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  • 1.
    Abdullah, Mhd Yazan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Förslag på framtida utmaningar inom underhåll och produktion och hur kan fjärde generationen av underhåll se ut2024Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Maintenance has evolved over centuries and has played a significant role in the growth of organizations. Thehistory of maintenance is distinguished by three generations, with its development transitioning from beingseen as a 'necessary evil' to a 'contributor to profit'. Numerous literatures have dis-cussed maintenance foroptimization and increased profitability, yet few have addressed the factors influencing the future ofmaintenance. Maintenance should be viewed as a 'competitive factor' in the future.Numerous trends have developed within production, each contributing significantly to its evo-lotion.Successfully implementing these trends is considered a major challenge. Limited literature has discussed theemerging trends and challenges within production.This thesis reviews the historical development of maintenance across generations and presents key factorsthat play a major role in the fourth generation, identifying emerging trends and challenges faced byproduction. Literature reviews, interviews, and surveys have been utilized in this thesis. Academicresearchers and industry experts from both maintenance and production departments responded to interviewand survey questions for this research. Key factors for the proposition of fourth-generation maintenance andthe emerging trends and challenges faced by production are presented.The results from the research questions and empirical findings are summa-rized in a framework that enablesreaders to understand the historical development of maintenance, key factors to consider for fourthgeneration maintenance, and the emerging trends and challenges that production faces in the future.Additionally, the thesis also discusses the impact of information technology on the future of maintenance andthe sustainability effect on the future of production.

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  • 2.
    Abdulrazaq, Erol
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Henrik, Persson
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Syresättning av avloppsvatten: En undersökning av luftningsmetoder på reningsverk2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay has been done at the request of Marinfloc AB. It consists of various measurements and experiments investigating the sewage water treatment on a number of different plants. The measurements were executed in the part of the plants called secondary treatment. The objective with secondary treatment is to let micro-organisms remove dissolved and suspended biological and organic matter. The factors which were investigated were which methods are used to oxygenate the sewage water, what level of oxygen saturation is obtained with each method and the power consumption required oxygenating the sewage water. An experiment was carried out on Marinflocs’ own sewage treatment plant with the objective to determine if there is any time difference in oxygenating pure water versus unprocessed sewage water. The conclusion reached was that the four land-based sewage treatment plants that were investigated oxygenate by the same principle. The oxygenation is done by aeration from the bottom in respective aeration tank. The level of oxygen saturation was between 1, 8 – 5, 9 mg oxygen per liter sewage water in all plants. Marinflocs’ current sewage treatment plant uses another principle to oxygenate and its oxygen saturation was measured to a level of 12 mg/l. The experiment on Marinflocs’ own sewage treatment plant concluded that there is a time difference in oxygenating pure water versus unprocessed sewage water. The pure water gets oxygenated faster. 

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  • 3.
    Adam, Stenlund
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    John, Barnekow
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Energieffektivisering av Ronneby is-arena samt vädrets termodynamiska påverkan2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Today Sweden has 341 ice hockey arenas, around 140 outdoor ice hockey rinks, 60 ice fields for bandy and about 35 curling arenas. In addition, the numbers of indoor bandy arenas are increasing. The cooling systems installed today should be able to lower its energy consumption with 10-30%.In this thesis, Ronneby ice-arena has been researched. This artificial cooling facility was inaugurated 2011 and is one of the newest in Sweden. This is an outdoor ice field for bandy and therefor has no roof or walls to cover the field. Ronneby ice-arena has problems with uneven cooling distribution of the ice field. This results in cracks and uneven ice quality. These problems also result in higher energy consumption than necessary.To find a solution for the uneven cooling of the ice field flow measurements were carried out in the brine circuit. To get a better understanding of the cooling distribution, temperature measurements were carried out on the brine feeding lines. A calculation has been performed on what energy savings a speed control of the brine circulation pumps depending on the outdoor temperature could generate. Another calculation was made to see the possible savings with a windshield around the field. In this thesis the benefits of a heat recovery system on the cooling compressors refrigerant has been investigated. The heat recovery system could heat the locker rooms, the clubhouse, the showers and the hot water for the Zambonis.In order to perform the necessary calculation for this thesis, Fredriksbergs BK and Ronneby municipality provided operating data.The actions proposed to Ronneby ice-arena to solve the uneven cooling of the ice field is to change the location of the brine feeding line connection point. At the same time this work is carried out it’s suggested that the brine feed and return lines get insulated. When the uneven cooling problems have been solved, a speed control system should be installed to control the brine circulation pumps, in order to lower the electricity consumption. Ronneby ice-arena has the possibility to install a heat recovery system. Therefore it is suggested to install a heat exchanger on each cooling compressor refrigerant. This installation is to be used to heat the clubhouse, the showers and the hot water for the Zambonis. The system to cool the condensers with seawater and currently the heat pump are not optimal designed. The installed heat pump does not work when the seawater temperature is below 5°C, therefore the system should be redesigned.

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  • 4.
    Adriansson, Mikael
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Johansson Breeze, Peter
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Kommunicera säkert: En studie om kommunikation mellan lotsar, befälhavare och bogserbåtsbefälhavare2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to examine how pilots, vessel masters and tugboat masters perceive the importance of verbal communication with consideration to safety and efficiency.  This is based on the fact that the vast majority of accidents involving vessels occur because of human error, where lack of communication plays a large part. In the study semi-structured interviews were held with two pilots, two masters and two tugboat masters. After conducting these six interviews it became apparent at the use of standard phrasing and closed loop communication could vary. Based on the information collected one conclusion is that if the usage within these two areas improved safety could increase. It was also apparent in this study that the knowledge of the English language differed greatly which also could lead to misunderstandings with the giving of instructions. A better proficiency in English and better knowledge of verbal communication could be two possible ways of increasing safety.

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    Kommunicera säkert
  • 5.
    Ahlgren, Fredrik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Reducing ships' fuel consumption and emissions by learning from data2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the context of reducing both greenhouse gases and hazardous emissions, the shipping sector faces a major challenge as it is currently responsible for 11% of the transport sector’s anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. Even as emissions reductions are needed, the demand for the transport sector rises exponentially every year. This thesis aims to investigate the potential to use ships’ existing internal energy systems more efficiently. The thesis focusses on making existing ships in real operating conditions more efficient based logged machinery data. This dissertation presents results that can make ship more energy efficient by utilising waste heat recovery and machine learning tools. A significant part of this thesis is based on data from a cruise ship in the Baltic Sea, and an extensive analysis of the ship’s internal energy system was made from over a year’s worth of data. The analysis included an exergy analysis, which also considers the usability of each energy flow. In three studies, the feasibility of using the waste heat from the engines was investigated, and the results indicate that significant measures can be undertaken with organic Rankine cycle devices. The organic Rankine cycle was simulated with data from the ship operations and optimised for off-design conditions, both regarding system design and organic fluid selection. The analysis demonstrates that there are considerable differences between the real operation of a ship and what it was initially designed for. In addition, a large two-stroke marine diesel was integrated into a simulation with an organic Rankine cycle, resulting in an energy efficiency improvement of 5%. This thesis also presents new methods of employing machine learning to predict energy consumption. Machine learning algorithms are readily available and free to use, and by using only a small subset of data points from the engines and existing fuel flow meters, the fuel consumption could be predicted with good accuracy. These results demonstrate a potential to improve operational efficiency without installing additional fuel meters. The thesis presents results concerning how data from ships can be used to further analyse and improve their efficiency, by using both add-on technologies for waste heat recovery and machine learning applications.

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  • 6.
    Ahlgren, Fredrik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Waste heat recovery in a cruise vessel2016Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In three studies of a cruise ship the author has investigated waste heat recovery (WHR)from exhaust gases using an organic Rankine cycle (ORC), and also mapped the energyand exergy flows within the ship. Data were collected from the ship’s machinerysystem for a total extent of one year, and this data were used for simulations andenergy calculations. An off-design analysis was made and an ORC was simulated andoptimised with regards to the ship’s operating conditions. The ORC working fluid wasoptimised in terms for maximum electrical production in the off-design condition. Theoff-design analysis showed that the ship speed and power consumption was far fromits original design. The results indicate that there is a potential for significant savingsby using an organic Rankine cycle for waste heat recovery. The energy and exergyanalysis gave a better understanding of the energy flows and showed that the singlelargest exergy destruction occurs in the ship’s diesel engines.

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  • 7.
    Ahlgren, Fredrik
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Mondejar, Maria E.
    Lund University.
    Genrup, Magnus
    Lund University.
    Thern, Magnus
    Lund University.
    Waste Heat Recovery in a Cruise Vessel in the Baltic Sea by Using an Organic Rankine Cycle: A Case Study2015In: ASME Turbo Expo 2015: Turbine Technical Conference and Exposition: Volume 3: Coal, Biomass and Alternative Fuels; Cycle Innovations; Electric Power; Industrial and Cogeneration, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, June 15–19, 2015, ASME Press, 2015, Vol. 3, p. 43392-43416, article id V003T06A018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Maritime transportation is a significant contributor to SOx, NOx and particle matter emissions, even though it has a quite low CO2 impact. New regulations are being enforced in special areas that limit the amount of emissions from the ships. This fact, together with the high fuel prices, is driving the marine industry towards the improvement of the energy efficiency of current ship engines and the reduction of their energy demand. Although more sophisticated and complex engine designs can improve significantly the efficiency of the energy systems in ships, waste heat recovery arises as the most influent technique for the reduction of the energy consumption. In this sense, it is estimated that around 50% of the total energy from the fuel consumed in a ship is wasted and rejected in fluid and exhaust gas streams. The primary heat sources for waste heat recovery are the engine exhaust and the engine coolant. In this work, we present a study on the integration of an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) in an existing ship, for the recovery of the main and auxiliary engines exhaust heat. Experimental data from the operating conditions of the engines on the M/S Birka Stockholm cruise ship were logged during a port-to-port cruise from Stockholm to Mariehamn over a period of time close to one month. The ship has four main engines Wärtsilä 5850 kW for propulsion, and four auxiliary engines 2760 kW used for electrical consumers. A number of six load conditions were identified depending on the vessel speed. The speed range from 12–14 knots was considered as the design condition, as it was present during more than 34% of the time. In this study, the average values of the engines exhaust temperatures and mass flow rates, for each load case, were used as inputs for a model of an ORC. The main parameters of the ORC, including working fluid and turbine configuration, were optimized based on the criteria of maximum net power output and compactness of the installation components. Results from the study showed that an ORC with internal regeneration using benzene would yield the greatest average net power output over the operating time. For this situation, the power production of the ORC would represent about 22% of the total electricity consumption on board. These data confirmed the ORC as a feasible and promising technology for the reduction of fuel consumption and CO2 emissions of existing ships.

  • 8.
    Ahlgren, Fredrik
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Mondejar, Maria E.
    Lund University.
    Genrup, Magnus
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Thern, Marcus
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Waste Heat Recovery in a Cruise Vessel in the Baltic Sea by Using an Organic Rankine Cycle: A Case Study2016In: Journal of engineering for gas turbines and power, ISSN 0742-4795, E-ISSN 1528-8919, Vol. 138, no 1, article id 011702Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Maritime transportation is a significant contributor to SOx,NOx, and particle matter (PM) emissions, and to a lesser extent, of CO2. Recently, new regulations are being enforced in special geographical areas to limit the amount of emissions from the ships. This fact, together with the high fuel prices, is driving the marine industry toward the improvement of the energy efficiency of ships. Although more sophisticated and complex engine designs can improve significantly of the energy systems on ships, waste heat recovery arises as the most effective technique for the reduction of the energy consump- tion. In this sense, it is estimated that around 50% of the total energy from the fuel con- sumed in a ship is wasted and rejected through liquid and gas streams. The primary heat sources for waste heat recovery are the engine exhaust and coolant. In this work, we present a study on the integration of an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) in an existing ship, for the recovery of the main and auxiliary engines (AE) exhaust heat. Experimental data from the engines on the cruise ship M/S Birka Stockholm were logged during a port-to- port cruise from Stockholm to Mariehamn, over a period of 4 weeks. The ship has four main engines (ME) W€artsil€ a 5850kW for propulsion, and four AE 2760kW which areused for electrical generation. Six engine load conditions were identified depending on the ship’s speed. The speed range from 12 to 14 kn was considered as the design condi- tion for the ORC, as it was present during more than 34% of the time. In this study, the average values of the engines exhaust temperatures and mass flow rates, for each load case, were used as inputs for a model of an ORC. The main parameters of the ORC, including working fluid and turbine configuration, were optimized based on the criteria of maximum net power output and compactness of the installation components. Results from the study showed that an ORC with internal regeneration using benzene as working fluid would yield the greatest average net power output over the operating time. For this situation, the power production of the ORC would represent about 22% of the total elec- tricity consumption on board. These data confirmed the ORC as a feasible and promisingtechnology for the reduction of fuel consumption and CO2 emissions of existing ships.

  • 9.
    Ahlgren, Fredrik
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Mondejar, Maria E.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Thern, Marcus
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Predicting dynamic fuel oil consumption on ships with automated machine learning2019In: Innovative Solutions for Energy Transitions: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Applied Energy (ICAE2018) / [ed] Prof. J.Yanab, Prof. H.Yang, cDr. H.Lid, Dr. X.Chene, Elsevier, 2019, Vol. 158, p. 6126-6131Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study demonstrates a method for predicting the dynamic fuel consumption on board ships using automated machine learning algorithms, fed only with data for larger time intervals from 12 hours up to 96 hours. The machine learning algorithm trained on dynamic data from shorter time intervals of the engine features together with longer time interval data for the fuel consumption. To give the operator and ship owner real-time energy efficiency statistics, it is essential to be able to predict the dynamic fuel oil consumption. The conventional approach to getting these data is by installing additional mass flow meters, but these come with added cost and complexity. In this study, we propose a machine learning approach using auto machine learning optimisation, with already available data from the machinery logging system.

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  • 10.
    Ahlgren, Fredrik
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Thern, Marcus
    Lund university, Sweden.
    Auto Machine Learning for predicting Ship Fuel Consumption2018In: Proceedings of ECOS 2018 - the 31st International Conference on Efficiency, Cost, Optimization, Simulation and Environmental Impact of Energy Systems, Guimarães, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, machine learning has evolved in a fast pace as both algorithms and computing power are constantly improving. In this study, a machine learning model for predicting the fuel oil consumption from engine data has been developed for a cruise ship operating in the Baltic Sea. The cruise ship is equipped with legacy volume flow meters and newly installed mass flow meters, as well as an extensive set of logged time series data from the machinery logging system. The model is developed using state-of-the-art Auto Machine Learning tools, which optimises both the model hyper parameters and the model selection by using genetic algorithms. To further increase the model accuracy, a pipeline of different models and pre-processing algorithms is evaluated. An extensive model trained for a certain system can be used for optimisation simulation, as well as online energy efficiency prediction. As the models automatically adapt to noisy sensor data and thus function as a watermark of the machinery system, these algorithms show a potential in predicting ship energy efficiency without installation of additional mass flow meters. All tools used in this study are Open Source tools written in Python and can be applied on board. The study shows great potential for utilising large amounts of already available sensor data for improving the accuracy of the predicted ship energy consumption.

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  • 11.
    Ahlgren, Fredrik
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Thern, Marcus
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Genrup, Magnus
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Mondejar, Maria E.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Energy integration of organic rankine cycle, exhaust gas recirculation and scrubber2018In: Trends and challenges in maritime energy management / [ed] Aykut I. Ölçer, Momoko Kitada, Dimitrios Dalaklis & Fabio Ballini, Cham, Switzerland: Springer, 2018, p. 157-168Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The vast majority of ships trafficking the oceans are fuelled by residual oil with high content of sulphur, which produces sulphur oxides (SOx) when combusted. Additionally, the high pressures and temperatures in modern diesel engines also produce nitrogen oxides (NOx). These emissions are both a hazard to health and the local environment, and regulations enforced by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) are driving the maritime sector towards the use of either distillate fuels containing less sulphur, or the use of exhaust gas cleaning devices.TwocommontechniquesforremovingSOx andlimitingNOx aretheopen loop wet scrubber and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). A scrubber and EGR installation reduces the overall efficiency of the system as it needs significant pumping power, which means that the exhaust gases are cleaner but at the expense of higher CO2 emissions. In this paper we propose a method to integrate an exhaust gas cleaning device for both NOx and SOx with an organic Rankine cycle for waste heat recovery, thereby enhancing the system efficiency. We investigate three ORC configurations, integrated with the energy flows from both an existing state-of-the-art EGR system and an additional open loop wet scrubber.

  • 12.
    Ahlgren, Fredrik
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Österman, Cecilia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    A social sustainability perspective on an environmental intervention to reduce ship emissions2015In: Creating Sustainable Work-environments: Proceedings of NES2015, Nordic Ergonomics Society 47th Annual Conference, 01-04 November 2015, Lillehammer, Norway / [ed] Knut Inge Fostervold, Svein Åge Kjøs Johnsen, Leif Rydstedt, Reidulf G. Watten, 2015, p. A4-12-A4-15Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports a case study examining the effects on the shipboard work environment of an operative decision to change fuel oil type on two Swedish passenger vessels operating in the Baltic Sea. The results show positive changes in work tasks, reduced exposure to harmful pollutants evaporating from the fuel, reduced use of chemicals for cleaning, and a generally cleaner work environment. The outcome illustrates the benefit of a systems perspective when evaluating environmental interventions. Here, the intervention can be seen as an investment that not only reduces emissions to the environment, but contributes towards sustainable working life at sea.

  • 13.
    Ahlin, Jane
    et al.
    Swedish Ergonomics and Human Factors Society, Sweden.
    Österman, Cecilia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Osvalder, Anna-Lisa
    Chalmers University of technology, Sweden.
    Hemphälä, Hilevi
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Glimne, Susanne
    Karolinska Insitutet, Sweden.
    Hägg, Göran M
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Janzon, Olle
    SSAB Europe, Occupational Health & Safety.
    Pettersson, Per Johan
    Merident Optergo AB.
    Stavervik, Mathias
    Ericsson AB, Sweden.
    Strategies to develop and strengthen human factors and ergonomics knowledge among stakeholders in Sweden2015In: Proceedings 19th Triennial Congress of the IEA, Melbourne 9-14 August 2015, Melbourne: International Ergonomics Association , 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge and application of human factors and ergonomics (HFE) has significant potential as auseful tool and solution provider in the development, design and implementation of safe, efficient and sustainable artefacts and systems. Yet, it seems that this HFE knowledge is not utilised to its full potential. In a world of competing financial and commercial priorities, HFE specialists have apparently not succeeded in selling the systems approach as a tool towards improved overall systems performance and human well-being.

    The present paper describes the strategic and practical workperformed by the Swedish Ergonomics and Human Factors Society (EHSS) to strengthen the quality of human factors and ergonomics knowledge and practice among various stakeholders in Sweden. EHSS view human factors and ergonomics as a systems and design oriented discipline that extends across all aspects of human activity. Beyond the traditional domains of specialization within the discipline, the physical, cognitive and organisational ergonomics, EHSS has identified three focus areas; visual ergonomics, voice ergonomics and ergonomics design for all.

    Practitioner Summary: This paper presents the strategic and practical work performed by the Swedish Ergonomics and Human Factors Society (EHSS) in order to strengthen the quality of human factors and ergonomics knowledge and practice in Sweden. EHSS has identified three focus areas for its strategic work: visual ergonomics, voice ergonomics and ergonomics design for all.

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  • 14.
    Ahlin, Kristofer
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Absorptionskylmaskiner ombord: En undersökning om absorptionsprocessens potential ombord fartyg2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Målet med denna undersökning är att teoretiskt undersöka den vatten/litiumbromidbaserade absorptionsprocessens potential ombord fartyg då processen enbart drivs av huvudmaskinens högtemperaturkylvatten. Undersökningen genomförs teoretiskt mot tre olika fartyg samt Sjöfartshögskolan i Kalmars maskinrumssimulator. För vardera fartyg undersöks driftenergikällan och kylbehovet ombord. Med det som underlag dras en slutsats om den vatten/ litiumbromidbaserade absorptionsprocessens potential ombord fartyget. Fartygens resultat ligger till grund för slutsatsen. Undersökningen visade att det finns potential för tekniken ombord undersökta fartyg.

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  • 15.
    Ahlstrand, Johanna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Bergman, Helena
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Energiblalands vid ny PO-reaktor: Vid Södra Cell Mönsterås2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Vid Södra Cells fabrik i Mönsterås har ett beslut tagits att en ny PO-reaktor skulle installeras för att förlänga reaktionstiden och därmed sänka temperatur och kemikaliesats vilket resulterar i en högre dragstyrka för massan. En temperatursänkning medför mindre flashad ånga till PO-kondensorn vilket i sin tur medför mindre värme till sekundärvärmesystemet (sågslingan).

    Syftet var att verifiera attde beräkningar som anslaget bygger på är korrekta samt föreslå eventuella förändringar. Och ta reda på hur den nya PO-reaktorn kommer att påverka energibalansen i sekundärvärmesystemet. Konrollberäkningar har utförts samt ett försök för att se hur minskad flashånga påverkar sekundärvärmesystemet. Beräkningarna stämde förutsatt att temperatursänkningen blir 4°. Sekundärvärmesystemet kommer att påverkas av temperatursänkningen, och behöver därmed kompenseras.

  • 16.
    Al Kamsie, Samer
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Klevsäter, Lars-Peter
    Titanic: Ur ett modernt försäkringsperspektiv2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Maritime insurance is a collective name for a multiple insurances a shipping company must have in order to conduct maritime operations. The two most common ones that affect the ship itself and its operation are Kasko and P&I. Using the RMS TITANIC case, the study intends to determine whether the policyholder of the vessel is entitled to insurance compensation or not according to modern Swedish maritime insurance. The study looks more closely at how insurance companies apply the terms for identification and what differentiates negligence from gross negligence, in order to determine whether compensation should be paid to the owner of RMS TITANIC. The study uses a qualitative method with semi-structured interviews and literature study. The result shows that Swedish insurance companies apply identification to a small extent, which allows insurance coverage for shipowners not to be affected if a crew acts carelessly on board, but the same does not apply if the act was grossly negligent. This means that the policyholder of RMS TITANIC is entitled to compensation according to modern maritime insurance.

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  • 17.
    Alatalo, Marcus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Ledarskap: En studie om ledarstil för framtida styrmän2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this research is to find out how students, graduating from the Master Mariners programme, look at their own leadership style from their experiences from their cadet training period, their earlier work experience and from their acquired knowledge from the course in leadership which is included in the programme. The method used for this research is qualitative, with semi-structured interviews and literature studies. Ten Master Mariner students were interviewed for this research. An interview guide was used, as support to the interviewer, during the interviews. The answers from the interviews were analyzed theoretically on three classical leadership styles; authoritarian, democratic and passive. As regards to the cadet training period and earlier work experience, the result shows that the Master Mariner students regard their own leadership style as to be one that corresponds mostly with a democratic and partly with an authoritarian leadership style. The students think, from their acquired knowledge from the course in leadership, that it is important to be able to adjust one’s leadership according to the situation and to be flexible in one’s leadership style. The result seems to indicate that the flexibility in one’s leadership style lies between a democratic and an authoritarian leadership style.

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  • 18.
    Albertsson, Robin
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Hermansson, Joakim
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    LNG träningsmanual för M/T Bit Viking2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats är gjord på uppdrag av Tarbit Shipping som år 2011 konverterade sin tankbåt M/T Bit Viking från konventionell drift på tjockolja till LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas).Uppdraget som gavs var att upprätta en tränings manual till fartyget då det är ett krav från IMO (International Maritime Organization). Manualen skrevs i 3 st huvuddelar Kategori A, B och C. Kategori A är till för att manskap ombord ska få en kännedom om gasen och säkerhet runt den, Kategori B är skriven till däcksbefäl där det krävs en större kännedom om gasen och Kategori C är till för maskinbefäl. Manualen finns nu ombord på fartyget och på rederi kontoret för utbildning av nypåmönstrad personal och fortlöpande utbildning av ordinarie personal. Manualen är ett resultat på tolkning av IMO´s IGF kod (ANNEX11. RESOLUTION MSC.285(86)) där det står riktlinjer för säkerheten ombord på fartyg med maskiner som drivs på naturgas.

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    Slutrapport LNG träningsmanual
  • 19.
    Al-Dury, Nooraldeen
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden;Ostfold Hosp Kalnes, Norway.
    Ravn-Fischer, Annica
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden;Sahlgrenska university hospital, Sweden.
    Hollenberg, Jacob
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Israelsson, Johan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy. Kalmar county hospital, Sweden.
    Nordberg, Per
    Södersjukhuset, Sweden;Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Stromsoe, Anneli
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Axelsson, Christer
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    Herlitz, Johan
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden;University of Borås, Sweden.
    Rawshani, Araz
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Identifying the relative importance of predictors of survival in out of hospital cardiac arrest: a machine learning study2020In: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine, E-ISSN 1757-7241, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 1-8, article id 60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Studies examining the factors linked to survival after out of hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) have either aimed to describe the characteristics and outcomes of OHCA in different parts of the world, or focused on certain factors and whether they were associated with survival. Unfortunately, this approach does not measure how strong each factor is in predicting survival after OHCA. Aim: To investigate the relative importance of 16 well-recognized factors in OHCA at the time point of ambulance arrival, and before any interventions or medications were given, by using a machine learning approach that implies building models directly from the data, and arranging those factors in order of importance in predicting survival. Methods: Using a data-driven approach with a machine learning algorithm, we studied the relative importance of 16 factors assessed during the pre-hospital phase of OHCA We examined 45,000 cases of OHCA between 2008 and 2016. Results: Overall, the top five factors to predict survival in order of importance were: initial rhythm, age, early Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR, time to CPR and CPR before arrival of EMS), time from EMS dispatch until EMS arrival, and place of cardiac arrest The largest difference in importance was noted between initial rhythm and the remaining predictors. A number of factors, including time of arrest and sex were of little importance. Conclusion: Using machine learning, we confirm that the most important predictor of survival in OHCA is initial rhythm, followed by age, time to start of CPR, EMS response time and place of OHCA. Several factors traditionally viewed as important e.g. sex, were of little importance.

  • 20.
    Al-Dury, Nooraldeen
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Rawshani, Araz
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Israelsson, Johan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy. Kalmar County Hospital, Sweden;Linköping university, Sweden.
    Strömsöe, Anneli
    School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Västerås, Sweden.
    Aune, Solveig
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Agerström, Jens
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Karlsson, Thomas
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ravn-Fischer, Annica
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden;Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Herlitz, Johan
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden;Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Sweden;University of Borås, Sweden.
    Characteristics and outcome among 14,933 adult cases of in-hospital cardiac arrest: A nationwide study with the emphasis on gender and age.2017In: American Journal of Emergency Medicine, ISSN 0735-6757, E-ISSN 1532-8171, Vol. 35, no 12, p. 1839-1844Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: To investigate characteristics and outcome among patients suffering in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) with the emphasis on gender and age.

    METHODS: Using the Swedish Register of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation, we analyzed associations between gender, age and co-morbidities, etiology, management, 30-day survival and cerebral function among survivors in 14,933 cases of IHCA. Age was divided into three ordered categories: young (18-49years), middle-aged (50-64years) and older (65years and above). Comparisons between men and women were age adjusted.

    RESULTS: The mean age was 72.7years and women were significantly older than men. Renal dysfunction was the most prevalent co-morbidity. Myocardial infarction/ischemia was the most common condition preceding IHCA, with men having 27% higher odds of having MI as the underlying etiology. A shockable rhythm was found in 31.8% of patients, with men having 52% higher odds of being found in VT/VF. After adjusting for various confounders, it was found that men had a 10% lower chance than women of surviving to 30days. Older individuals were managed less aggressively than younger patients. Increasing age was associated with lower 30-day survival but not with poorer cerebral function among survivors.

    CONCLUSION: When adjusting for various confounders, it was found that men had a 10% lower chance than women of surviving to 30days after in-hospital cardiac arrest. Older individuals were managed less aggressively than younger patients, despite a lower chance of survival. Higher age was, however, not associated with poorer cerebral function among survivors.

  • 21.
    Aldén, Gustaf
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    A pilot framework for BRM training2020Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Human error has been a key factor in grounding- and collision incidents in the past and continues to present a challenge to the maritime industry in the present day. The feasibility of a pilot framework for Bridge Resource Management (BRM) training lies at the heart of this study, its objective being to gauge the possibility of the construction of such a model. The result is thought to open up for further research and highlight the most relevant and effective BRM tools that can be used, by the bridge team, to prevent collision and grounding. The study was carried out in two stages. Firstly, four key personnel within the shipping industry were interviewed. These respondents were tasked with prioritising what they regarded as the most effective BRM tools. Secondly, the effectiveness of these tools was tested on marine incident cases. A document analysis was carried out on six collision and grounding cases, as investigated by the Marine Accident Investigation Branch (MAIB). The majority of the respondents were in agreement regarding which three BRM tools they regarded as the most relevant and effective. The result from the interviews was repeated in the result from the document analysis.  The conclusions that were drawn are that: it is possible to construct a pilot framework for BRM training and it is also possible to measure the effectiveness of the BRM tools. Additionally, suggestions for further research that arose from this thesis pertain to the study of the relationship between different BRM tools.

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  • 22.
    Alegrim, Georg
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Anaje, Alexander
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Värmeåtervinning av luft i kycklingstallar: Återanvändning av energin i frånluften för luftförvärmning2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The consumption of chicken per inhabitant have increased in Sweden the last couple of years and today 23,2 kg is consumed per inhabitant and year. Because of this rise of Swedish chicken consumption, the awareness of investing in climate-smart alternatives have increased by the companies. The companies are decreasing the energy required during production, which ultimately leads to a reduced heating cost.

    The animal stall is heated by a boiler where water-based heating elements are providing the animal stall with heat along the walls. 

    It has been considered problematic to heat up the animal stall by reintroducing the air from inside the stall due to the fact that this air often is too dusty, which contributes to blockage of filters and ducts. There are a number of different heat exchangers that can handle this kind of dust and particles today. 

    Two different heat exchangers will be compared, a recuperative plate heat exchanger and a regenerative rotary heat exchanger.

    The animal stall must keep a low CO2 value and it is important to keep the chickens bedding dry by a low humidity inside the stall.

    The study shows that the total heat for one breeding round, which today is approximately 48,2MWh, which equals a saving by using an air heat exchanger of 24,8MWh. The result of the comparison of the two heat exchangers has shown that the regenerative (rotary) heat exchanger reintroduces moisture in the stall, which the recuperative (plate heat exchanger) does not. The follow up for this study was 34 days, from the chickens’ birth to the slaughter. During day 28-30 the animal stall becomes self-sufficient considering heat, which means that the heat exchanger could generate the heat required for the facility without the use of the stalls chip boiler.

    The study is implemented with a calculated volume flow due to a short outlet channel on the system, this can lead to a risk of a minor faulty value.

    Regard to the humidity in the stall, it is preferable to use a plate heat exchanger as the rotating heat exchanger precipitates water of 3 grams/kg of dry air.

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  • 23.
    Algö, Magnus
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Sjöstig, Urban
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    HT-VATTEN: En källa till energibesparing2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 24.
    Alhamalawi, Mazen
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Offshore Wind Power Foundations' Corrosion Protection Strategy: Anlysis remotely controlled corrosion protection system and comparison to traditional corrosion protection of offshore wind foundation2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    When a metal is surrounded by an electrolyte, such as seawater, a natural potential will be built up. An electron migration between the material and the seawater will happen and the greater the potential difference, the greater the probability that the metal will corrode. Corrosion is an important issue when it comes to offshore structures. In order to achieve a structure designed lifetime, measures can then be taken with regard to capital costs and operating and maintenance costs.

    This study aims to compare the economic advantages and disadvantages of the two, Galvanic Anode Corrosion Protection (GACP) and Impressed Current Cathodic Protection (ICCP), corrosion protection systems on offshore wind power foundations. The first mentioned system uses sacrificial anodes and the second is a cathodic corrosion protection by an applied current.

    The study consisted of several stages of literature studies where theory of corrosion and corrosion systems was used to finally be able to make a comparison between selected corrosion protection systems.

    The result shows that GACP has more advantages and fewer disadvantages than ICCP and would thus be more economical. GACP, for example, is efficient during installation and does not need an additional power source, but ICCP is more complicated and not efficient until complete assembly of the entire system and requires additional power source and cables. Right now, there is no design standard available with detailed requirements and advice has been given as for galvanic anodes systems. 

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  • 25.
    Alinder, Gertrud
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Installation av VDR på Calmare Nyckel2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Through this exam work, a Voyage Data Recorder was installed on the Kalmar Maritime Academy’s school ship Calmare Nyckel. The purpose of the installation was to create a tool for the teachers when they are giving feedback on the students’ manoeuvring exercises with the school ship. This work was made in project form during the last year of the marine engineer programme and partly during the following three years. The result was an installation that records the information from the bridge equipment that was judged to be central to be able to correctly mirror the manoeuvring of the ship, and the possibility to replay this information.

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    Installation av VDR på Calmare Nyckel
  • 26.
    Almert, Josef
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Ljung, David
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Frekvensomriktardrift av sjökylvattenpumpar: Ett underlag för konvertering från strypreglering2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This project has been conducted in cooperation with the engine crew onboard theSwedish Maritime Administration's icebreakers. The purpose of this work is to highlightthe benefits of conversion from throttling control to frequency control, of the sea waterpumps on their icebreakers. This by means of a frequency converter.Energy efficiency is something that is prioritized on modern ships, where everything isbuilt and optimized to be as cost-effective as possible. Old ships do often have oldersystems that are inefficient from an energy point of view, as the technology at the timeof construction was limited. Today's technology is getting cheaper and cheaper, whichmakes more people willing to phase out the old inefficient systems with throttleregulation, against new frequency-controlled systems.The result was that after three to four years, it would be worth installing a drive. Thefuel costs for running two cooling water pumps with a 60% load drive will generate asaving of 16961 SEK in fuel consumption. Running the sea water pumps withfrequency drives will help reduce wear and tear on pump and pipe systems, it will alsogenerate a reduced CO2 emission, which is beneficial from an environmental point ofview.The conclusion was that it was profitable to install frequency converters, both from anenvironmental and cost point of view.

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  • 27.
    Almström, Magdalena
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Svanberg, Henrik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Sjörättsmål: En jämförelse mellan målen i Sveriges sjörättsdomstolar2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden seven courts has been appointed to specialize in admiralty law cases. These cases are either civil or criminal cases with connection to shipping on Swedish territory.

    The objective was to examine and describe the admiralty law verdicts over time with focus on what types of cases, differences between courts and variation over time. The study focused on merchant shipping.

    Study of literature was chosen as method and with follow-up questions interviews were made with agencies and experts. The literature in this study was the 153 verdicts that were announced between 2009 and 2013.

    Of all verdicts collected were five civil cases and 148 criminal cases with 13 classifications. The largest difference between the courts was the sum of verdicts. A change over time could not be observed.

    Other conclusions that were made were that ships’ masters, that have the utmost responsibility, avoided prosecution when they were not present for the event of the prosecution. 

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    Fulltext
  • 28.
    Al-Salmi, Ali
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Wintzell, Per
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    En effektiv praktik till sjöss: En studie om hur sjöbefälsstudenter upplever att sömnbrist, kontraktslängd och arbetstider påverkar kunskapsinhämtandet under den fartygsförlagda utbildningen.2021Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The master mariner students at Kalmar Maritime Academy have twelve months of ship-based training which is a part of the education plan, and these twelve months are distributed over three periods. The internship offers the students the opportunity to practice and develop the theoretical knowledge they have gained in school, but also to experience how it really is to work at sea. The work environment, the social environment and what it can be like to be away from home for a longer period are central. Working at sea has many benefits but also its challenges. The job is associated with long periods at sea with a high workload and high demands on the organization on board, as well as safety and environmental awareness. As a master mariner student at Kalmar Maritime Academy, you end up in this environment during your first year of education when you leave school for the first internship period during semester one. This study aims to investigate how master mariner students experience that lack of sleep, contract length and working hours on board affect their knowledge acquisition. To find out the students' experiences, a qualitative interview study was conducted with six master mariner students; only senior year students were interviewed because they had completed all or a large part of the ship-based training and were therefore considered to have the most experience. The answers were in most cases consistent where the students felt that the internship periods and working days were too long, that they needed to have at least one day off a week and that lack of sleep had a negative impact on their knowledge acquisition. At the same time, the study showed what would be the optimal for the master mariner students' knowledge acquisition, in terms of optimal length of internship periods and optimal work schedule for a rewarding and effective internship as possible. 

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  • 29.
    Alsterlind, Stina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Att leva med en sjöfarare: En kvalitativ studie ur partnerns perspektiv2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A profession at sea involves alternating away/home periods, which means a special situation for the seafarer in reconciling profession and family life. This rotation system can also be assumed to have consequences fot those who live with a seafarer. Against this backgrund, the purpose of this study was to illustrate how the rotation system may effect the partners´daily lives ande thier ralationship with the saefarer. A qualitaive approach was used because I wanted to understand and describe the respondents´personal experiences. The results showed that the perception among the respondents varied. The problematic aspects that emerged were above all the absence of acxact dates for the serfarer to sign on and off the vessel. Thay found it difficult to be proactive and make common plans when the dates often changed. The positive aspects that were highlighted included; quality time together, own time and natural breakes in the realtionship which could lead to positive emotions of renewal. The key to getting the relationship to work was seen as a positive attitude and a common compromise from both parties.

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    Att leva med en sjöfarare - En kvalitativ studie ur partnerns perspektiv
  • 30.
    Alvarsson, Johan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Sjöström, Victor
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Konvertering av Kraftringens geotermianläggning: Undersökning av alternativ till köldmediet R134a2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the geothermal plant of 'Kraftringen' the refrigerant R134a, which is a fluorescent greenhouse gas with relatively high GWP (Global Warming Potential), circulates. When the new F-Gas regulation was introduced in 2015, it resulted in a significant price increase for high-pressure GWP refrigerants. 'Kraftringen' therefore wants to investigate which conversion options there are for R134a, partly to reduce costs, but also to minimize the climate impact of the business.

     

    Different refrigerants have been compared with regard as to how they affect the plants performance. Moreover, it has been investigated which refrigerants are in the correct pressure range with regard to what the plants compressor and pipes are designed for. The survey has been done by performing theoretical calculations based on measured values from when the heat pumps operate at maximum load. In the refrigerant selection process, the same evaporation and condensation temperature as during the measuring was used.

     

    In the study we found two refrigerants, R152a and R450A, which would serve as conversion options in terms of them being in the correct pressure and temperature range. Both options have lower GWP and a higher heat factor than the current refrigerant R134a. However, R152a is flammable and has a higher degree of safety than the other two refrigerants.

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  • 31.
    Andersson, Alexander
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Arvidsson, Teed
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Nordostpassagen – ett lokalt hot eller en global möjlighet?: En värdering av miljöpåverkan vid ett ökat användande av Nordostpassagen2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As the ice coverage in the Arctic decreses the potential for the Northeast Passage as an alternative to the Suez Canal increases. An initial literature review identifies potential environmental effects of increased shipping along the Northeast Passage. The result of the review is discussed in three separate interviews with a philosopher, a biologist and a political scientists to study how global environmental improvements can be appraised when set against local damages. The literature review revealed air pollution, oil spillages and the stress vessels can cause wildlife to be the most important local factors. The study also found that an increased use of the Northeast Passage may lead to decreased levels of carbon dioxide emissions from shipping globally. The interviewees had different opinions on whether or not the reduction in carbon dioxide emissions outweighs the local environmental impact in the Arctic. Furthermore, the interviewees shared the opinion that shipping in the area needs to be regulated and that the profit made from using the passage should contribute to limiting the harmful environmental effects.

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  • 32.
    Andersson, Alexandra
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Henwood, Erica
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Studieavhopp sjökaptensprogrammet2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to examine underlying causes in cases of dropout from the Master mariner programme, as well as mapping out problem areas for those students who choose to drop out. The study also aims to examine whether these causes differ from previous research in the area. Of particular interest is the role work experience plays in the decision to drop out. In order to examine the subject further a qualitative method has been used and semi structured interviews have been held with respondents from a single year commencing their studies in 2012 in order for the study to be as relevant as possible. Interviews have focused around pre-determined themes, which previous research has concluded to be of importance. Results show dropout as a result of a combination of factors, and very rarely is a single factor significant enough to describe the phenomena. The sample group was homogenous to the larger population of Officers in the Swedish merchant navy, as well as to their previous class mates. The course was described in positive terms and the social network around a student was often a protective factor. Work experience is shown to be of vital importance when a student considers dropping out, especially when reality collide with the students´own glorified expectations of life at sea. This together with a negative view on future work prospects and a general lack of interest in shipping was commonly reason for dropping out.

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  • 33.
    Andersson, Andreas
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Lindquist, Karin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Fördjupning i skadestatistik inom sjöfarten: En analys av anmälda arbetsolyckor 2011 – 2013 utförd på uppdrag av Sjöfartens Arbetsmiljönämnd2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis was to analyse the reported work-related accidents in shipping by using frequency combined with consequence. Thereafter the purpose was to reach conclusions regarding which work-related accident was the most serious. The thesis also aimed to find if there were any connections between these accidents. Statistics were ordered from the Swedish Work Environment Authority. These statistics were processed in several ways, for instance demarcations regarding position onboard was made. Since the conditions of reporting workrelated accidents had changed during time, relevant years was chosen after consideration. The result of the study shows that when a person experiences an accident where he or she stumbles, trips, slips or treads heavily, the person is more likely to have a long sick-leave. These types of accidents are also the most common ones. To lose control of equipment or to lose control of equipment used to move material is also a common accident leading to a long sickleave. The only connection found is that the external factor hawser is present at several accidents with different consequences and cause.

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  • 34.
    Andersson, Caroline
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Eklund, Henrik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Toxiska luftföroreningar ombord på fartyg: Riskbedömning av svensk ombordpersonals yrkesmässiga exponering för toxiska luftföroreningar2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of this study was to measure and evaluate the air quality onboard two Swedish ships, and compare the results with the exposure limits laid out by the Swedish Work Environment Authority (Arbetsmiljöverket) and the Swedish population’s exposure to various substances. The results of this study were also meant to be helpful to form new advice and recommendations to minimize exposure and also to provide material for future studies.

    During approximately one week onboard the two ships data were collected using passive samplers to register levels of benzene, nitrogen dioxide and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    The results indicated that the air quality onboard the two ships were generally good. All measured concentrations were well below safety applications and it did not differ very much neither between ships nor compared with the Swedish population’s exposure. In conclusion, Swedish sailors onboard Swedish ships are not in greater danger of toxic air pollutants onboard compared to when they are at home.

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    Toxiska luftföroreningar ombord på fartyg
  • 35.
    Andersson, Daniel
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Petter, Andersson
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Frikyla: En möjlighet för Östersjöfarten att spara energi?2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    To maintain a comfortable climate on board ships, cooling is necessary during the warm period of the year which requires energy. This thesis is a survey about whether so-called free cooling could reduce this energy consumption. The ROPAX-ferry Finntrader trafficking the route Malmö–Travemünde has been used as an example.

    This survey was carried out by creating a calculation model in which a brine system with a possibility of free cooling was connected to Finntrader’s current HVAC-system, alongside the current chillers. Statistics of air temperature, air humidity and sea water temperature was acquired for the period 2013-2015 and were inserted into the calculation model. These calculations showed that a certain amount ofenergy could be saved with free cooling, how much depending on the effectiveness of the heat exchangers.

    The amount of energy that could be saved was quite small compared to the cost of the components required by the model.

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  • 36.
    Andersson, Johan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Hallgren, Einar
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Fartygstrafik genom naturreservat: Salvorev: Östersjöns genväg2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här studien undersöker hur utsläppen av CO2 samt NOx skulle påverkas av att man tog en längre rutt runt ett Natura 2000 område mellan Gotska sandön och Fårö norr om Gotland i Östersjön. Detta för att undvika att köra i ett natura 2000 området och på så sett minska sjöfartens påverkan på djurlivet där. Med hjälp av AIS data har information tagits fram om hur många fartyg som använder rutten genom natura 2000 området. En sammanställning av vilka typer av fartyg samt dess maskineri har också tagits fram med hjälp av detta. Som ligger till grund för uträkningarna för CO2 samt NOx utsläppen. Studien visar på att CO2 utsläppen kan öka med upp till 4,72 ton genom att köra en längre rutt runt området, även NOx utsläppen ökar, med upp till 0,13ton.

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  • 37.
    Andersson, Klara
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Ledarskap till sjöss: Utmaningar med multikulturellt ledarskap ombord i fartyg2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to investigate possible challenges regarding multicultural leadership at sea, and to see if these differ from challenges connected to multicultural leadership ashore.

    Considering the special conditions onboard a ship, and based on previous studies and literature, five components for successful multicultural leadership at sea has been identified. These five components have been the base of an interview guide, which has been used to conduct interviews with twelve seafarers onboard a Swedish flagged ship. The seafarers were asked what they consider to be good leadership, their expectations on leadership and how they feel affected by the environment onboard.

    According to the interviews, the seafarers feels that the most important traits for a leader is to be fair, kind and knowledgeable. The seafarers appear to be aware of the expectations connected to their roles onboard, but they do not seem to contemplate that people from different cultures may have different expectations on their role. Based on the literature study and the interviews, one can make out that a ship-specific culture rules the social environment onboard. The crewmembers seem to primarily adapt and adjust to this ship-specific culture, and their own national culture comes in second hand.  In conclusion, the biggest challenge of multicultural leadership at sea is recognized to be the ability to be a fair and kind leader in an isolated and wearying environment.

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  • 38.
    Andersson, Linus
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Johansson, Johan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Enligt lotsen: En studie om lotsars upfattning om kommunikationen med bryggteamet2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta arbetet genomfördes med syftet att undersöka vad svenska hamnlotsar ansåg om kommunikationen med fartygets bryggteam och även utreda uppkomsten av eventuella kommunikationsbrister. I Sverige sker majoriteten av alla fartygsolyckor inom hamnområdet samt den största olyckskategorin är kommunikation. Arbetet genomfördes som en kvalitativ studie där datainsamlingen bestod av semistrukturerade intervjuer med sex svenska hamnlotsar från två olika lotsområden, för att ge en inblick om deras personliga uppfattning gällande kommunikationen med bryggteamet. Resultatet visar att respondenterna anser generellt att kommunikationen är fullt godkänt ombord på fartyg. Men det framgår även att i vissa fall kan språket vara så pass bristfällig att teckenspråk kan vara det enda sättet att kommunicera på. Arbetets slutsats är att språket ombord är den största bidragande faktorn till att kommunikationsbrister uppstår, därför krävs en förbättring.

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  • 39.
    Andersson, Martin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Vilka platser ombord löper störst brandrisk: Var startar bränderna ombord2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Fires onboard a seagoing vessel is a very serious accident since you can not rely on shorebased firefighers. The only resource available is the crew and their ability to tackle the situation. Fires can quickly get uncontrollable since there is large amounts of fueloil and even the cargo might be flammable. The purpose with this thesis is to highlight those places onboard that have the greatest risk of fire. So that the crew can either awoid fire or be better prepared if a fire starts.

    The result is based upon data taken from incidentreports from Northern European countries and vessels with length greater than 100m.

    The conclusion that was made is that the engineroom area was the most common place for fires.

    The most common reasons for the fire to start was a leakage of flammable liquid  or electrical failiures.

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  • 40.
    Andersson, Mathias
    et al.
    FOI Swedish Defence Research Agency, Sweden.
    Bensow, Rickard
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Glebe, Dag
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Hassellöv, Ida-Maja
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Lalander, Emilia
    FOI Swedish Defence Research Agency, Sweden.
    Langlet, David
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Larsson, Kjell
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Malmberg, Lars-Göran
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sundblad, Eva-Lotta
    Swedish Institute for the Marine Environment, Sweden.
    Svedendahl, Mikael
    FOI Swedish Defence Research Agency, Sweden.
    Management Measures to Reduce Continuous Underwater Noise from Shipping2023Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Underwater radiated noise (URN) from commercial ships is a significant source of elevated noise levels in the oceans and can have a negative impact on marine wildlife. Noise from commercial shipping places additional stress on the oceans, but is one of the least studied environmental pollutants, and there is an urgent need to reduce the aggregate stress levels. 

    Until recently, reduction of underwater noise has not been prioritised by ship designers, shipowners, or crews. Even within the field of marine management, noise has received limited interest. However, the International Maritime organization (IMO) has adopted global guidelines on URN reduction, which are currently being updated. Within the EU, the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD 2008/56/EC) Descriptor 11 criteria 11.2, now provides a framework for marine administrators to manage noise by establishing threshold values. 

    Marine management focuses on the total noise load on the marine environment. Management entails several considerations before recommendations can be made. As a first step, interdisciplinary teams need to assess the aggregated noise levels and determine acceptable thresholds based on the local ecosystem, then assess which existing mandates and management tools can be used, and finally assess how effective these mandates have been in improving the environment. These activities must also be managed in a way that is acceptable to various relevant stakeholders, who would need to follow the decisions. The URN from a ship can be affected by the vessel’s design, either during its construction or during upgrades, and balances a trade-off against fuel efficiency. However, the URN can also depend on how the ship is operated. Regulating ship speed is one potential management tool, and its effectiveness needs to be assessed. Other management measures include how shipping lanes are drawn, areas to avoid, financial support, information, etc. 

    This report focuses on possible policy measures that the Swedish authorities could adopt to lower URN by regulating the speed of ships. The report presents an interdisciplinary analysis, using a case study of an area in the southern Kattegat that covered several maritime zones, different national jurisdictions, intensive traffic, and high natural values. An important part of the work was to assess whether existing source models for ship noise could be used for the type of ships that are common in waters around Sweden. In this study, the JOMOPANS-ECHO (J-E) model was used.

    The J-E model was validated by comparing measurement data from a hydrophone station at Vinga on the Swedish coast that collected data from ships (254 passages) that used the port of Gothenburg. The analysis showed some deviation between the J-E model and measurement data, which could be due to differences in the length and speed of ships in waters around Sweden compared to the ships used in the development of the J-E model. However, this was likely to have negligible impact on the outcome of the case study.

    Analyses of ship traffic in 2021 showed that 4,511 unique vessels visited the study area at least once. Most ships followed the main routes, but no part of the study area was completely free from ship traffic. About 68% of the ships visited the study area for 1-4 days, while about 32% visited the area more regularly. The most common ship types were General Cargo Ships, Dry Bulk Ships, and Tankers. The ships that on average travelled at highest speeds were RoPax Ships, RoRo Ships, Vehicle Carriers, and Container Ships. The ships were registered in 64 countries. About two percent of the ships were registered in Sweden and about four percent in Denmark.

    Legal analysis showed that Sweden has the right and the responsibility to take measures to reduce underwater noise from ships to the extent that the noise can be deemed to pollute the marine environment. However, this mainly applies to Sweden’s territorial seas, which cover roughly half the area being studied for this report. In the portion that constitutes Danish territorial sea, Denmark has comparable opportunities for managing URN. In areas that are Swedish or Danish exclusive economic zones (EEZs), the ability to introduce mandatory speed limits is significantly limited. There, the most realistic option would be to request the IMO to establish speed limits, or alternatively to issue a recommendation to navigate at lower speeds, although such guidance could not be enforced on ships that do not voluntarily reduce their speed.

    It was estimated that lowering the ships' speeds to a hypothetical limit of 11 kn would reduce the average URN levels by 4.4 ± 2 dB, as registered by local receivers in the study area. This speed limit would affect approximately 44% of the ships in the area. A maximum speed of 13 kn would instead reduce the level by 1.9 ± 0.5 dB and would affect 11% of the ships on average. The reduction in noise levels may temporarily be much higher in the immediate vicinity of individual fast ships, and there might be a high degree of variation between different ships.

    The study and report make it clear that it is a complex task to assess the feasibility and benefit of introducing a specific marine management tool, in this case an enforceable local speed limit. But it is also clear that there are reliable methods to make the preliminary assessments, and that it requires interdisciplinary analyses and competence.

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  • 41.
    Andersson, Michael
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Arvidsson, Jonathan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Masslivräddning, resurser och brister: En studie om Sveriges beredskap och handelsfartygens förmåga2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    During the last decades there have been several great ship disasters where rescue capability has not been sufficient to save all or even a majority of the victims of a number of larger marine disasters. This is despite the fact that great efforts have been made to improve the life-saving equipment on board. Merchant ships which encounter any other ship in distress are required by law to assist in the rescue. This study was made to illustrate what resources exist in Sweden to handle major ship emergencies at sea and to what extent the merchant fleet is able to help. The study was done as a literature study with a few additional questions to shipping companies. Both merchant ships and the Swedish Maritime Administration's specialized rescue units have proven to be far too poorly equipped or too few to handle their task in rough weather conditions, which are often associated with ship disasters. Much of the responsibility for getting crew and passengers to safety after an accident is instead transferred to helicopters which fly out to the emergency location from land. Many technical problems have been found that makes it difficult to evacuate via helicopters during multiple ship disasters, as helicopters are sensitive to severe weather. A development of equipment that can be used in rough weather conditions without having to move people one by one between different crafts needs to be developed. Relying solely on helicopters for mass evacuation has proved to be too time-consuming and vulnerable.

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  • 42.
    Andersson, Oskar
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Erlandsson, Pontus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Attityder till användandet av skyddsutrustning: En undersökning av arbetsledarens attityder till en säkrare arbetsmiljö till sjöss2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Ombord på fartyg transporteras, hanteras och används farliga kemikalier. Ansvariga för arbetsmiljön är fartygsbefälen. Syftet med studien är att undersöka hur de ansvariga ombord förhåller sig till skyddsutrustning och vilket ansvar de tar för att se till att skyddsutrustning används på rätt sätt. I undersökningen har kvalitativa intervjuer genomförts. Resultatet visar att fartygsbefälen är medvetna om att de är ansvariga att se till att lagar och regler följs. De är medvetna om att de har en viktig roll och att de kan påverka säkerhetskulturen ombord. Faktorer som påverkar de ansvarigas attityd till kemiska hälsorisker enligt den här studien är lagar, påtryckningar från rederiet, egna erfarenheter, yttre kontroller som till exempel vettinginspektion och att de värnar om besättningens hälsa.

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  • 43.
    Andersson, Sam
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Induktionsladdning av hybriddrivna fartyg: En framtida lösning för kustfartyg2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Projektet syftar till att bredda kunskapen om induktionsladdning och belysa de för- och nackdelar tekniken bär med sig på utrustning och kringliggande system.

    Med nya strikta krav på sänkta CO2 utsläpp väljer många redare att konvertera dieseldrivna färjor till hybrid eller helbatteridrift. För att tidseffektivisera hamnuppehållen krävs nya innovativa metoder för energiöverföring. Induktionsladdning av fartyg har provats på det norska fartyget MS Folgefonn med lyckat resultat.

    Utmaningarna med att upprätta en fungerande laddstation med sändenhet och mottagarenhet på ett fartyg, som på grund av väderförhållanden inte hålls helt stagnerad, har varit komplicerade.

    Belastningen på det lokala elnätet har också försvårat processen med en energiöverföring i den magnituden, på så mycket som 1 MW effekt.

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    Induktionsladdning av hybriddrivna fartyg
  • 44.
    Andersson, Tim
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Effektiv avgasrening till sjöss: Med Sveriges största fossileldade kraftverk som förebild2021Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study has addressed and compiled an overall picture of effective exhaust gascleaning within the relevant frameworks. This through literature and personalcommunication with interested parties. The survey focused on Karlshamnsverketssolutions to current environmental issues. The same issues are today a major drivingforce for the development of the shipping industries. The dialogues that form thebasis for the personal communication were carried out at Karlshamnsverket andover the telephone and then analyzed against efficient exhaust gas purification atsea. This with the study's questions as a starting point. The results showed that thesolutions to set environmental goals for Karlshamnsverket have been developedaccording to the efficiency of the business. There were no direct initiatives to try tosolve the problems on a broader level that could affect shipping industries. A basicinvestigation into why exhaust gases affect the environment has been identified andvarious relevant solutions have been developed at an angle to shipping.Furthermore, it emerged that the choice of fuel has a major impact on theenvironment and that development in this area is at an early stage. AtKarlshamnsverket, this was the case because burning biofuel was not relevant as thedemand was not large enough. Parallels to shipping show that the demand foralternative fuels is greater and the development is ahead here. Furthermore, thestudy shows that we need to make changes to achieve set environmental goalsbecause today we have a negative impact on the environment. To meet any futureneeds for efficient exhaust gas cleaning, continued strong and broad technologicaldevelopment is required.

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    Effektiv avgasrening till sjöss
  • 45.
    Andreasson, Annie
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Hadzic, Victor
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Hur får vi dem att stanna?: Svenska rederiers metoder och strategier för att behålla sin personal2023Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Every year, several sailors choose to leave their profession at sea. This is due to several different reasons such as being homesick, stress, a high workload and lack of communication. Seven interviews were conducted in this qualitative survey in order to investigate which methods and strategies exist at the Swedish shipping companies to keep their onboard personnel. It appears that a strict plan usually does not exist, instead the company chooses to look after the needs of individuals if they are failing in development and if they are about to leave their job. The result revealed that these issues are handled differently depending on which sector of Swedish shipping they operate in. It also revealed that the size of the shipping company plays a role as the bigger companies tend to ask their senior officers to help in developing the junior officers. Concurrently the smaller shipping companies tend to take on the responsibility themselves to develop and have good communication with their junior officers.

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  • 46.
    Andric´, Vedran
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Bernestedt, Henrik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Incoterms® 2010 - villkoret FAS.: En studie av dess praktiska användning och betydelse.2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This work presents a study of the Incoterms® 2010 seaterm, FAS. The main questions are; why is it not used as often as the other terms for sea transportation, and, what are the main decisions when choosing Incoterms®. The study was carried out with a qualitative approach and data were collected through a literature study and two qualitative interviews; one with a company representative, and one who is an expert in logistics law. A theoretical review of Incoterms® and previous research, constructs the theoretical framework used. The result show several aspects for FAS not being used as often as the other terms. Most common aspects are; passing of risk, break point, payment and lack of knowledge.

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  • 47.
    Andric´, Vedran
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Bernestedt, Henrik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Incoterms® 2010 - villkoret FAS.: En studie av dess praktiska användning och betydelse.2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This work presents a study of the Incoterms® 2010 seaterm, FAS. The main questions are; why is it not used as often as the other terms for sea transportation, and, what are the main decisions when choosing Incoterms®. The study was carried out with a qualitative approach and data were collected through a literature study and two qualitative interviews; one with a company representative, and one who is an expert in logistics law. A theoretical review of Incoterms® and previous research, constructs the theoretical framework used. The result show several aspects for FAS not being used as often as the other terms. Most common aspects are; passing of risk, break point, payment and lack of knowledge.

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  • 48.
    Andrén, Filip
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Borgström, Olav
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Common Rail - En bränslebesparingsstudie: – En utvärdering av ett nyinstallerat bränsleinsprutningssystem på isbrytaren Ymer2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The following study has been carried out on behalf of Sjöfartsverket. The study examines how the installation of a common rail system on board the icebreaker Ymer affected fuel consumption and emissions of nitrogen oxides. The raw data logged on board Ymer was analyzed and processed. Materials and information from manufacturers, crew and the technical manager at the Swedish Maritime Administration, Albert Hagander have been used during the study. Together with measured data and previously made research study the findings of the study are supported. It is no coincidence that the system of the common rail type is already applied in most industries such as transport, car industry and agriculture. The main purpose of the Common Rail is to reduce fuel consumption and reduce emissions through cleaner and more efficient combustion of the fuel. We primarily examined how the newly installed system affected fuel consumption and the fuel savings will vary with the load of the machine. Furthermore, we examined how emissions of nitrogen oxides were affected after installation. The problem of increased NOx production due to a higher combustion temperature as the common rail system entails are discussed in the report. The result that was concluded was that fuel savings can be made on board Ymer by replacing the old fuel system with a common rail fuel type. Furthermore, the installation has brought other improvements such as ship machine's reaction to the many load changes that occur during icebreaking.

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  • 49.
    Annerstedt, Måns
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Apoy, Axel
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Fartförlust på grunt vatten: En jämförelse av bränsleförbrukning och tidsåtgång för rutter med olika djup och distans2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study concerns the speed loss and thereby the increased energy consumption which affects ships in shallow water. The aim of the study was to gain knowledge of how much shorter a shallow passage is required to be in order to be the better alternative compared to a long and deep route with regard to fuel and time consumption. The result was that it is not possible to draw any definitive conclusions which are applicable to all ship types, however, there are clear patterns. Moreover, the goal of the study was to aid mariners facing a choice between a long and deep route and a short and shallow route, this was done by creating a compilation of the results for speed loss in open water. Due to the results for confined waters being the same for all the ships in the study, no compilation was done for confined waters as it was deemed excessive. The aim of the study was achieved by quantitative research in the form of mathematical models to calculate speed loss, fuel consumption and time consumption for a number of fictitious ships.

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    Annerstedt & Apoy, Fartförlust på grunt vatten
  • 50.
    Ansebor, Louise
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Standarden är viktig: En enkätundersökning i hur företaget bör standardisera sina instruktioner2020Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this project is to examine what the employees think about the current instructions used at the company concerning the operating procedures and the use of machinery. For the project a question-sheet was used, the respondents were given time to answer the questions during each department monthly meeting, so that there would be as little dropout as possible. The result shows that 83 % of the respondents think that it´s a good thing with reference images. The essay for instance shows that the instructions should contain reference images, a picture of the finished product and that the employees should be given more education about the workstations and the potential risks.

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