarone
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Genomes from uncultivated prokaryotes: a comparison of metagenome-assembled and single-amplified genomes2018Inngår i: Microbiome, ISSN 0026-2633, E-ISSN 2049-2618, Vol. 6, artikkel-id 173Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Prokaryotes dominate the biosphere and regulate biogeochemical processes essential to all life. Yet, our knowledge about their biology is for the most part limited to the minority that has been successfully cultured. Molecular techniques now allow for obtaining genome sequences of uncultivated prokaryotic taxa, facilitating in-depth analyses that may ultimately improve our understanding of these key organisms. Results: We compared results from two culture-independent strategies for recovering bacterial genomes: single-amplified genomes and metagenome-assembled genomes. Single-amplified genomes were obtained from samples collected at an offshore station in the Baltic Sea Proper and compared to previously obtained metagenome-assembled genomes from a time series at the same station. Among 16 single-amplified genomes analyzed, seven were found to match metagenome-assembled genomes, affiliated with a diverse set of taxa. Notably, genome pairs between the two approaches were nearly identical (average 99.51% sequence identity; range 98.77-99.84%) across overlapping regions (30-80% of each genome). Within matching pairs, the single-amplified genomes were consistently smaller and less complete, whereas the genetic functional profiles were maintained. For the metagenome-assembled genomes, only on average 3.6% of the bases were estimated to be missing from the genomes due to wrongly binned contigs. Conclusions: The strong agreement between the single-amplified and metagenome-assembled genomes emphasizes that both methods generate accurate genome information from uncultivated bacteria. Importantly, this implies that the research questions and the available resources are allowed to determine the selection of genomics approach for microbiome studies.

  • 13.
    Alneberg, Johannes
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Sundh, John
    Stockholm University.
    Bennke, Christin
    Leibniz Inst Balt Sea Res Warnemunde, Germany.
    Beier, Sara
    Leibniz Inst Balt Sea Res Warnemunde, Germany.
    Lundin, Daniel
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Hugerth, Luisa W.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Pinhassi, Jarone
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Kisand, Veljo
    Univ Tartu, Estonia. .
    Riemann, Lasse
    Univ Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Juergens, Klaus
    Leibniz Inst Balt Sea Res Warnemunde, Germany.
    Labrenz, Matthias
    Leibniz Inst Balt Sea Res Warnemunde, Germany.
    Andersson, Anders F.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    BARM and BalticMicrobeDB, a reference metagenome and interface to meta-omic data for the Baltic Sea2018Inngår i: Scientific Data, E-ISSN 2052-4463, Vol. 5, artikkel-id 180146Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Baltic Sea is one of the world's largest brackish water bodies and is characterised by pronounced physicochemical gradients where microbes are the main biogeochemical catalysts. Meta-omic methods provide rich information on the composition of, and activities within, microbial ecosystems, but are computationally heavy to perform. We here present the Baltic Sea Reference Metagenome (BARM), complete with annotated genes to facilitate further studies with much less computational effort. The assembly is constructed using 2.6 billion metagenomic reads from 81 water samples, spanning both spatial and temporal dimensions, and contains 6.8 million genes that have been annotated for function and taxonomy. The assembly is useful as a reference, facilitating taxonomic and functional annotation of additional samples by simply mapping their reads against the assembly. This capability is demonstrated by the successful mapping and annotation of 24 external samples. In addition, we present a public web interface, BalticMicrobeDB, for interactive exploratory analysis of the dataset. [GRAPHICS] .

  • 14.
    Alriksson, Stina
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Attitudes towards the transition from traditional product design to ecodesign2015Inngår i: Risk, Uncertainty and Transition, 2015Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Many efforts have been made to increase the use of ecodesign in product design projects. Still, ecodesign methods are not applied as often as wanted from sustainability perspectives. New methods and procedures are often considered a risk by the individuals that are meant to use and implement the new methods.  Organisational complexity, lack of cooperation, lack of tools, lack of internal communication and lack of management commitment are documented barriers to the use of ecodesign and explain some of the reasons why ecodesign is not used as widely as expected. The perception of the employees and the behavioural barriers they perceive are less studied and there is a need to correlate the perception of the individual to the identified barriers.

    This study aimed to identify what factors that inhibited the ecodesign behaviour of the employees by applying the theory of planned behaviour.  Nine persons involved in the design process from two companies were included in the study. Q-methodology combined with semi-structured interviews was applied. The statements in the Q-sort were constructed from the theory of planned behaviour so that intention, personal norm, attitude, habits, subjective norm and perceived control each had a set of statements.

    The results showed that the participants were positive in their attitude towards ecodesign. They also had strong personal norms and showed intention to use ecodesign in their work. On the lower side, former habits were not a strong driving force; neither was subjective norm or perceived control. The results indicate that the employees were positive and intended to use ecodesign while they did not find the management commitment and current ecodesign tools and procedures sufficient.

    Four discourses were identified; those who were positive towards ecodesign but not inclined to change their current behaviour, those who felt pressure from others to perform ecodesign, those who wanted to take small steps by starting to change internal procedures before talking to the customer and finally those who did not believe there was any chance of success with ecodesign.

  • 15.
    Alriksson, Stina
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Environmental preferences among steel stakeholders2013Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Emissions of carbon dioxide, dioxins, nitrogen oxides and particulate matter as well as use of non-renewable resources and energy are some important sustainability challenges for the Swedish steel industry. Much effort has been made, mainly by technical solutions, which to a high degree have decreased the emissions during the last 30 years.

    Technical solutions however will not be sufficient to reach sustainable development, stakeholder involvement is also necessary. Stakeholder theory states that stake­holder involvement must include a dialog between the stakeholders involved and the operation. The first step in this process is to identify which key issues the stakeholders find most important and then the organisation needs to start interact with its stakeholders. This thesis deals with such issues.

    Stakeholder preferences for environmental issues were assessed with conjoint analysis, Q-methodology and focus group discussions. The theory of planned behaviour was used to assess how attitudes were connected to background factors and a potential pro-environmental behaviour.

    Five studies have been carried out in the framework of this thesis. The studies include: a literature review, method evaluation, evaluation of environ­mental objectives in stakeholder groups, screening of relevant factors, evaluation of steel environmental characteristics, identification of barriers to the introduction of new materials and the im­pact of worry and risk perception on strategic environmental decisions.

    It can be concluded that the methods applied in the studies work well in eliciting preferences. It has been possible to show how different stakeholder groups as well as individuals prioritise environmental objectives and sustaina­bility issues. Since individuals within a stakeholder group vary considerably in preferences, the results from this thesis show the importance of illustrating results on an individual level instead of the traditional group level. Also, a method has been tested where the results were brought back to the respondents in order to stimulate discussions between different stakeholder groups.

  • 16.
    Alriksson, Stina
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Methods to measure stakeholder preferences2015Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 17.
    Alriksson, Stina
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Filipsson, Monika
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Risk perception and worry in environmental decision-making - a case study within the Swedish steel industry2017Inngår i: Journal of Risk Research, ISSN 1366-9877, E-ISSN 1466-4461, Vol. 20, nr 9, s. 1173-1194Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainable development is an important issue for the industry in order to fulfil legislation requirements and to be able to use green marketing as a competitive advantage. The Swedish steel industry has implemented a large number of environmental improvements, for example, within energy efficiency, raw materials and recyclability. Technical improvements can help the industry decrease its environmental impact; however, in order to reach sustainable development, more factors need to be considered: an effective environmental decision-making process, for example. This process may be influenced by personal factors such as risk perception and worry, which are factors that will not contribute to an effective decision-making process. The aim of this study was to investigate if personal worry and risk perception influenced environmental decision-making within the Swedish steel industry. Thirty-eight interviews were performed at 10 Swedish steelworks using the Q-methodology. The major perceived environmental risks with the facility and personal worry were assessed, compared to the day-to-day work. It was concluded that the major perceived risks were emissions of carbon dioxide, use of non-renewable energy and emissions of particulate matter. The decision-makers were mainly worried about emissions of carbon dioxide, emissions of dioxin and use of non-renewable energy. The environmental issues that were prioritised in practice (day-to-day work) were emissions of carbon dioxide, emissions of particulate matter and emissions of metals. Even though emissions of carbon dioxide were given the highest priority in the Q-sorts, there was in general no clear relationship between risk perception and personal worry with the prioritised environmental issues at the steelworks. The quantitative analysis of the Q-sorts and the qualitative interviews both showed that the day-to-day work was unaffected by personal worry and risk.

  • 18.
    Alriksson, Stina
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Grip, Carl-Erik
    Luleå Tekniska Universitet.
    Steel industry environmental objectives:stakeholder preference assessment usingconjoint analysis2013Inngår i: Ironmaking & steelmaking, ISSN 0301-9233, E-ISSN 1743-2812, Vol. 40, nr 8, s. 605-612Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish steel industry has combined traditional methods such as life cycle analysis with less traditional methods such as preference analysis in order to move towards a closed steel eco cycle. The paper describes the use of conjoint analysis to study preferences of six different stakeholder groups regarding four environmental objectives (reduction in carbon dioxide emissions, reduced use of non-renewable resources, reduced use of non-renewable energy and weight reduction in products) and to identify gaps in preferences between the stakeholder groups. Our results suggested that there was a difference in preference between the stakeholder groups: respondents that were closer to the steel industry favoured all four environmental objectives, while members of public and political decision makers preferred a reduction in carbon dioxide emissions. One of the conclusions of our study is that there is a need of improved information to clients and public on the environmental benefits of product weight reduction.

  • 19.
    Alriksson, Stina
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Henningsson, Marianne
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för psykologi (PSY).
    Why Aren't Advanced High–Strength Steels More Widely Used?: Stakeholder Preferences and Perceived Barriers to New Materials2015Inngår i: Journal of Industrial Ecology, ISSN 1088-1980, E-ISSN 1530-9290, Vol. 19, nr 4, s. 645-655Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Advanced high-strength steels may reduce the use of nonrenewable resources and energy given that the amount of material needed is smaller, compared to traditional steel grades. Still, advanced steel grades are not utilized to the extent that could be expected. This study examines stakeholders’ preferences of steel characteristics and perceived barriers to the introduction of new materials. Focus group interviews were used to identify steel characteristics and perceived barriers. Stakeholder preferences of steel characteristics were evaluated through a conjoint analysis; the results showed that low weight was given the highest priority, followed by high impact strength and low price. Low chromium content was the steel characteristic of least interest. Perceived barriers to the introduction of high-strength steel were categorized as technical barriers, knowledge barriers, scrap management barriers, suitability barriers, and cost barriers.

  • 20.
    Alriksson, Stina
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Sahlin, Ullrika
    Lunds Universitet.
    Illustrating individual preferences from conjiont analysis studies with multivariate methodsManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 21.
    Alriksson, Stina
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Voxberg, Elin
    Filipsson, Monika
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Augustsson, Anna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Historical exposure to heavy metals in air2017Inngår i: 26th SRA-E annual conference (SRA-E Lisbon 2017): Lisbon, Portugal, June 19-21, 2017, 2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 22.
    Alvunger, David
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Variation in number of vertebrae in populations of pike (Esox lucius) in the south-east of Sweden2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Antalet ryggkotor varierar kraftigt mellan olika taxa, men också inom arter eller populationer. Omfattande forskning har visat att antalet ryggkotor hos fisk är resultatet av interaktioner mellan genetisk struktur och plastiska svar på miljöbetingelser under individens ontogeni. Ett vanligt mönster är tendensen för antalet ryggkotor att variera med kroppsform och/eller kroppslängd hos fisken. Gäddan (Esox lucius) i Östersjön har en komplex populationsstruktur, bestående av flera genetiskt distinkta subpopulationer, vilka utgörs av anadroma individer som uppvisar ett homing-beteende. Individer som tillhör dessa subpopulationer är sympatriska större delen av året och blir allopatriska endast kortvarigt under tiden för lek. Den här studien undersökte fördelningen av antalet ryggkotor hos tre anadroma sympatriska subpopulationer av gädda iÖstersjön. Signifikanta skillnader i fördelningen av antalet ryggkotor hittades både inom och mellan alla undersökta subpopulationer och åldersklasser. Resultaten från ett ”common-garden” experiment antydde att skillnader i antalet ryggkotor mellan olika subpopulationer delvis hade en genetisk basis, vilket indikerar möjligheten för selektion att verka på denna egenskap, och en potentiellt evolutionär förändring. En kvadratisk regression visade på ett kurvilinjärt samband mellan antalet ryggkotor och kroppslängd hos juveniler. Tillsammans tyfrt dessa resultat på att de kombinerade effekterna av stabiliserande och divergent selektion kan ha spelat en roll i fördelningen av antalet ryggkotor hos gäddan i Östersjön. Fördelningen av antalet ryggkotor inom subpopulationer verkar vara under inflytande av stabiliserande selektion. Skillnader mellan subpopulationer kan istället reflektera lokala anpassningar som drivs av divergent selektion. Dessa fynd signalerar behovet av att betrakta varje subpopulation som en egen enhet i bevarandebiologiska sammanhang.

  • 23.
    Ambashta, Ritu D.
    et al.
    Bhabha Atom Res Ctr, India.
    Bhatnagar, Amit
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Sillanpää, Mika E. T.
    Lappeenranta Univ Technol, Finland.
    Supported iron-based catalysts under influence of static magnetic field for the removal of TBP and EDTA2015Inngår i: Desalination and Water Treatment, ISSN 1944-3994, E-ISSN 1944-3986, Vol. 54, nr 10, s. 2700-2709Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Zerovalent metals offer decontamination of organic toxins in aqueous medium. In the present study, alumina-based iron and iron-nickel in the presence and the absence of magnetic field for the decontamination of tributyl phosphate (TBP) and ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) has been compared. TBP decontamination was improved in the presence of zerovalent metals. EDTA decontamination was not enhanced in the presence of zerovalent metals. The decontamination of TBP using iron-based alumina was higher than iron-nickel. The surface interaction on alumina surface, as characterized by attentuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and the surface interaction on metallic elements, as characterized by evaluating the magnetic moment values helped to understand the reason for the difference in role of alumina-based iron and iron-nickel on decontamination of TBP and EDTA.

  • 24.
    Ammann, Birgitta
    et al.
    Institute of Plant Sciences and Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research, University of Bern, Altenbergrain 21, 3013, Bern, Switzerland.
    van der Knaap, Willhelm O.
    Institute of Plant Sciences and Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research, University of Bern, Altenbergrain 21, 3013, Bern, Switzerland.
    Lang, Gerhard
    Stresemannstr. 28, 88400, Biberach an der Riß, Germany.
    Gaillard, Marie-José
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Kaltenrieder, Petra
    Institute of Plant Sciences and Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research, University of Bern, Altenbergrain 21, 3013, Bern, Switzerland.
    Rösch, Manfred
    Landesamt für Denkmalpflege, Fischersteig 9, 78343, Hemmenhofen, Germany.
    Finsinger, Walter
    Centre for Bioarchaeology and Ecology (CBAE – UMR 5059 CNRS/EPHE/UM2), Institut de Botanique, 34090, Montpellier, France.
    Wright, Herbert E.
    Limnological Research Center, University of Minnesota, 310 Pillsbury Drive SE, Minneapolis, MN, 55455, USA.
    Tinner, Willy
    Institute of Plant Sciences and Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research, University of Bern, Altenbergrain 21, 3013, Bern, Switzerland.
    The potential of stomata analysis inconifers to estimate presence of conifer trees: examples from the Alps2014Inngår i: Vegetation History and Archaeobotany, ISSN 0939-6314, E-ISSN 1617-6278, Vol. 23, nr 3, s. 249-264Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    To estimate whether or not a plant taxon found in the fossil record was locally present may be difficult if only pollen is analyzed. Plant macrofossils, in contrast, provide a clear indication of a taxon’s local presence, although in some lake sediments or peats, macrofossils may be rare or degraded. For conifers, the stomata found on pollen slides are derived from needles and thus provide a valuable proxy for local presence and they can be identified to genus level. From previously published studies, a transect across the Alps based on 13 sites is presented. For basal samples in sandy silt above the till with high pollen values of Pinus, for example, we may distinguish pine pollen from distant sources (samples with no stomata), from reworked pollen (samples with stomata present). The first apparent local presence of most conifer genera based on stomata often but not always occurs together with the phase of rapid pollen increase (rational limit). An exception is Larix, with its annual deposition of needles and heavy poorly dispersed pollen, for it often shows the first stomata earlier, at the empirical pollen limit. The decline and potential local extinction of a conifer can sometimes be shown in the stomata record. The decline may have been caused by climatic change, competition, or human impact. In situations where conifers form the timberline, the stomata record may indicate timberline fluctuations. In the discussion of immigration or migration of taxa we advocate the use of the cautious term “apparent local presence” to include some uncertainties. Absence of a taxon is impossible to prove.

  • 25.
    Amnebrink, Dennis
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Infection intensity and molecular characterization of eye flukes in round gobies (Neogobius melanostomus).2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The round goby (Neogobius melanostomus) is an invasive species to the Baltic Sea and is rapidly expanding its range. Apart from competition with native fish, a novel species may face, or introduce, pathogens. Previous research has shown that round gobies have a high infection rate by eye flukes of the Diplostomum genus. To study prevalence and infection intensity of Diplostomum parasites in fish in an area recently colonized by round gobies, the shallow water community of round goby, common bleak (Alburnus alburnus) and three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) was examined. The fish were screened for presence of parasites in the lenses of caught fish, and abundance of parasites was compared between the host species. The round goby had the highest infection intensity of the host species, and there was no difference in infection intensity between the common bleak and three spined stickleback. To support microscopy-based identification, the parasites from the round gobies were determined to genus/species level using molecular detection and sequencing, enabling a Diplostomum species composition inventory in round gobies. Results showed that at least three species of Diplostomum infected round gobies in this population, and that there was a negative correlation between body condition and the parasite intensity indicating fitness effects resulting from infection.

  • 26.
    Amnebrink, Dennis
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Transcriptomic profiling of marine bacteria between development and senescence phases of a phytoplankton bloom2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Bacterioplankton provide important ecosystem functions by carrying out biogeochemical cycling of organic matter. Playing an important role in the microbial loop they help remineralize carbon and nutrients. Bacteria also interact with phytoplankton during phytoplankton blooms. However, fundamental understanding on the underlying molecular mechanisms involved in the degradation of phytoplankton-derived organic matter is still in its infancy. Therefore, we analysed data from a mesocosm experiment following a natural phytoplankton-bloom from an upwelling system in the North- East Atlantic Ocean. The purpose was to contribute a mechanistic understanding based on functional gene expression analysis of natural microbial assemblages. Our results show the difference in functional gene expression within a bacterial metacommunity and how this functional response drastically switches between bloom build up and senescence. Transcripts showed a broad change in gene expression involving major SEED categories, with the bloom senescence phase exhibiting a higher relative abundance in major categories such as Carbohydrates, Protein Metabolism and Amino Acids and Derivatives. Within these categories genes connected to carbon utilization and transport systems (Ton and Tol) as well as chemotaxis showed a higher abundance during bloom senescence. The change in functionality based on transcripts showed a different bacterial community composition appearing over a very short time. We thus conclude that the bacterial functional gene expression response between build-up and degradation bloom phases is remarkably different and associated with a change in the identity of bacteria with active expression. Our findings highlight the importance of bacterial substrate specialists with different functional roles during different time points of phytoplankton blooms.

  • 27.
    Amneklev, Jennie
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Diffuse emissions from goods - influences on some societal end products2015Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    End products of society (e.g. sewage sludge and incineration ashes) can be used as indicators of the use of chemicals in consumer goods. Through upstream work the sources of substances released from goods may be identified before the emissions reach the end products.

    This thesis is a result of five studies, of which four were conducted using substance flow analyses (SFA) for silver (Ag), bismuth (Bi) and copper (Cu) reaching sewage sludge. The fifth is an SFA that explores the implications of the presence of As (from CCA-treated wood) in ashes. These studies helped fulfil the specific and overall aims of the thesis; to contribute to the general knowledge on diffuse emissions reflected in end products, by examining emissions of some heavy metals from various societal goods and the implications for end products, in this case sewage sludge and, to some extent, ashes.

    The results from the studies, of which four had Stockholm as a study object, show the urban flows and accumulated amounts (stocks) of the heavy metals. The largest sources of the metals Ag, Bi and Cu in sewage sludge were identified to be textiles (Ag), cosmetics (Bi) and brake linings (Cu). For As (in CCA-treated wood) and Cu updated SFAs were performed and compared with earlier studies in order to follow the development and changes in flows over time.

    The current use of the heavy metals studied can also be seen as a loss of resources, and as the metals should ideally be recovered as a part of a circular economy, urban and landfill mining as well as recycling are alternatives that need further exploring. The legislation of chemicals in consumer goods was identified as an important step in handling corresponding diffuse emissions.

  • 28.
    Amneklev, Jennie
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Strategier att reducera silver och vismut i urbant avloppsvatten2015Inngår i: Nationella Konferensen Avlopp & Miljö, Örebro, 20-21 januari 2015, 2015Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 29.
    Amneklev, Jennie
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Upstream Silver Source Mapping2014Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 30.
    Amneklev, Jennie
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Augustsson, Anna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Sörme, Louise
    Statistics Sweden, Stockholm.
    Bergbäck, Bo
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Bismuth and Silver in Cosmetic Products: A Source of Environmental and Resource Concern?2016Inngår i: Journal of Industrial Ecology, ISSN 1088-1980, E-ISSN 1530-9290, Vol. 20, nr 1, s. 99-106Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Bismuth (Bi) and silver (Ag) are used in increasing amounts and are consequently being emitted from various sources and showing high accumulation rates in soils when sewage sludge is applied on arable land. This study aimed to analyze the amounts of Bi and Ag in three cosmetic products (foundation, powder, and eye shadow) in order to study the flows in urban wastewater in Stockholm, Sweden. Analyses showed that Bi was present in very high concentrations (7,000 to 360,000 milligrams per kilogram) in one third of the analyzed foundation and powder samples, whereas Ag concentrations all were below the detection limit. These cosmetic products explained approximately 24% of the measured total Bi amounts per year reaching the WWTP (wastewater treatment plant), making cosmetics a major Bi source, whereas for Ag the corresponding contribution was <0.1% of the measured annual Ag amounts. The results were roughly adapted for Europe and the United States, estimating the Bi flows from cosmetics to WWTPs. On a global scale, these flows correspond to a non-negligible part of the world Bi production that, every year, ends up in sewage sludge, limiting the reuse of a valuable metal resource. From an environmental and resource perspective, foundations and powder products should be considered as significant sources of measured Bi amounts in sludge. This large Bi flow must be considered as unsustainable. For Ag, however, the three analyzed cosmetic products are not a significant source of the total Ag load to WWTPs.

  • 31.
    Amneklev, Jennie
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Augustsson, Anna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Sörme, Louise
    Statistics Sweden.
    Bergbäck, Bo
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Monitoring urban copper flows in Stockholm, Sweden: implications of changes over time2017Inngår i: Journal of Industrial Ecology, ISSN 1088-1980, E-ISSN 1530-9290, Vol. 21, nr 4, s. 903-912Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, a substance flow analysis (SFA) for copper (Cu) was conducted, in which theinflow, stock, and outflow (in the form of diffuse emissions to soil and water) for Stockholmwere estimated for 2013 and compared with a previous study from 1995, hence allowing adiscussion on changes over time. A large number of applications containing Cu were analyzed(including power cables, copper alloys, heavy electrical equipment, tap water systems, roofs,cars, various consumer electronics, wood preservatives, and contact cables for the railroad).The results show that the inflow of Cu to Stockholm has increased between 1995 and 2013,both in total and per person, mainly as the result of an increase in heavy electrical equipment,power cables, and cars. The stock remains relatively unchanged, whereas the outflow hasincreased. For the outflow, the emission increase from brake linings is of greatest quantitativeimportance, with an estimated 5.8 tonnes annual emission of Cu to the environment ofStockholm in 2013 compared to 3.9 tonnes in 1995. Given that increasing inflows of limitedresources drive the global demand, continuous monitoring of flows through society andmanagement of outflow routes are crucial, including improvement of national legislationand regional environmental plans as well as efforts to increase resource-use efficiency andrecycling

  • 32.
    Amneklev, Jennie
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Bergbäck, Bo
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Sörme, Louise
    Upstream silver source mapping2013Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 33.
    Amneklev, Jennie
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Bergbäck, Bo
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Sörme, Louise
    Statistiska Centralbyrån.
    Lagerkvist, Ragnar
    Stockholm Vatten.
    Upstream silver source mapping - a case study in Stockholm, Sweden2014Inngår i: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732, Vol. 69, nr 2, s. 392-397Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Silver (Ag) can be a problem for wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) and their capability to use sewage sludge as a soil fertilizer. Due to a high accumulation rate in soils, the levels of Ag in the incoming water at the WWTP must be reduced. This study aims to identify major diffuse emission sources in the technosphere through a comprehensive substance flow analysis of Ag in Stockholm, Sweden. Large inflows and stocks of Ag were present in electrical and electronic goods and appliances as well as in jewellery and silverware. The total inflow was 3.2 tonnes (4.2 g/person), the total stock was 100 tonnes (140 g/person) and the total outflow was 330 kg (430 mg/person). Major identified Ag sources with emissions ending up in the WWTP (total 26 kg, 34 mg/person) were food, amalgam and beauty products (via urine and faeces, 12 mg/person or 11% of incoming amount), and textiles (via washing, 17 mg/person or 16% of incoming amount). This study explains approximately 35% of the total 80 kg Ag in the incoming water at Henriksdal WWTP in Stockholm. Plastic, photography and beauty products were identified as possible sources of Ag that need to be examined further.

  • 34.
    Amneklev, Jennie
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Bergbäck, Bo
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Sörme, Louise
    SCB.
    Lagerkvist, Ragnar
    Stockholm Vatten.
    Kotsch, Maria
    Stockholm Vatten.
    Augustsson, Anna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Strategier att reducera silver och vismut i urbant avloppsvatten2014Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Silver och vismut är två metaller som på sikt kan anrikas i mark i samband med slamspridning och som därför är prioriterade enligt REVAQ, ett certifieringssystem för svenska reningsverk.

    I Naturvårdsverkets förslag till ny författning (slamförordning) föreslås gränsvärden för bland annat silver. Silver är en toxisk tungmetall med antibakteriella egenskaper som ger skadliga effekter på båda människors hälsa och miljö redan vid låga koncentrationer. Vismut är en tungmetall som anses vara ”ogiftig” men som också kan ge skadliga effekter vid högre koncentrationer.

     

    En substansflödesanalys utfördes för båda metallerna för att kartlägga inflödet till, stocken (upplagrad mängd i teknosfären) och utflödet från Stockholm under 2012. Avgränsning har gjorts till utflöden som hamnar i avloppsvattnet och på det sättet påverkar Henriksdals reningsverk. Utflödet i substansflödesanalysen blir därmed lika med ett inflöde till reningsverket. Fokus ligger på diffusa utsläpp av silver och vismut, men identifierade punktkällor räknas in i det slutliga resultatet med målet att förklara så mycket som möjligt av de uppmätta halterna av silver och vismut i Henriksdals reningsverk. Källor som har ett utflöde till avfall eller återvinning har inte inkluderats i denna rapport.

     

    För år 2102 uppmättes en tillförsel av 61 kg silver och 116 kg vismut för Henriksdals reningsverk i Stockholm. Källor har identifierats för ca 56 % av uppmätt silver och 49 % av uppmätt vismut i denna studie. De källor med störst bidrag silver bedöms vara textilier (19 %), urin och fekalier (från bland annat amalgamfyllningar och föda) (15 %) samt städprodukter (7 %). För vismut är det kosmetika (23 %), plast (13 %) samt fordonstvättar (9 %) som bedöms vara källor med störst bidrag.

     

    Utifrån erhållna resultat föreslår vi några åtgärder/strategier för reduktion av silver respektive vismut i urbant avloppsvatten. Vi diskuterar även aktörer som har möjlighet/rådighet att genomföra åtgärderna (Svenskt Vatten, avloppsreningsverk, myndigheter, producenter, verksamhetsutövare samt individer/konsumenter). En strategi som föreslås är att myndigheter ska informera och påverka producenter och verksamhetsutövare när det gäller silver och vismut i olika produkter samt verka för ändrad lagstiftning. Producenter kan ta ett eget ansvar att minska silver- och vismutinnehåll i produkter. Två identifierade kunskapsluckor och potentiella källor är silver i städprodukter samt vismut i plast.

     

  • 35.
    Amneklev, Jennie
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Sörme, Louise
    Statistics Sweden.
    Augustsson, Anna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Bergbäck, Bo
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Bismuth in cosmetic products and its implications for sewage sludge management2015Inngår i: SETAC Europe 25th Annual Meeting, Barcelona, 3-7 May, 2015, 2015Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Bismuth (Bi) is a heavy metal that over recent years has shown increasing concentrations in sewage sludge in Swedish wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), indicating an increasing Bi use in the society. The high accumulation rate of Bi in soil when sewage sludge is used as fertilizer on arable land is of environmental concern. Bismuth is used in various consumer products to replace lead, but which sources in the society that explain the increasing amount of Bi in sewage sludge in the municipal WWTPs is however unknown. This study aimed to analyze one product group suspected to contain Bi, cosmetics, and three different products were chosen (foundation, powder and eye shadow) in order to study the flows in urban wastewater in Stockholm, Sweden. The chemical analyses showed that Bi was present in very high concentrations (>100 000 mg/kg) in one third of the analyzed foundation and powder samples, while mainly low concentrations were found in eye shadow. These cosmetic products explained approximately 24 % of the measured total Bi amounts reaching the WWTP in 2012, making cosmetics a major Bi source. It is therefore recommended to monitor the Bi concentrations in sewage sludge regularly. Efforts should be made to further examine the sources of Bi to WWTPs and to decrease the emission from Bi in cosmetics to the WWTPs.

  • 36.
    Amneklev, Jennie
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Sörme, Louise
    Statistics Sweden.
    Augustsson, Anna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Bergbäck, Bo
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    The Increase in Bismuth Consumption as Reflected in Sewage Sludge2015Inngår i: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 226, nr 4, s. 1-11, artikkel-id 92Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    As the use of dangerous substances in consumer products increases, these substances may also be found in society’s end products, among them sewage sludge. Measuring concentrations in sewage sludge can be a way to reflect the consumption of a substance. By using substance flow analysis, the inflow, stock and outflow of the specific substance to, e.g. a city region, may be analysed. Bismuth is a heavy metal that is found in increasing levels in sewage sludge in Swedish wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and a similar increase cannot be excluded for WWTPs around the world. This study aims to examine possible sources that could explain the amounts measured in one Swedish WWTP. Household products such as cosmetics (24 %) and plastics (14 %) are found to be major sources of Bi measured in sewage sludge. The remaining unidentified amounts in this study (approximately 50 %) are most likely found in effluent waters from industries or sources outside the household. There is, however, no information on measurements of Bi released by industry available and there is no legislation in place that may encourage industry to conduct such measurements.

  • 37.
    Andersen, K. H.
    et al.
    Tech Univ Denmark, Denmark.
    Berge, T.
    Tech Univ Denmark, Denmark ; Univ Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Goncalves, R. J.
    Tech Univ Denmark, Denmark ;Consejo Nacl Invest Cient & Tecn, Argentina ; Estn Fotobiol Playa Union, Argentina.
    Hartvig, M.
    Tech Univ Denmark, Denmark ; Univ Copenhagen, Denmark ; Univ Göttingen, Germany.
    Heuschele, J.
    Tech Univ Denmark, Denmark.
    Hylander, Samuel
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM). Tech Univ Denmark, Denmark.
    Jacobsen, N. S.
    Tech Univ Denmark, Denmark.
    Lindemann, C.
    Tech Univ Denmark, Denmark.
    Martens, E. A.
    Tech Univ Denmark, Denmark ; Univ Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Neuheimer, A. B.
    Tech Univ Denmark, Denmark ; Univ Hawaii Manoa, USA.
    Olsson, K.
    Tech Univ Denmark, Denmark.
    Palacz, A.
    Tech Univ Denmark, Denmark.
    Prowe, A. E. F.
    Tech Univ Denmark, Denmark ; GEOMAR Helmholtz Ctr Ocean Res Kiel, Germany.
    Sainmont, J.
    Tech Univ Denmark, Denmark.
    Traving, S. J.
    Tech Univ Denmark, Denmark ; Univ Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Visser, A. W.
    Tech Univ Denmark, Denmark.
    Wadhwa, N.
    Tech Univ Denmark, Denmark.
    Kiorboe, T.
    Tech Univ Denmark, Denmark.
    Characteristic Sizes of Life in the Oceans, from Bacteria to Whales2016Inngår i: Annual Review of Marine Science, ISSN 1941-1405, E-ISSN 1941-0611, Vol. 8, s. 217-241Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The size of an individual organism is a key trait to characterize its physiology and feeding ecology. Size-based scaling laws may have a limited size range of validity or undergo a transition from one scaling exponent to another at some characteristic size. We collate and review data on size-based scaling laws for resource acquisition, mobility, sensory range, and progeny size for all pelagic marine life, from bacteria to whales. Further, we review and develop simple theoretical arguments for observed scaling laws and the characteristic sizes of a change or breakdown of power laws. We divide life in the ocean into seven major realms based on trophic strategy, physiology, and life history strategy. Such a categorization represents a move away from a taxonomically oriented description toward a trait-based description of life in the oceans. Finally, we discuss life forms that transgress the simple size-based rules and identify unanswered questions.

  • 38.
    Andersson, A.
    et al.
    Umeå University;Umeå Marine Science Centre.
    Brugel, S.
    Umeå University;Umeå Marine Science Centre.
    Paczkowska, J.
    Umeå University;Umeå Marine Science Centre.
    Rowe, O. F.
    Umeå University;Umeå Marine Science Centre;Univ Helsinki, Finland.
    Figueroa, D.
    Umeå University;Umeå Marine Science Centre.
    Kratzer, S.
    Stockholm University.
    Legrand, Catherine
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Influence of allochthonous dissolved organic matter on pelagic basal production in a northerly estuary2018Inngår i: Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, ISSN 0272-7714, E-ISSN 1096-0015, Vol. 204, s. 225-235Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Phytoplankton and heterotrophic bacteria are key groups at the base of aquatic food webs. In estuaries receiving riverine water with a high content of coloured allochthonous dissolved organic matter (ADOM), phytoplankton primary production may be reduced, while bacterial production is favoured. We tested this hypothesis by performing a field study in a northerly estuary receiving nutrient-poor, ADOM-rich riverine water, and analyzing results using multivariate statistics. Throughout the productive season, and especially during the spring river flush, the production and growth rate of heterotrophic bacteria were stimulated by the riverine inflow of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). In contrast, primary production and photosynthetic efficiency (i.e. phytoplankton growth rate) were negatively affected by DOC. Primary production related positively to phosphorus, which is the limiting nutrient in the area. In the upper estuary where DOC concentrations were the highest, the heterotrophic bacterial production constituted almost 100% of the basal production (sum of primary and bacterial production) during spring, while during summer the primary and bacterial production were approximately equal. Our study shows that riverine DOC had a strong negative influence on coastal phytoplankton production, likely due to light attenuation. On the other hand DOC showed a positive influence on bacterial production since it represents a supplementary food source. Thus, in boreal regions where climate change will cause increased river inflow to coastal waters, the balance between phytoplankton and bacterial production is likely to be changed, favouring bacteria. The pelagic food web structure and overall productivity will in turn be altered. (C) 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  • 39.
    Andersson, Agneta
    et al.
    Umeå University.
    Meier, H. E. Markus
    Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute.
    Ripszam, Matyas
    Umeå University.
    Rowe, Owen
    Umeå University.
    Wikner, Johan
    Umeå university.
    Haglund, Peter
    Umeå University.
    Eilola, Kari
    Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute.
    Legrand, Catherine
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Figueroa, Daniela
    Umeå University.
    Paczkowska, Joanna
    Umeå University.
    Lindehoff, Elin
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå University.
    Elmgren, Ragnar
    Department of Ecology.
    Projected future climate change and Baltic Sea ecosystem management2015Inngår i: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 44, nr Supplement 3, s. S345-S356Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change is likely to have large effects on the Baltic Sea ecosystem. Simulations indicate 2-4 degrees C warming and 50-80 % decrease in ice cover by 2100. Precipitation may increase similar to 30 % in the north, causing increased land runoff of allochthonous organic matter (AOM) and organic pollutants and decreased salinity. Coupled physical-biogeochemical models indicate that, in the south, bottom-water anoxia may spread, reducing cod recruitment and increasing sediment phosphorus release, thus promoting cyanobacterial blooms. In the north, heterotrophic bacteria will be favored by AOM, while phytoplankton production may be reduced. Extra trophic levels in the food web may increase energy losses and consequently reduce fish production. Future management of the Baltic Sea must consider the effects of climate change on the ecosystem dynamics and functions, as well as the effects of anthropogenic nutrient and pollutant load. Monitoring should have a holistic approach, encompassing both autotrophic (phytoplankton) and heterotrophic (e.g., bacterial) processes.

  • 40.
    Andersson, Amanda
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Elevers förståelse av begrepp inom området människokroppen: En kvalitativ studie om elevers begreppskunskap2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Elevers begreppsförståelse är ett väl undersökt område inom fysik, dock inte inom den svenska gymnasieskolans biologiundervisning, än mindre inom området människokroppen och dess funktioner. Syftet med denna studie är att belysa elevers förståelse och missuppfattningar kring vissa begrepp om kroppen och kroppensfunktioner hos totalt 39 elever som läser biologi 2 på gymnasiet från två olika klasser. Frågeställningarna i studien är (1) Vilken förståelse har eleverna kring begrepp inom ämnet kroppens funktioner? (2) Vilka begrepp har eleverna bristande förståelse för?Studien använder sig av både enkäter och intervjuer för att besvara frågeställnigarna där enkätens begrepp baseras på begrepp från kursbok, styrdokument och tidigare studier. Intervjufrågorna baseras på enkäten där missuppfattnignar eller avvikande svar visas. Eleverna intervjuas två och två, där klasserna representeras av fyra elever var. Genom att använda öppna frågor i enkäten och intervjun kan elevernas kunskap och förståelse kring de utvalda begreppen visas tydligare än om eleverna får givna svarsalternativ.Studien visar att det finns bristande förståelse och missuppfattningar kring delar inom detta ämne, likt tidigare studier finns det missuppfattningar och svårigheter i att förstå begreppet meios. Vad detta kan bero på diskuteras utifrån bland annat om förståelsen endast beror på tidigare erfarenheter och vardagsföreställningar.

  • 41.
    Andersson, Daniel
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Waste Management in the Mekong Delta: Characterisation and evaluation of organic waste2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This degree project investigated landfills that takes care of municipal solid waste in an area around the Mekong delta, namely An Giang province, Vietnam. The main objective for this study was to provide basic work in order to create a discussion with the local food markets to separate the household’s food waste from the rest. Such a discussion is possible to create through collaboration with local authorities and inform or guide stakeholders on how waste management can be improved, out of existing knowledge from Sweden. Therefore, this study aims to illuminate and give knowledge for improvements in questions regarding efficiency, organisation, participation, recycling and opportunities associated with a more efficient waste management system.Since a significant percentage of the household waste generated in Long Xuyen City, An Giang province are organic, the opportunity to convert organic waste into soil amendments was examined. Leachate from one of the landfills in the area was also analysed in order to get further understanding for its composition, focusing on organic parameters.

  • 42.
    Andersson, Lars
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Crop Production Ecology.
    Bostrom, Ullalena
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Crop Production Ecology.
    Forkman, Johannes
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Crop Production Ecology.
    Hakman, Inger
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Liew, Josefine
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Crop Production Ecology.
    Magnuski, Ewa
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Crop Production Ecology.
    Sprouting capacity from intact root systems of Cirsium arvense and Sonchus arvensis decrease in autumn2013Inngår i: Weed research (Print), ISSN 0043-1737, E-ISSN 1365-3180, Vol. 53, nr 3, s. 183-191Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Perennial weeds are often controlled by mechanical means, which aim at stimulating axillary and adventitious buds to sprout. This happens when the apical dominance of the main shoot is removed by defoliation or when the underground system is fragmented. By repeating the measures, the result is a depletion of storage compounds, which weakens the plants and reduces their capacity to grow and reproduce. However, timing is critical. Earlier research has indicated that emergence from fragments of Sonchus arvensis cease during a period in autumn, while the seasonal pattern of sprouting in Cirsium arvense appears to be inconsistent. We studied the emergence pattern of defoliated plants with undisturbed root systems, from late summer to early spring. Potted plants grown outdoors were exhumed at regular intervals, put under forcing conditions for 4weeks, after which shoots above and below soil level were counted and weighed together with the remaining root systems. In both species, the number and weight of emerged shoots decreased during a period in the autumn. In C.arvense, underground shoots were constantly produced during the same period, while fewer underground shoots were present in S.arvensis. For the latter species, apical dominance does not fully explain the effect; thus, endodormancy might be involved. Root weight increased until withering and did not explain the lack of emergence. Our results suggest an impaired sprouting capacity of undisturbed root systems of C.arvense and S.arvensis during SeptemberOctober, which has implications for the timing and method of control of these species.

  • 43.
    Andersson, Martin O.
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM). Lund University.
    Bergvall, Ulrika A.
    Stockholm University ; Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Chirico, Jan
    National Veterinary Institute.
    Christensson, Madeleine
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Lindgren, Per-Eric
    Linköping University ; County Hospital Ryhov.
    Nordström, Jonas
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences ; Dalarna County Administration Board.
    Kjellander, Petter
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Molecular detection of Babesia capreoli and Babesia venatorum in wild Swedish roe deer, Capreolus capreolus2016Inngår i: Parasites & Vectors, ISSN 1756-3305, E-ISSN 1756-3305, Vol. 9, artikkel-id 221Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The epidemiology of the zoonotic tick-transmitted parasite Babesia spp. and its occurrence in wild reservoir hosts in Sweden is unclear. In European deer, several parasite species, including Babesia capreoli and the zoonotic B. venatorum and B. divergens has been reported previously. The European roe deer, Capreolus capreolus, is an important and common part of the indigenous fauna in Europe, as well as an important host for Ixodes ricinus ticks, the vector of several Babesia spp. in Europe. Here, we aimed to investigate the occurrence of Babesia spp. in roe deer in Sweden. Findings: Roe deer (n = 77) were caught and sampled for blood. Babesia spp. was detected with a PCR assay targeting the 18S rRNA gene. The prevalence of Babesia spp. was 52 %, and two species were detected; B. capreoli and B. venatorum in 44 and 7.8 % of the individuals, respectively. Infection occurred both in summer and winter. Conclusions: We showed that roe deer in Sweden, close to the edge of their northern inland distributional range, are infected with Babesia spp. The occurrence of B. venatorum in roe deer imply that it is established in Sweden and the zoonotic implication of this finding should be regarded to a greater extent in future.

  • 44.
    Andersson, Martin O.
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Chitimia-Dobler, Lidia
    Inst Diag & Anim Hlth, Romania ; German Ctr Infect Res DZIF Partner Munich, Germany.
    Detection of Cercopithifilaria bainae in western Romania2017Inngår i: Parasitology Research, ISSN 0932-0113, E-ISSN 1432-1955, Vol. 116, nr 11, s. 3235-3238Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Cercopithifilaria species are tick-transmitted filarial parasites of mammals. In Europe, three Cercopithifilaria spp. are known to parasitize dogs, all occurring mainly in the Mediterranean countries. In Romania, Cercopithifilaria bainae has been reported in a single dog in eastern Romania but the occurrence in other parts of the country is not known. To further elucidate the geographic distribution of Cercopithifilaria spp. infection, 544 ticks were collected from dogs in several locations across Romania. The presence of Cercopithifilaria spp. was investigated with real-time PCR. A single Dermacentor reticulatus female tick was found to be infected with Cercopithifilaria bainae. The finding in the present study is geographically separated from the previous finding in Romania by 800 km, as well as by the Carpathian mountain range. Hence, C. bainae is more geographically widespread in Romania than previously recognized. However, the single detection does suggest that infection is rather uncommon in Romanian dogs. Nevertheless, further studies on Cercopithifilaria spp. distribution and prevalence are needed.

  • 45.
    Andersson, Martin O.
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Marga, Georgeta
    Publ Hlth Direct, Romania.
    Banu, Teofilia
    Inst Diag & Anim Hlth, Romania.
    Dobler, Gerhard
    German Ctr Infect Res DZIF Partner Munich, Germany.
    Chitimia-Dobler, Lidia
    Inst Diag & Anim Hlth, Romania;German Ctr Infect Res DZIF Partner Munich, Germany.
    Tick-borne pathogens in tick species infesting humans in Sibiu County, central Romania2018Inngår i: Parasitology Research, ISSN 0932-0113, E-ISSN 1432-1955, Vol. 117, nr 5, s. 1591-1597Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Romania has a highly diverse tick fauna. Consequently, a high diversity of tick-transmitted pathogens might be a potential threat to humans. However, only a limited number of tick species regularly infest humans, and pathogens present in such species are therefore of particular interest from a medical perspective. In this study, 297 ticks were collected from humans during 2013 and 2014. Ixodes ricinus was the predominant tick species, accounting for 272 specimens or 91.6% of the ticks in the study. Nevertheless, other tick species were also found to infest humans: Dermacentor marginatus constituted 7% of the ticks found on humans (21/297), Haemaphysalis punctata 1% (3/297), and Haemaphysalis concinna 0.3% (1/297). Ticks were tested by PCR for a wide range of tick-borne pathogens. In total, 11.8% of the ticks carried human pathogenic bacteria, while no viral or protozoan pathogens were detected. The most frequently detected pathogen was Rickettsia spp., occurring in 5.4% of the ticks (16/297) and comprising three species: Rickettsia (R.) raoultii, R. monacensis, and R. helvetica. Borrelia s.l. occurred in 3% (9/297) of the ticks. "Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis" occurred in 1.7% (5/297) and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in 1.3% (4/297). Anaplasma bovis was detected in an H. punctata and Borrelia miyamotoi in an I. ricinus. These results point to the need for further studies on the medical importance of tick-borne pathogens in Romania.

  • 46.
    Andersson, Martin O.
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Radbea, Gabriel
    Sal Vet Private Vet Clin, Romania.
    Frangoulidis, Dimitrios
    Bundeswehr Inst Microbiol, Germany;German Ctr Infect Res DZIF Partner Munich.
    Tomaso, Herbert
    Friedrich Loeffler Inst, Germany.
    Rubel, Franz
    Univ Vet Med Vienna, Austria.
    Nava, Santiago
    Estn Expt Agr Rafaela, Argentina.
    Chitimia-Dobler, Lidia
    Bundeswehr Inst Microbiol, Germany;German Ctr Infect Res DZIF Partner Munich, Germany;Inst Diag & Anim Hlth, Romania.
    New records and host associations of the tick Ixodes apronophorus and the first detection of Ehrlichia sp HF in Romania2018Inngår i: Parasitology Research, ISSN 0932-0113, E-ISSN 1432-1955, Vol. 117, nr 4, s. 1285-1289Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Ixodes (Ixodes) apronophorus is a neglected tick species and its geographical distribution, host associations, and role as a disease vector are not well known. We collected I. apronophorus from several locations in Romania. Morphological identification of ticks was confirmed by analysis of 16S rDNA and 12S rDNA gene sequences. We report new host associations of I. apronophorus, which was collected from dogs, foxes, and a hare-all new hosts for this tick species in Romania. Furthermore, we report for the first time occurrence of Ehrlichia sp. HF in I. apronophorus. Ehrlichia sp. HF was identified by sequencing a part of the 16S rDNA gene and was found in 16% (3/19) of the tested ticks. Ehrlichia sp. HF has not been previously reported in Eastern Europe and seems to have a much larger geographic distribution than previously known. Currently, it is unknown whether I. apronophorus is a competent vector for Ehrlichia sp. HF, or if the findings in this study represent infection in the hosts, namely dogs and fox.

  • 47.
    Andersson, Martin O.
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Tolf, Conny
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Tamba, Paula
    Inst Diag & Anim Hlth, Romania.
    Stefanache, Mircea
    PAUMI VET Private Vet Clin, Romania.
    Radbea, Gabriel
    Sal Vet Private Vet Clin, Romania.
    Frangoulidis, Dimitrios
    Bundeswehr Inst Microbiol, Germany.
    Tomaso, Herbert
    Friedrich Loeffler Inst, Germany.
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Dobler, Gerhard
    Bundeswehr Inst Microbiol, Germany;German Ctr Infect Res DZIF Partner Munich, Germany.
    Chitimia-Dobler, Lidia
    Inst Diag & Anim Hlth, Romania;Bundeswehr Inst Microbiol, Germany;German Ctr Infect Res DZIF Partner Munich, Germany.
    Molecular survey of neglected bacterial pathogens reveals an abundant diversity of species and genotypes in ticks collected from animal hosts across Romania2018Inngår i: Parasites & Vectors, ISSN 1756-3305, E-ISSN 1756-3305, Vol. 11, artikkel-id 144Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Ticks are transmitting a wide range of bacterial pathogens that cause substantial morbidity and mortality in domestic animals. The full pathogen burden transmitted by tick vectors is incompletely studied in many geographical areas, and extensive studies are required to fully understand the diversity and distribution of pathogens transmitted by ticks. Results: We sampled 824 ticks of 11 species collected in 19 counties in Romania. Ticks were collected mainly from dogs, but also from other domestic and wild animals, and were subjected to molecular screening for pathogens. Rickettsia spp. was the most commonly detected pathogen, occurring in 10.6% (87/824) of ticks. Several species were detected: Rickettsia helvetica, R. raoultii, R. massiliae, R. monacensis, R. slovaca and R. aeschlimannii. A single occurrence of the zoonotic bacterium Bartonella vinsonii berkhoffii was detected in a tick collected from a dog. Anaplasma phagocytophilum occurred in four samples, and sequences similar to Anaplasma marginale/ovis were abundant in ticks from ruminants. In addition, molecular screening showed that ticks from dogs were carrying an Ehrlichia species identical to the HF strain as well as the enigmatic zoonotic pathogen "Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis". An organism similar to E. chaffeensis or E. muris was detected in an Ixodes ricinus collected from a fox. Conclusions: We describe an abundant diversity of bacterial tick-borne pathogens in ticks collected from animal hosts in Romania, both on the level of species and genotypes/strains within these species. Several findings were novel for Romania, including Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii that causes bacteremia and endocarditis in dogs. "Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis" was detected in a tick collected from a dog. Previously, a single case of infection in a dog was diagnosed in Germany. The results warrant further studies on the consequences of tick-borne pathogens in domestic animals in Romania.

  • 48.
    Andersson, Martin O.
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Tolf, Conny
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Tamba, Paula
    Inst Diag & Anim Hlth, Romania.
    Stefanache, Mircea
    PAUMI VET Private Vet Clin, Romania.
    Radbea, Gabriel
    Sal Vet Private Vet Clin, Romania.
    Rubel, Franz
    Univ Vet Med Vienna, Austria.
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Dobler, Gerhard
    German Ctr Infect Res DZIF Partner Munich, Germany.
    Chitimia-Dobler, Lidia
    Inst Diag & Anim Hlth, Romania ; German Ctr Infect Res DZIF Partner Munich, Germany.
    Babesia, Theileria, and Hepatozoon species in ticks infesting animal hosts in Romania2017Inngår i: Parasitology Research, ISSN 0932-0113, E-ISSN 1432-1955, Vol. 116, nr 8, s. 2291-2297Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Babesia spp., Theileria spp., and Hepatozoon spp. are tick-transmitted apicomplexan parasites that cause several important diseases in animals. To increase current knowledge about the diversity of tick-transmitted pathogens in Romania, we investigated the occurrence of Babesia spp., Theileria spp., and Hepatozoon spp. in a wide range of tick species infesting animal hosts. We collected 852 ticks from 10 different animal species from 20 counties in Romania. The assessment was based on detection of parasite DNA by PCR. Five different apicomplexan parasite species were detected; among them three different species of Babesia: B. canis, B. microti, and B. ovis. Hepatozoon canis was the most frequently detected parasite, found predominately in Ixodes ricinus ticks collected from domestic dogs. It was also detected in I. ricinus collected from goat, fox, and cat. Furthermore, H. canis was found in Haemaphysalis punctata and Haemaphysalis concinna ticks. In addition, Theileria buffeli was detected in Rhipicephalus bursa ticks collected from cattle.

  • 49.
    Andersson, Martin O.
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Tolf, Conny
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Tamba, Paula
    Institute for Diagnosis and Animal Health, Romania.
    Stefanache, Mircea
    PAUMI-VET Private Veterinary Clinics, Romania.
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Dobler, Gerhard
    German Center for Infection Research, Germany.
    Chitimia-Dobler, Lidia
    German Center for Infection Research, Germany.
    Canine tick-borne diseases in pet dogs from Romania2017Inngår i: Parasites & Vectors, ISSN 1756-3305, E-ISSN 1756-3305, Vol. 10, artikkel-id 2092Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Tick-borne diseases are of substantial concern worldwide for animals as well as humans. Dogs have been a human companion for millennia, and their significant impact on human life renders disease in dogs to be of great concern. Tick-borne diseases in dogs represent a substantial diagnostic challenge for veterinarians in that clinical signs are often diffuse and overlapping. In addition, co-infections with two or more pathogens enhance this problem further. Molecular methods are useful to disentangle co-infections and to accurately describe prevalence and geographical distribution of tick-borne diseases. At this point, this information is lacking in many areas worldwide. Romania is one such area, where prevalence and distribution of several important pathogens need to be further investigated. To address this, we screened blood samples from 96 sick dogs with molecular methods for eight different pathogens including Babesia spp., Theileria spp., Hepatozoon spp., Anaplasma spp., Ehrlichia spp., "Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis", Mycoplasma spp., and Borrelia spp. Results: As many as 45% (43/ 96) of the dogs in the study were infected with protozoan parasites. Babesia canis was the most frequent of these (28 infected dogs), whereas Hepatozoon canis was detected in 15% (14/ 96) and Babesia gibsoni was found in a single sample. Bacterial infection with Mycoplasma spp. occurred in 18% (17/ 96) of the sampled dogs. Obtained bacterial sequences revealed the occurrence of two species: Mycoplasma canis and "Candidatus Mycoplasma haematoparvum". In several cases co-infection with protozoan parasites and Mycoplasma sp. were detected. All dogs were negative for Anaplasma spp., Ehrlichia spp., "Ca. Neoehrlichia mikurensis", and for Borrelia spp. Conclusions: The results from the present study reinforce the notion that Babesia canis is an important pathogen in the Romanian dog population. However, more surprisingly, another protozoan species, H. canis, seems to be infecting dogs to a larger extent than previously recognized in Romania. Well-known tick-borne bacterial disease agents such as Anaplasma spp. and Borrelia spp. were not detected. In contrast, less wellstudied bacteria such as hemotropic Mycoplasma spp. were detected frequently. Moreover, co-infection might aggravate disease and complicate diagnosis and should be further studied in dogs.

  • 50.
    Andersson, Martin O.
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Vichova, Bronislava
    Slovak Acad Sci, Slovakia.
    Tolf, Conny
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Krzyzanowska, Sandra
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Karlsson, Maria E.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Co-infection with Babesia divergens and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in cattle (Bos taurus), Sweden2017Inngår i: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases, ISSN 1877-959X, E-ISSN 1877-9603, Vol. 8, nr 6, s. 933-935Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Babesiosis is a severe disease in cattle worldwide. In Europe, the main causative agent of bovine babesiosis is Babesia divergens. In some areas, this species is reported to have declined or even disappeared, and its etiological role overtaken by other piroplasmid species. Moreover, co-infection with other tick-transmitted pathogens can be expected to complicate diagnosis in cattle. Hence, molecular identification of the causative agent of babesiosis should be a priority. Therefore, samples from 71 domestic cattle, 39 with clinical signs of babesiosis and 32 without, from southern Sweden were screened for Babesia spp. and Anaplasma spp. using molecular methods Babesia divergens was detected in 38 of the samples, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in 17. Co-infections with both pathogens were frequent, occurring in 18% of the animals with a B. divergens infection. The possibility of co-infection should be considered in diagnosis and treatment of bovine babesiosis.

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