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  • 1.
    Ahlström, Ida
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, The University Library.
    Edvardsson, Robert
    Linnaeus University, The University Administration.
    Rieloff, Mattias
    Linnaeus University, The University Library.
    Hantering av forskningsdata vid Linnéuniversitetet2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Ett arbete för en övergång till ett öppet vetenskapssystem pågår både nationellt och inom EU. I Sverige är det Vetenskapsrådet som fått i uppdrag att ta fram riktlinjer för hur denna övergång ska genomföras, och målbilden är att ett sådant system ska vara på plats år 2025. Linnéuniversitetet har som myndighet ansvar att stödja sina anställda forskare vad gäller hantering av forskningsdata.

    För att få en bättre förståelse för hur forskningsdata hanteras vid lärosätet skickades en enkät ut till lärosätets forskare av gruppen som genomför en förstudie för inrättande av en Data Access Unit (DAU) vid Linnéuniversitetet. Gruppen består av personal från universitetsarkivet, universitetsbiblioteket, IT-avdelningen och Grants and Innovation Office. DAU kommer att stödja Linnéuniversitetets forskare i fråga om hantering, lagring, tillgängliggörande och bevarande av forskningsdata. Arbetet görs i samarbete med den nationella forsknings-infrastrukturen SND, Svensk Nationell Datatjänst

  • 2. Arneth, A.
    et al.
    Niinemets, Ü.
    Pressley, S.
    Bäck, J.
    Forest Ecology, ETH Zürich, Switzerland.
    Hari, P.
    Karl, T.
    Noe, S.
    Prentice, I. C.
    Serça, D.
    Hickler, T.
    Wolf, Annett
    Linnaeus University, The University Administration.
    Smith, B.
    Process-based estimates of terrestrial ecosystem isoprene emissions: incorporating the effects of a direct CO2-isoprene interaction2007In: Atmospheric Chemistry And Physics, ISSN 1680-7316, E-ISSN 1680-7324, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 31-53Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years evidence has emerged that the amount of isoprene emitted from a leaf is affected by the CO2 growth environment. Many - though not all - laboratory experiments indicate that emissions increase significantly at below-ambient CO2 concentrations and decrease when concentrations are raised to above-ambient. A small number of process-based leaf isoprene emission models can reproduce this CO2 stimulation and inhibition. These models are briefly reviewed, and their performance in standard conditions compared with each other and to an empirical algorithm. One of the models was judged particularly useful for incorporation into a dynamic vegetation model framework, LPJ-GUESS, yielding a tool that allows the interactive effects of climate and increasing CO2 concentration on vegetation distribution, productivity, and leaf and ecosystem isoprene emissions to be explored. The coupled vegetation dynamics-isoprene model is described and used here in a mode particularly suited for the ecosystem scale, but it can be employed at the global level as well. Annual and/or daily isoprene emissions simulated by the model were evaluated against flux measurements ( or model estimates that had previously been evaluated with flux data) from a wide range of environments, and agreement between modelled and simulated values was generally good. By using a dynamic vegetation model, effects of canopy composition, disturbance history, or trends in CO2 concentration can be assessed. We show here for five model test sites that the suggested CO2-inhibition of leaf-isoprene metabolism can be large enough to offset increases in emissions due to CO2-stimulation of vegetation productivity and leaf area growth. When effects of climate change are considered atop the effects of atmospheric composition the interactions between the relevant processes will become even more complex. The CO2-isoprene inhibition may have the potential to significantly dampen the expected steep increase of ecosystem isoprene emission in a future, warmer atmosphere with higher CO2 levels; this effect raises important questions for projections of future atmospheric chemistry, and its connection to the terrestrial vegetation and carbon cycle.

  • 3.
    Bengtsson-Verde, Ulrika
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, The University Administration.
    Carlsson, Lena
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Gustafsson, Birgitta E.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Koblanck, Henriette
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, School of Design.
    Lundin, Mattias
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Mattsson, Tina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Social Work.
    Montesino, Norma
    Nilsson, Karl-Axel
    Rosenqvist, Johanna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Cultural Sciences.
    En metod för kvalitetssäkring och utvecklinggenom granskning av examensarbeten: avrapportering av pilotprojekt vid Linnéuniversitetet2011Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 4.
    Bertrand, Yann
    et al.
    Södertörn university.
    Härlin, Mikael
    Linnaeus University, The University Administration.
    Historicism and essentialism in phylogenetic biologyManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Bradshaw, R.H.W.
    et al.
    Dept. of Quaternary Geology, Geol. Surv. of Denmark and Greenland, Øster Voldgade 10, DK-1350 Copenhagen K, Denmark .
    Wolf, Annett
    Linnaeus University, The University Administration.
    Møller, P.F.
    Long-term succession in a Danish temperate deciduous forest2005In: Ecography, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 157-164Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Forest successional trajectories covering the last 2000 yr from a mixed deciduous forest in Denmark show a gradual shift in dominance from Tilia cordata to Fagus sylvatica and a recent increase in total forest basal area since direct management ceased in 1948. The successions are reconstructed by combining a fifty-year record of direct tree observations with local pollen diagrams from Draved Forest, Denmark. Five of the seven successions record a heathland phase of Viking Age dating from 830 AD. The anthropogenic influence is considerable throughout the period of study even though Draved contains some of the most pristine forest stands in Denmark. Anthropogenic influence including felling masks the underlying natural dynamics, with the least disturbed sites showing the smallest compositional change. Some effects of former management, such as loss of Tilia cordata dominance, are irreversible. Artificial disturbance, particularly drainage, has accelerated and amplified the shift towards Fagus dominance that would have occurred on a smaller scale and at a slower rate in the absence of human intervention. Copyright © Ecography 2005.

  • 6.
    Brautaset, Camilla
    et al.
    University of Bergen, Norway.
    Gregersen, MalinLinnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Cultural Sciences. Linnaeus University, The University Administration.Skeie, Karina HestadNLA University College, Norway.
    Møter med Kina: norsk diplomati, næringsliv og misjon 1880-19372018Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [no]

    Møter med Kina handler om møter mellom mennesker på tvers av geografiske, kulturelle og språklige grenser. Ukjent for de fleste, flyttet en rekke nordmenn til Kina mellom 1890 og 1937. Noen var misjonærer. Andre reiste for å drive handel eller arbeide i det kinesiske tollvesenet. For første gang samles historien til enkeltpersoner fra diplomati, næringsliv og misjon i en felles historie om norsk migrasjon til Kina. Boken formidler historisk analyse i fortellingens form. Her presenteres nye sider av kjente størrelser som general Munthe og misjonæren Marie Monsen. Ikke minst løftes nye og hittil ukjente historier fram. Ingeniør Skappel søkte å skape et globalt finansimperium gjennom en skandinavisk-kinesisk bank. Norges første Kina-misjonær Anna Jakobsen, trosset alt og alle for å gifte seg med Cheng Xiuqui. Gjennom fortellinger om mennesker som levde transnasjonale liv, hendelser som risopprøret i Changsha i 1910 og varer som medisintran, kaster boken nytt lys over hvordan enkeltindivid utnytter teknologiske nyvinninger og transnasjonale handlingsrom i håp om å nå nye mål. Noen lykkes. Andre ender i fallitt. Alle erfarer mer enn de kunne forestille seg. Slik gir boken ny kunnskap ikke bare om norsk migrasjon og norsk-kinesisk historie, men også om globalisering som historisk fenomen.

  • 7.
    Brautaset, Camilla
    et al.
    University of Bergen, Norway.
    Skeie, Karina Hestad
    NLA University College, Norway.
    Gregersen, Malin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Cultural Sciences. Linnaeus University, The University Administration.
    Møter med Kina: En introduksjon2018In: Møter med Kina: Norsk diplomati, næringsliv og misjon 1890-1937 / [ed] Camilla Brautaset, Malin Gregersen, Karina Hestad Skeie, Bergen: Fagbokforlaget, 2018, p. 17-35Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Creelman, Alastair
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, The University Library.
    Löwe, Corina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Diedrichs, Peter
    Linnaeus University, The University Library.
    Kulmala, Lena
    Linnaeus University, The University Administration.
    Mainstreaming virtual mobility - helping teachers to get on board2018In: Telecollaboration and virtual exchange across disciplines : in service of social inclusion and global citizenship: Book of Abstracts, UNIcollaboration , 2018, p. 24-24Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite many innovative initiatives, virtual mobility is still a relatively unexploited aspect of internationalisation at European universities. An internal project at Linnaeus university, Global Classroom, has aimed to create a framework and organisation to establish international networking and online collaboration as key elements of all degree programmes. The project aimed to promote the concept of virtual mobility and inspire faculty to adopt it in their programmes. A self-evaluation tool was developed for use in workshops with degree programme coordinators. This tool helps them assess their programme’s present status of internationalisation and highlight potential development areas. Each programme team can then, in consultation with the project team, devise and implement an action plan in order to achieve these objectives. The project also developed a toolbox for digital collaboration and worked with other institutions to offer an online collaborative course for teachers in the art of online collaboration. Another important issue was to create incentives for teachers to work with virtual mobility, including the use of digital badges. This session aims to discuss how virtual mobility can be mainstreamed and what types of incentives are needed as a catalyst for development.

  • 9.
    Dagbro, Ola
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, The University Administration. Linnéuniversitetet.
    Torniainen, Petteri
    Department of Forest Products, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala.
    Karlsson, Olov
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Träteknik.
    Morén, Tom
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Träteknik.
    Colour responses from wood, thermally modified in superheated steam and pressurized steam atmospheres2010In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 5, no 3, p. 211-219Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, two different methods were used to produce thermally modified wood. One was carried out in a typical kiln drying chamber using superheated steam (SS) and the other used pressurized steam in an autoclave cylinder (PS). Overall, both processes followed the same principles and the wood was not treated with any chemicals. Two wood species were studied, Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and Norway spruce (Picea abies). Treatments in the autoclave were carried out under pressure using temperatures of 160°C, 170°C and 180°C. Temperatures of 190°C and 212°C were used in treatments in the chamber at normal air pressure. The colour was measured using L*C*H colour space. Results for both species showed that similar L* (lightness) can be reached at lower (20-308C) temperatures using PS compared with SS treatment. The hue angle of PS-treated wood was smaller than that of SS-treated wood. No significant difference in C* (chroma) was detected. The difference in E value between PS- and SS-treated wood was smaller for Norway spruce than for Scots pine. The residual moisture content was about 10% higher in wood treated by the PS process compared with the SS process

  • 10.
    Dagbro, Ola
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, The University Administration. Linnéuniversitetet.
    Torniainen, Petteri
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Träteknik.
    Morén, Tom
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Träteknik.
    Thermal modification of birch using saturated and superheated steam2011In: Proceedings of the 7th meeting of the Nordic-Baltic Network in Wood Material Science and Engineering (WSE): October 27-28, 2011, Oslo, Norway / [ed] Erik Larnøy; Gry Alfredsen, Ås: Norsk institutt for skog og landskap , 2011, p. 43-48Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the thermal modification, wood is normally exposed to temperatures between 160 - 220°C. As a result physical and chemical changes are taking place and some of the wood properties are changed. Dimensional stability and weather resistance are improved. On the other hand the mechanical strength properties are usually negatively affected by the treatment. The visual appearance is also changed. There were two different types of thermal modification processes used in this study. One of them was using saturated steam and the other one superheated steam. Treatment temperature was 160°C in saturated steam process and 185°C in superheated steam. The wood specie used in this study was Silver birch (Betula pendula). In the chemistry part the acid content was investigated. Despite the 25°C lower treatment temperature, birch modified in saturated steam was more acidic compared to birch modified in superheated steam. Some differences in equilibrium moisture content (EMC) and dimensional stability were found mainly in the environment T=20°C and RH=85%. The colour of birch treated in saturated steam at 160°C was darker than the colour of birch treated in superheated steam at temperature 185°C.

  • 11.
    Dannefjord, Per
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Eriksson, Magnus
    Linnaeus University, The University Administration.
    Punk, klass och karriär2013In: ARKIV. Tidskrift för samhällsanalys, ISSN 2000-6225, E-ISSN 2000-6217, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 97-113Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Punken, musikstilen och ungdomsrörelsen som bröt fram under andra halvan av 1970-talet, är samtidigt både omskriven och svår att ringa in. Med sin undersökning av vad punken betytt som socialt sammanhang för dem som var med, lägger Per Dannefjord och Magnus Eriksson en pusselbit till vår förståelse av denna ökända ungdomskultur. I artikeln jämför de den sociala bakgrunden och den nuvarande klasspositionen för den första generationens punkare i Sverige, aktiva mellan 1978 och 1982. Tvärtemot vad olyckskorpar under ”punkeran” trodde, visar det sig att punkarna lyckats bättre vad gäller både utbildningsnivå och social position jämfört med sin generation som helhet. Dannefjord och Eriksson ger två förklaringar till framgången: dels att punkens socialt brokiga sammansättning skapade en miljö där nya möjligheter blev synliga för framför allt ungdomar med arbetarbakgrund; dels att punken erbjöd läroprocesser som gav resurser som kunde utnyttjas i yrkes- och utbildningskarriärer inom framför allt kultursektorn.

  • 12. Didion, M.
    et al.
    Kupferschmid, A.D.
    Wolf, Annett
    Linnaeus University, The University Administration. Forest Ecology, Institute of Terrestrial Ecosystems, Department of Environmental Sciences, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology ETH, Universitätstr. 22, CH 8092 Zurich, Switzerland.
    Bugmann, H.
    Ungulate herbivory modifies the effects of climate change on mountain forests2011In: Climatic Change, ISSN 0165-0009, E-ISSN 1573-1480, Vol. 109, no 3-4, p. 647-669Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent temperature observations suggest a general warming trend that may be causing the range of tree species to shift to higher latitudes and altitudes. Since biotic interactions such as herbivory can change tree species composition, it is important to understand their contribution to vegetation changes triggered by climate change. To investigate the response of forests to climate change and herbivory by wild ungulates, we used the forest gap model ForClim v2. 9. 6 and simulated forest development in three climatically different valleys in the Swiss Alps. We used altitudinal transects on contrasting slopes covering a wide range of forest types from the cold (upper) to the dry (lower) treeline. This allowed us to investigate (1) altitudinal range shifts in response to climate change, (2) the consequences for tree species composition, and (3) the combined effect of climate change and ungulate herbivory. We found that ungulate herbivory changed species composition and that both basal area and stem numbers decreased with increasing herbivory intensity. Tree species responded differently to the change in climate, and their ranges did not change concurrently, thus causing a succession to new stand types. While climate change partially compensated for the reductions in basal area caused by ungulate herbivory, the combined effect of these two agents on the mix of the dominant species and forest type was non-compensatory, as browsing selectively excluded species from establishing or reaching dominance and altered competition patterns, particularly for light. We conclude that there is an urgent need for adaptive forest management strategies that address the joint effects of climate change and ungulate herbivory. 

  • 13.
    Ennals, Richard
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Nelson, Björn
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Ingwald, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Johansson, Viktoria
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Lagercrantz, Victor
    Linnaeus University, The University Administration.
    Coping with social learning: Social and economic change through engagement2018In: Coping with the future: Rethinking Assumptions for Society Business and Work / [ed] Hans Christian Garmann Johnsen, Halvor Holtskog and Richard Ennals, London & New York: Routledge, 2018, p. 187-200Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 14. Gimmi, Urs
    et al.
    Wolf, Annett
    Linnaeus University, The University Administration. Umeå universitet.
    Buergi, Matthias
    Scherstjanoi, Marc
    Bugmann, Harald
    Quantifying disturbance effects on vegetation carbon pools in mountain forests based on historical data2009In: Regional Environmental Change, ISSN 1436-3798, E-ISSN 1436-378X, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 121-130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although the terrestrial carbon budget is of key importance for atmospheric CO(2) concentrations, little is known on the effects of management and natural disturbances on historical carbon stocks at the regional scale. We reconstruct the dynamics of vegetation carbon stocks and flows in forests across the past 100 years for a valley in the eastern Swiss Prealps using quantitative and qualitative information from forest management plans. The excellent quality of the historical information makes it possible to link dynamics in growing stocks with high-resolution time series for natural and anthropogenic disturbances. The results of the historical reconstruction are compared with modelled potential natural vegetation. Forest carbon stock at the beginning of the twentieth century was substantially reduced compared to natural conditions as a result of large scale clearcutting lasting until the late nineteenth century. Recovery of the forests from this unsustainable exploitation and systematic forest management were the main drivers of a strong carbon accumulation during almost the entire twentieth century. In the 1990s two major storm events and subsequent bark beetle infestations significantly reduced stocks back to the levels of the mid-twentieth century. The future potential for further carbon accumulation was found to be strongly limited, as the potential for further forest expansion in this valley is low and forest properties seem to approach equilibrium with the natural disturbance regime. We conclude that consistent long-term observations of carbon stocks and their changes provide rich information on the historical range of variability of forest ecosystems. Such historical information improves our ability to assess future changes in carbon stocks. Further, the information is vital for better parameterization and initialization of dynamic regional scale vegetation models and it provides important background for appropriate management decisions.

  • 15. Goettel, Holger
    et al.
    Alexander, Jorn
    Keup-Thiel, Elke
    Rechid, Diana
    Hagemann, Stefan
    Blome, Tanja
    Wolf, Annett
    Linnaeus University, The University Administration.
    Jacob, Daniela
    Influence of changed vegetations fields on regional climate simulations in the Barents Sea Region2008In: Climatic Change, ISSN 0165-0009, E-ISSN 1573-1480, Vol. 87, no 1-2, p. 35-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the context of the EU-Project BALANCE (http://balance-eu.info) the regional climate model REMO was used for extensive calculations of the Barents Sea climate to investigate the vulnerability of this region to climate change. The regional climate model REMO simulated the climate change of the Barents Sea Region between 1961 and 2100 (Control and Climate Change run, CCC-Run). REMO on similar to 50 km horizontal resolution was driven by the transient ECHAM4/OPYC3 IPCC SRES B2 scenario. The output of the CCC-Run was applied to drive the dynamic vegetation model LPJ-GUESS. The results of the vegetation model were used to repeat the CCC-Run with dynamic vegetation fields. The feedback effect of the modified vegetation on the climate change signal is investigated and discussed with focus on precipitation, temperature and snow cover. The effect of the offline coupled vegetation feedback run is much lower than the greenhouse gas effect.

  • 16.
    Gregersen, Malin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Cultural Sciences. Linnaeus University, The University Administration.
    "Gjennem de gules land"2018In: Møter med Kina: Norsk diplomati, næringsliv og misjon 1890-1937 / [ed] Camilla Brautaset, Malin Gregersen, Karina Hestad Skeie, Bergen: Fagbokforlaget, 2018, p. 233-240Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Gregersen, Malin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Cultural Sciences. Linnaeus University, The University Administration.
    Kinabilder og kinasyn: Fortellinger om Kina i Norge2018In: Møter med Kina: Norsk diplomati, næringsliv og misjon 1890–1937 / [ed] Camilla Brautaset, Malin Gregersen, Karina Hestad Skeie, Bergen: Fagbokforlaget, 2018, p. 199-209Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Gregersen, Malin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Cultural Sciences. Linnaeus University, The University Administration.
    Risopprøret i Changsha2018In: Møter med Kina: Norsk diplomati, næringsliv og misjon 1890-1937 / [ed] Camilla Brautaset, Malin Gregersen, Karina Hestad Skeie, Bergen: Fagbokforlaget, 2018, p. 173-181Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 19. Heiri, C.
    et al.
    Wolf, Annett
    Linnaeus University, The University Administration.
    Rohrer, L.
    Bugmann, H.
    Forty years of natural dynamics in Swiss beech forests: Structure, composition, and the influence of former management2009In: Ecological Applications, Vol. 19, no 7, p. 1920-1934Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated forest development after the cessation of management based on inventory data from six beech forest reserves in Switzerland covering nearly 40 years, using observed changes to assess the textbook understanding of natural beech forest dynamics. Specifically, we evaluated the importance of light as a driver of tree species composition, and we aimed to disentangle the role of site characteristics and past management regimes for shaping today’s forest properties. Forest dynamics in the reserves showed a clear trend toward a broadening of the diameter distribution, an increase in basal area and standing dead wood, an increase in beech dominance, and a reduction of tree species diversity over time, conforming to expectations. However, the expected development of specific structural features, such as significant amounts of large living trees and snags or a small-scale mosaic of various developmental phases, appears to take longer than the time elapsed since the cessation of management. The observed loss in species richness can be attributed to decreasing light availability, as almost all species that disappeared were shade intolerant. Additionally, the shade-intolerant tree species had a characteristic bell-shaped diameter distribution in all reserves, indicating a lack of recruits, whereas shade-tolerant species had an irregular to monotonically decreasing diameter distribution, demonstrating sustained regeneration. Along the environmental gradient covered by the six reserves, abiotic factors are sufficient to explain tree species distribution, with management history not contributing additional information. This suggests that at larger scales, tree species composition is determined by abiotic factors, but historical management strategies were obviously adapted well to the species’ autecological requirements. Analyses such as ours provide the foundation for refining forest management systems as well as for developing effective and target-oriented conservation strategies. © 2009 by the Ecological Society of America beech forests;.

  • 20. Heiri, Caroline
    et al.
    Wolf, Annett
    Linnaeus University, The University Administration. Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Inst Terr Ecosyst, Dept Environm Sci, CH-8092 Zurich, Switzerland.
    Rohrer, Lukas
    Brang, Peter
    Bugmann, Harald
    Successional pathways in Swiss mountain forest reserves2012In: European Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 1612-4669, E-ISSN 1612-4677, Vol. 131, no 2, p. 503-518Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge on the natural dynamics of Norway spruce-European silver fir forests is scarce, but is of high importance for the sustainable management of these ecosystems. Using a unique data set from five forest reserves in the Swiss Alps that covers up to 35 years, we elucidated communalities and differences in stand structure and species composition across the reserves and over time and investigated the role of site conditions versus intrinsic forest dynamics. For the early and late successional phases, we found a clear relationship between stand structure (diameter distributions) and species composition. Two pathways of early succession were evident as a function of the disturbance regime. Thus, the spatial extent of disturbances in spruce-fir forests strongly determines the pathway in early succession. Contrary to earlier descriptions of clearly distinguishable optima phases, our data did not reveal a relationship between stand structure and species composition for the early, mid-, and late optimum phases. Although the reserves investigated here are characterized by highly different climatic and soil conditions, their temporal development was found to fit well into a single successional scheme, suggesting that in spruce-fir mountain forests, the life-history strategies of the tree species may have a stronger influence on successional trajectories than site conditions per se.

  • 21.
    Härlin, Mikael
    Linnaeus University, The University Administration.
    Alfred Russel Wallace: i skuggan av Darwin2015In: Populär Historia, ISSN 1102-0822, no 8, p. 54-57Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 22.
    Härlin, Mikael
    Linnaeus University, The University Administration.
    Arterna är inte vad de varit2014In: Forskning & Framsteg, ISSN 0015-7937, no 5, p. 48-52Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    När Kristofer Helgen under ett besök på Field museum i Chicago drog ut en låda med vad han trodde var en samling kända tvättbjörnsarter blev han rejält överraskad.

    – Jag tittade på pälsen, skallen, tänderna, hörselbenen. Inget i anatomin liknade något jag sett tidigare, säger Kristofer Helgen, som är zoolog vid Smithsonian museum i USA.

    Det starkt rödfärgade skinnen han såg ledde till beskrivningen av en ny köttätande däggdjursart.

  • 23.
    Härlin, Mikael
    Linnaeus University, The University Administration.
    Den mänskliga naturen?2014In: Sans, ISSN 2000-9690, no 2, p. 82-85Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 24.
    Härlin, Mikael
    Linnaeus University, The University Administration.
    Forskare känner inte igen betydelsefull vetenskap2014In: Universitetsläraren, ISSN 0282-4973, no 1, p. 16-17Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Forskare och forskning bedöms hela tiden. Det kan handla om huruvida en artikel ska bli publicerad i en viss tidskrift eller om en forskare ska tilldelas anslag eller inte. Ofta är det forskare som bedömer kollegor, så kallad peer-review. Forskning som nyligen publicerades i den nät­baserade vetenskapliga tidskriften PLOS Biology visar, dessvärre, att forskare är ganska dåliga på att ­bedöma vad som är betydelsefull forskning.

  • 25.
    Härlin, Mikael
    Linnaeus University, The University Administration.
    Lite till många eller mycket till få?: Om svårigheten - eller snarare omöjligheten - att känna igen betydelsefull forskning2015In: Tänka vidare: Forskning, finansiering, framtid. Riksbankens Jubileumsfonds Årsbok 2015/16 / [ed] Jenny Björkman, Björn Fjaestad, Stockholm: Makadam Förlag , 2015, p. 171-176Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 26.
    Höglund, Johan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Willander, Martin
    Linnaeus University, The University Administration.
    Black Hawk-Down: Adaptation and the Military-Entertainment Complex2017In: Culture Unbound. Journal of Current Cultural Research, ISSN 2000-1525, E-ISSN 2000-1525, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 365-389Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates the non-fiction book Black Hawk Down (1999) by Mark Bowden, Black Hawk Down the movie (2001) directed by Ridley Scott, and the computer game Delta Force: Black Hawk Down (2003). The article suggests that while the movie and the game must be studied as adaptations of the first text, the tools developed by adaptation studies, and that are typically used to study the transfer of narratives from one media form to another, do not suffice to fully describe the ways in which these narratives change between iterations. To provide a more complete account of these adaptations, the article therefore also considers the shifting political climate of the 9/11 era, the expectations from different audiences and industries, and, in particular, the role that what James Der Derian has termed the Military-Industrial-Media-Entertainment Network (MIME-Net) plays in the production of narrative. The article thus investigates how a specific political climate and MIME-Net help to produce certain adaptations. Based on this investigation, the article argues that MIME-Net plays a very important role in the adaptation of the Black Hawk Down story by directing attention away from historical specificity and nuance, towards the spectacle of war. Thus, in Black Hawk Down the movie and in Delta Force: Black Hawk Down, authenticity is understood as residing in the spectacular rendering of carnage rather than in historical facts. The article concludes that scholarly investigations of the adaptation of military narratives should combine traditional adaptation studies tools with theory and method that highlight the role that politics and complexes such as MIME-Net play within the culture industry.

  • 27.
    Jansson, Bertil
    Linnaeus University, The University Administration.
    Bibliotekarien i förindustriell tid och framtidens bibliotekarie, har de något gemensamt?2006Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Jansson, Bertil
    Linnaeus University, The University Administration. Högskolan i Borås.
    Bibliotekarien: om yrkets tidiga innehåll och utveckling2010Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Jansson, Bertil
    Linnaeus University, The University Administration.
    When did the librarian become a librarian?2013In: Cahiers de la Documentation, ISSN 0007-9804, no 3, p. 5-11Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 30. Leuzinger, Sebastian
    et al.
    Bigler, Christof
    Wolf, Annett
    Linnaeus University, The University Administration.
    Koerner, Christian
    Poor methodology for predicting large-scale tree die-off2009In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 106, no 38Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Ling, Hu
    Linnaeus University, The University Administration. Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Environmental values as a motivation of cycle tourism2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing popularity of cycling activities and events, and the need to encourage cycling to reduce tourism greenhouse gas (GHG) emission, require a better understanding of the motivations of cycle tourists. Cycle tourism is one kind of green sustainable tourism. While numbers of aspects of cycle tourism have been identified in previous studies, environmental values might be one of the factors to determine cycle tourism choice. Most findings show that personal factors are the main reason of cycling activity while environmental values play merely little role in the cycle tourism. This thesis project is aimed to study the motivations of non-club recreational cycle tourists in Kalmar, Sweden and the role of environmental values as a motivation of cycle tourism behavior. Qualitative exploration method has been adopted and 13 local cycle tourists have been interviewed for the project. By applying the environmental values framework, this thesis links two main factors of environmental values to the cycle tourism behavior, that is closeness to nature and environmental concern. The findings show that environmental values are good predictor of cycle tourism behavior. The role of environmental values as a motivation of cycle tourism is improving though still not the main motivation. More explicit attention to environmental related knowledge education may inform the operationalization and promotion of local cycle tourism development. As modern people may attach importance to hedonic experience for their cycle tourism activities, further researches are needed to understand the relationship of hedonic consumption values and cycle tourism behaviors.

    Keywords: cycling tourism; motivation; qualitative; environmental values; closeness to nature; environmental concern

  • 32.
    Manusch, C
    et al.
    ETH, Dept Environm Syst Sci, Inst Terr Ecosyst, CH-8092 Zurich, Switzerland.
    Bugmann, H
    ETH, Dept Environm Syst Sci, Inst Terr Ecosyst, CH-8092 Zurich, Switzerland.
    Heiri, C
    Swiss Fed Inst Forest Snow & Landscape Res, CH-8903 Birmensdorf, Switzerland.
    Wolf, Annett
    Linnaeus University, The University Administration. ETH, Dept Environm Syst Sci, Inst Terr Ecosyst, CH-8092 Zurich, Switzerland.
    Tree mortality in dynamic vegetation models - A key feature for accurately simulating forest properties2012In: Ecological Modelling, ISSN 0304-3800, E-ISSN 1872-7026, Vol. 243, p. 101-111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dynamic vegetation models are important tools in ecological research, but not all processes of vegetation dynamics are captured adequately. Tree mortality is often modeled as a function of growth efficiency and maximum age. However, empirical studies have shown for different species that slow-growing trees may become older than fast-growing trees, implying a correlation of mortality with growth rate and size rather than age. We used the ecosystem model LPJ-GUESS to compare the standard age-dependent mortality with two size-dependent mortality approaches. We found that all mortality approaches, when calibrated, yield a realistic pattern of growing stock and Plant Functional Type (PFT) distribution at five study sites in Switzerland. However, only the size-dependent approaches match a third pattern, i.e. the observed negative relationship between growth rate and longevity. As a consequence, trees are simulated to get older at higher than at lower altitudes/latitudes. In contrast, maximum tree ages do not change along these climatic gradients when the standard age-dependent mortality is used. As tree age and size determine forest structure, our more realistic mortality assumptions improved forest biomass estimation, but indicate a potential decline of carbon storage under climate change. We conclude that tree mortality should be modeled as a function of size rather than age. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 33. Matthes, Heidrun
    et al.
    Rinke, Annette
    Miller, Paul A.
    Kuhry, Peter
    Dethloff, Klaus
    Wolf, Annett
    Linnaeus University, The University Administration. nstitute of Terrestrial Ecosystems, ETH Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland.
    Sensitivity of high-resolution Arctic regional climate model projections to different implementations of land surface processes2012In: Climatic Change, ISSN 0165-0009, E-ISSN 1573-1480, Vol. 111, no 2, p. 197-214Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses the effects of vegetation cover and soil parameters on the climate change projections of a regional climate model over the Arctic domain. Different setups of the land surface model of the regional climate model HIRHAM were realized to analyze differences in the atmospheric circulation caused by (1) the incorporation of freezing/thawing of soil moisture, (2) the consideration of top organic soil horizons typical for the Arctic and (3) a vegetation shift due to a changing climate. The largest direct thermal effect in 2 m air temperature was found for the vegetation shift, which ranged between -1.5 K and 3 K. The inclusion of a freeze/thaw scheme for soil moisture shows equally large sensitivities in spring over cool areas with high soil moisture content. Although the sensitivity signal in 2 m air temperature for the experiments differs in amplitude, all experiments show changes in mean sea level pressure (mslp) and geopotential height (z) throughout the troposphere of similar magnitude (mslp: -2 hPa to 1.5 hPa, z: -15 gpm to 5 gpm). This points to the importance of dynamical feedbacks within the atmosphere-land system. Land and soil processes have a distinct remote influence on large scale atmospheric circulation patterns in addition to their direct, regional effects. The assessment of induced uncertainties due to the changed implementations of land surface processes discussed in this study demonstrates the need to take all those processes for future Arctic climate projections into account, and demonstrates a clear need to include similar implementations in regional and global climate models.

  • 34.
    Palm, Alexander
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Management Accounting and Logistics.
    Sjögren, Adam
    Linnaeus University, The University Administration. Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Management Accounting and Logistics.
    Aktierekommendationer i en ny tid: Podcasts på den finansiella marknaden2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Master Thesis in Business Administration. School of Business and Economics at Linnaeus University, Växjö, 2016.

     

    Authors

    Alexander Palm & Adam Sjögren

     

    Supervisor:

    Christopher Von Koch & Katarina Eriksson

     

    Examiner:

    Sven-Olof Yrjö Collin

     

    Title:

    “Stock recommendations in a new era – Podcasts in financial markets.”

     

    Background & problem:

    Banks and other financial institutes deliver traditionally stock recommendations. Bias from these sources has been observed which can be of disadvantage for individual investors. Podcasts is a relatively new kind of media that can supply the market with stock recommendations. Since podcasts is a new media, there is little research regarding its role on financial markets and its potential to offer financial advice.

     

    Purpose:

    The purpose is to extend previous research regarding podcasts and it’s role on market efficiency and market function.

     

    Method:

    We apply a deductive benchmark and a quantitative approach. A traditional event study with two different time-spans is conducted to analyse stock recommendation and the effect on stock prices.

     

    Conclusion:

    Results indicate lack of support for IH with stock recommendations from podcasts, which in turn is support for EMH. However, PPH does have support, which indicate deficiency in EMH. Thus, we provide evidence that the Swedish stock market is not fully efficient and doesn’t posses semi-strong form. No information leakage could be observed, something that differs from previous research on stock recommendations. We could provide evidence of a temporary and positive effect regarding the market function for Small Cap. The observed increase in trading volume proves overconfidence on the Swedish stock market, something that has previously been shown. No knowledge dispersion exists between listeners of podcasts, something that differs from theory and previous research. 

  • 35. Portner, H.
    et al.
    Bugmann, H.
    Wolf, Annett
    Linnaeus University, The University Administration. Forest Ecology, Institute of Terrestrial Ecosystems, Department of Environmental Sciences, ETH Zürich, 8092 Zürich, Switzerland.
    Temperature response functions introduce high uncertainty in modelled carbon stocks in cold temperature regimes2010In: Biogeosciences, ISSN 1726-4170, E-ISSN 1726-4189, Vol. 7, no 11, p. 3669-3684Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Models of carbon cycling in terrestrial ecosystems contain formulations for the dependence of respiration on temperature, but the sensitivity of predicted carbon pools and fluxes to these formulations and their parameterization is not well understood. Thus, we performed an uncertainty analysis of soil organic matter decomposition with respect to its temperature dependency using the ecosystem model LPJ-GUESS. <br><br> We used five temperature response functions (Exponential, Arrhenius, Lloyd-Taylor, Gaussian, Van’t Hoff). We determined the parameter confidence ranges of the formulations by nonlinear regression analysis based on eight experimental datasets from Northern Hemisphere ecosystems. We sampled over the confidence ranges of the parameters and ran simulations for each pair of temperature response function and calibration site. We analyzed both the long-term and the short-term heterotrophic soil carbon dynamics over a virtual elevation gradient in southern Switzerland. <br><br> The temperature relationship of Lloyd-Taylor fitted the overall data set best as the other functions either resulted in poor fits (Exponential, Arrhenius) or were not applicable for all datasets (Gaussian, Van’t Hoff). There were two main sources of uncertainty for model simulations: (1) the lack of confidence in the parameter estimates of the temperature response, which increased with increasing temperature, and (2) the size of the simulated soil carbon pools, which increased with elevation, as slower turn-over times lead to higher carbon stocks and higher associated uncertainties. Our results therefore indicate that such projections are more uncertain for higher elevations and hence also higher latitudes, which are of key importance for the global terrestrial carbon budget. 

  • 36. Rice, Stephen
    et al.
    Stoffel, Markus
    Turowski, Jens M
    Wolf, Annett
    Linnaeus University, The University Administration. Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Inst Terr Ecosyst, Dept Environm Sci, CH-8092 Zurich, Switzerland.
    Disturbance regimes at the interface of geomorphology and ecology2012In: Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, ISSN 0197-9337, E-ISSN 1096-9837, Vol. 37, no 15, p. 1678-1682Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Geomorphological processes are an integral part of ecosystem functioning and ecosystem functioning affects geomorphological processes. Increasingly widespread acknowledgement of this simple idea is manifest in a vigorous research community engaged with questions that address the two-way interaction between biota and geomorphology, at a range of scales and in a variety of terrestrial and aquatic environments. Geomorphological disturbances are a core element of biogeomorphological interest, and although the disciplines of geomorphology and ecology have each developed languages and theories that help to explore, model and understand disturbance events, little attempt has been made to draw together these approaches. Following a brief review of these issues, we introduce thirteen papers that investigate the interactions and feedbacks between geomorphological disturbance regimes and ecosystem functions. These papers reveal the singularity of wildfire impacts, the importance of landsliding for carbon budgeting and of vegetation accumulation for landsliding, the zoogeomorphic role of iconic and Cinderella animals in fluvial geomorphology, biophysical interactions in aeolian, fluvial and torrential environments and the utility of living ecosystems as archives of geomorphic events. Most of these papers were first presented in a conference session at the European Geoscience Union General Assembly in 2010 and several others are from recent volumes of Earth Surface Processes and Landforms.

  • 37. Roderfeld, Hedwig
    et al.
    Blyth, Eleanor
    Dankers, Rutger
    Huse, Geir
    Slagstad, Dag
    Ellingsen, Ingrid
    Wolf, Annett
    Linnaeus University, The University Administration.
    Lange, Manfred A.
    Potential impact of climate change on ecosystems of the Barents Sea Region2008In: Climatic Change, ISSN 0165-0009, E-ISSN 1573-1480, Vol. 87, no 1-2, p. 283-303Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The EU project BALANCE (Global Change Vulnerabilities in the Barents region: Linking Arctic Natural Resources, Climate Change and Economies) aims to assess vulnerability to climate change in the Barents Sea Region. As a prerequisite the potential impact of climate change on selected ecosystems of the study area has to be quantified, which is the subject of the present paper. A set of ecosystem models was run to generate baseline and future scenarios for 1990, 2020, 2050 and 2080. The models are based on data from the Regional Climate Model (REMO), driven by a GCM which in turn is forced by the IPCC-B2 scenario. The climate change is documented by means of the Koppen climate classification. Since the multitude of models requires the effect of climate change on individual terrestrial and marine systems to be integrated, the paper concentrates on a standardised visualisation of potential impacts by use of a Geographical Information System for the timeslices 2050 and 2080. The resulting maps show that both terrestrial and marine ecosystems of the Barents region will undergo significant changes until both 2050 and 2080.

  • 38. Sitch, Sitch
    et al.
    Mcguire, David A.
    Kimball, John
    Gedney, Nicola
    Gamon, John
    Engström, Ryan
    Wolf, Annett
    Linnaeus University, The University Administration. Abisko Sci Res Stn, S-98107 Abisko, Sweden; Ecosystem Analysis, Lund University, 22362 Lund, Sweden.
    Zhuang, Qianlai
    Clein, Joy
    McDonald, Kyle C.
    Assessing the carbon balance of circumpolar Arctic tundra using remote sensing and process modeling2007In: Ecological Applications, ISSN 1051-0761, E-ISSN 1939-5582, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 213-234Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reviews the current status of using remote sensing and process-based modeling approaches to assess the contemporary and future circumpolar carbon balance of Arctic tundra, including the exchange of both carbon dioxide and methane with the atmosphere. Analyses based on remote sensing approaches that use a 20-year data record of satellite data indicate that tundra is greening in the Arctic, suggesting an increase in photosynthetic activity and net primary production. Modeling studies generally simulate a small net carbon sink for the distribution of Arctic tundra, a result that is within the uncertainty range of field-based estimates of net carbon exchange. Applications of processbased approaches for scenarios of future climate change generally indicate net carbon sequestration in Arctic tundra as enhanced vegetation production exceeds simulated increases in decomposition. However, methane emissions are likely to increase dramatically, in response to rising soil temperatures, over the next century. Key uncertainties in the response of Arctic ecosystems to climate change include uncertainties in future fire regimes and uncertainties relating to changes in the soil environment. These include the response of soil decomposition and respiration to warming and deepening of the soil active layer, uncertainties in precipitation and potential soil drying, and distribution of wetlands. While there are numerous uncertainties in the projections of process-based models, they generally indicate that Arctic tundra will be a small sink for carbon over the next century and that methane emissions will increase considerably, which implies that exchange of greenhouse gases between the atmosphere and Arctic tundra ecosystems is likely to contribute to climate warming.

  • 39.
    Skeie, Karina Hestad
    et al.
    NLA University College.
    Gregersen, Malin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Cultural Sciences. Linnaeus University, The University Administration.
    Okkenhaug, Inger Marie
    Volda University College, Norway.
    Kina for Kristus: Misjon og kristendom i Kina2018In: Møter med Kina: Norsk dipomati, næringsliv og misjon 1890-1937 / [ed] Camilla Brautaset, Malin Gregersen, Karina Hestad Skeie, Bergen: Fagbokforlaget, 2018, p. 143-158Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 40.
    Stigmar, Martin
    Linnaeus University, The University Administration.
    Peer-to-peer Teaching in Higher Education: A Critical Literature Review2016In: Mentoring & Tutoring, ISSN 1361-1267, E-ISSN 1469-9745, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 124-136Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of my critical literature review is to identify studies where students are engaged as partners in teaching in higher education and to analyze how tutors and tutees benefit from peer teaching. Thirty studies were included for review. Thirteen countries are represented and two thirds of the studies conducted in the United States of America or the United Kingdom. There is a significant representation of studies from natural- and physical science. The dominating pedagogical belief and theory is social constructivism. The most frequent study design is the use of quasi-experimental pre- and post-testing. University teachers do not comprise the view of peer teaching necessarily resulting in greater academic achievement gains or deep learning. University teachers identify and esteem other pedagogical benefits such as improving students’: critical thinking, learning autonomy, motivation, collaborative and communicative skills. The main finding of this review is the clarification that the training of generic skills benefits from peer teaching. © 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

  • 41.
    Torniainen, Petteri
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Elustondo, Diego
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Dagbro, Ola
    Linnaeus University, The University Administration.
    Industrial Validation of the Relationship between Color Parameters in Thermally Modified Spruce and Pine2016In: BioResources, ISSN 1930-2126, E-ISSN 1930-2126, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 1369-1381Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermal modification causes the darkening of wood throughout its cross-section because of chemical changes in the wood. After treatment, naturally light wood species look darker or even tropical, depending predominantly on the treatment temperature and processing time. This study investigates the suitability of using color measurement to determine treatment intensity at the industrial scale. The color was determined using the L*, a*, and b* color space, also referred to as CIELab, and the relationship between lightness (L*) and the color parameters (a*) and (b*) was investigated for thermal modification treatments at 190 and 212 °C. The wood species studied were pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and spruce (Picea abies L.). The results showed that yellowness (+b*) and redness (+a*) had a significant prediction ability for class treatments at 190 and 212 °C, respectively. After treatment, there were no noticeable differences in color between the species, but sapwood was darker than heartwood in both untreated and thermally modified wood. The thickness of the boards had a proportionally darkening effect on the color values.

  • 42. Turesson, H.
    et al.
    Brönmark, C.
    Wolf, Annett
    Linnaeus University, The University Administration. Umeå universitet.
    Satiation effects in piscivore prey size selection2006In: Ecology of Freshwater Fish, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 78-85Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a functional response model that primarily evaluates effects of satiation in piscivore prey-size selection. The model also includes other passive processes, such as prey-size-dependent encounter rate and prey-size-dependent capture success, where capture success decreases and encounter rate increases with prey size. The model generates a wide variety of outcomes, where small, intermediate or large prey is positively selected for. These very different selectivity patterns are generated without any active prey choice included in the model. The results stress the importance of controlling for satiation and other passive processes in empirical studies on prey-size selection, especially if the aim is to test active prey choice in piscivores. © 2005 The Authors Journal compilation 2005 Blackwell Munksgaard.

  • 43.
    Wolf, Annett
    Linnaeus University, The University Administration. ETH, ETH Zentrum, CHN, CH-8092 Zurich, Switzerland.
    Determining the rate of change in a mixed deciduous forest monitored for 50 years2011In: Annals of Forest Science, ISSN 1286-4560, E-ISSN 1297-966X, Vol. 68, no 3, p. 485-495Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Trees in two compartments of the mixed deciduous forest Draved Forest have been monitored regularly for 50 years. This data set was used to study the rate of change in forest structure and composition applying the Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistics, chi-square test for the goodness of fit, and principal component analysis. We also correlated the specific test statistics with other forest properties to elucidate the importance of various factors for the observed changes in forest structure. After 50 years, the still significant changes in the forest structure and species composition indicate that the compartments have not reached the state of an old growth forest. Although some measures indicated that the compartments were approaching this stage, other showed the opposite response and even an increasing rate of change. As the three statistical methods contributed in different ways, we recommend the combination of several statistical methods to assess changes in the forest structure.

  • 44.
    Wolf, Annett
    Linnaeus University, The University Administration. Forest Ecology, Institute of Terrestrial Ecosystems, Department of Environmental Science, ETH Zurich, Universitätsstrasse 16, CH-8092 Zurich, Switzerland.
    Estimating the potential impact of vegetation on the water cycle requires accurate soil water parameter estimation2011In: Ecological Modelling, ISSN 0304-3800, E-ISSN 1872-7026, Vol. 222, no 15, p. 2595-2605Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well known that vegetation dynamics at the catchment scale depends on the prevailing weather and soil moisture conditions. Soil moisture, however, is not equally distributed in space due to differences in topography, weather patterns, soil properties and the type and amount of vegetation cover. To elucidate the complex interaction between vegetation and soil moisture, the dynamic vegetation model LPJ-GUESS (Smith et al., 2001), which provides estimations of vegetation dynamics, but does not consider lateral water fluxes was coupled with the hydrological TOPMODEL (cf. Beven, 2001) in order to be able to evaluate the importance of these lateral fluxes. The new model LG-TM was calibrated and validated in two climatically different mountain catchments. The estimations of runoff were good, when monthly and weekly time scales were considered, although the low flow periods at winter time were somewhat underestimated. The uncertainty in the climate induced change vegetation carbon storage caused by the uncertainty in soil parameters was up to 3–5 kg C m−2 (depending on elevation and catchment), compared to the total change in vegetation carbon storage of 5–9 kg C m−2. Therefore accurate estimates of the parameters influencing the water holding capacity of the soil, for example depth and porosity, are necessary when estimating future changes in vegetation carbon storage. Similarly, changes in plant transpiration due to climatic changes could be almost double as high (88 mm m−2) in the not calibrated model compared to the new model version (ca 50 mm m−2 transpiration change). The uncertainties in these soil properties were found to be more important than the lateral water exchange between grid cells, even in steep topography at least for the temporal and spatial resolution used here.

  • 45.
    Wolf, Annett
    Linnaeus University, The University Administration. Department of Physical Geography and Ecosystem Analysis, Lund.
    Fifty year record of change in tree spatial patterns within a mixed deciduous forest2005In: Forest Ecology and Management, ISSN 0378-1127, E-ISSN 1872-7042, Vol. 215, no 1-3, p. 212-223Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ripley's K-function was used to investigate the changes in spatial pattern among trees in a semi-natural mixed deciduous forest in Denmark over 50 years, from 1948 to 2001. Trees larger than 10 cm diameter in breast height (dbh) were mapped at 10-year intervals in 16 blocks within two former compartments. At the start of the observation, trees were found to be regularly distributed at distances less than 10 m. This pattern changed with time in different ways, depending on tree density at the beginning of the recording. Tree density has a greater influence on the number of recruits than on the number of dead trees. New recruits were significantly aggregated and positively correlated with dead trees, which suggests that regeneration occurred in canopy gaps. Compartments with many new recruits therefore showed a change in pattern towards more random distribution or even towards aggregation. In blocks with high basal area and few recruits, the pattern changed only slightly. Past management was found to be important in generating the patterns of tree distribution.

  • 46.
    Wolf, Annett
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, The University Administration. Lund Univ, Dept Phys Geog & Ecosyst Anal, Lund, Sweden; Abisko Sci Res Stn, Abisko, Sweden.
    Blyth, Eleanor
    Ctr Ecol & Hydrol, Wallingford, Oxon, England.
    Harding, Richard
    Ctr Ecol & Hydrol, Wallingford, Oxon, England.
    Jacob, Daniela
    Max Planck Inst Meteorol, Hamburg, Germany.
    Keup-Thiel, Elke
    Max Planck Inst Meteorol, Hamburg, Germany.
    Goettel, Holger
    Max Planck Inst Meteorol, Hamburg, Germany.
    Callaghan, Terry
    Abisko Sci Res Stn, Abisko, Sweden; Univ Sheffield, Dept Anim & Plant Sci, Sheffield S10 2TN, S Yorkshire, England.
    Sensitivity of an ecosystem model to hydrology and temperature2008In: Climatic Change, ISSN 0165-0009, E-ISSN 1573-1480, Vol. 87, no 1-2, p. 75-89Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 47.
    Wolf, Annett
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, The University Administration.
    Callaghan, Terry V.
    Larson, Karin
    Future changes in vegetation and ecosystem function of the Barents Region2008In: Climatic Change, ISSN 0165-0009, E-ISSN 1573-1480, Vol. 87, no 1-2, p. 51-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The dynamic vegetation model (LPJ-GUESS) is used to project transient impacts of changes in climate on vegetation of the Barents Region. We incorporate additional plant functional types, i.e. shrubs and defined different types of open ground vegetation, to improve the representation of arctic vegetation in the global model. We use future climate projections as well as control climate data for 1981-2000 from a regional climate model (REMO) that assumes a development of atmospheric CO(2)-concentration according to the B2-SRES scenario [IPCC, Climate Change 2001: The scientific basis. Contribution working group I to the Third assessment report of the IPCC. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (2001)]. The model showed a generally good fit with observed data, both qualitatively when model outputs were compared to vegetation maps and quantitatively when compared with observations of biomass, NPP and LAI. The main discrepancy between the model output and observed vegetation is the overestimation of forest abundance for the northern parts of the Kola Peninsula that cannot be explained by climatic factors alone. Over the next hundred years, the model predicted an increase in boreal needle leaved evergreen forest, as extensions northwards and upwards in mountain areas, and as an increase in biomass, NPP and LAI. The model also projected that shade-intolerant broadleaved summergreen trees will be found further north and higher up in the mountain areas. Surprisingly, shrublands will decrease in extent as they are replaced by forest at their southern margins and restricted to areas high up in the mountains and to areas in northern Russia. Open ground vegetation will largely disappear in the Scandinavian mountains. Also counter-intuitively, tundra will increase in abundance due to the occupation of previously unvegetated areas in the northern part of the Barents Region. Spring greening will occur earlier and LAI will increase. Consequently, albedo will decrease both in summer and winter time, particularly in the Scandinavian mountains (by up to 18%). Although this positive feedback to climate could be offset to some extent by increased CO(2) drawdown from vegetation, increasing soil respiration results in NEE close to zero, so we cannot conclude to what extent or whether the Barents Region will become a source or a sink of CO(2).

  • 48.
    Wolf, Annett
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, The University Administration.
    Kozlov, Mikhail V.
    Callaghan, Terry V.
    Impact of non-outbreak insect damage on vegetation in northern Europe will be greater than expected during a changing climate2008In: Climatic Change, ISSN 0165-0009, E-ISSN 1573-1480, Vol. 87, no 1-2, p. 91-106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background insect herbivory, in addition to insect outbreaks, can have an important long term influence on the performance of tree species. Since a projected warmer climate may favour insect herbivores, we use a dynamic ecosystem model to investigate the impacts of background herbivory on vegetation growth and productivity, as well as distribution and associated changes in terrestrial ecosystems of northern Europe. We used the GUESS ecosystem modelling framework and a simple linear model for including the leaf area loss of Betula pubescens in relation to mean July temperature. We tested the sensitivity of the responses of the simulated ecosystems to different, but realistic, degrees of insect damage. Predicted temperature increases are likely to enhance the potential insect impacts on vegetation. The impacts are strongest in the eastern areas, where potential insect damage to B. pubescens can increase by 4-5%. The increase in insect damage to B. pubescens results in a reduction of total birch leaf area (LAI), total birch biomass and birch productivity (Net Primary Production). This effect is stronger than the insect damage to leaf area alone would suggest, due to its second order effect on the competition between tree species. The model’s demonstration that background herbivory may cause changes in vegetation structure suggests that insect damage, generally neglected by vegetation models, can change predictions of future forest composition. Carbon fluxes and albedo are only slightly influenced by background insect herbivory, indicating that background insect damage is of minor importance for estimating the feedback of terrestrial ecosystems to climate change.

  • 49.
    Wolf, Annett
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, The University Administration. Forest Ecology, Institute of Terrestrial Ecosystems, Department of Environmental Science, ETH Zurich, Universitätsstr. 16, CH-8092 Zurich, Switzerland.
    Lazzarotto, Patrick
    Forschungsanstalt Agroscope Reckenholz-Tänikon ART, Reckenholzstrasse 191, CH-8046 Zürich, Switzerland.
    Bugmann, Harald
    Forest Ecology, Institute of Terrestrial Ecosystems, Department of Environmental Science, ETH Zurich, Universitätsstr. 16, CH-8092 Zurich, Switzerland.
    The relative importance of land use and climatic change in Alpine catchments2012In: Climatic Change, ISSN 0165-0009, E-ISSN 1573-1480, Vol. 111, no 2, p. 279-300Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Carbon storage and catchment hydrology are influenced both by land use changes and climatic changes, but there are few studies addressing both responses under both driving forces. We investigated the relative importance of climate change vs. land use change for four Alpine catchments using the LPJ-GUESS model. Two scenarios of grassland management were calibrated based on the more detailed model PROGRASS. The simulations until 2100 show that only reforestation could lead to an increase of carbon storage under climatic change, whereby a cessation of carbon accumulation occurred in all catchments after 2050. The initial increase in carbon storage was attributable mainly to forest re-growth on abandoned land, whereas the stagnation and decline in the second half of the century was mainly driven by climate change. If land was used more intensively, i.e. as grassland, litter input to the soil decreased due to harvesting, resulting in a decline of soil carbon storage (1.2−2.9 kg C m–2) that was larger than the climate-induced change (0.8–1.4 kg C m−2). Land use change influenced transpiration both directly and in interaction with climate change. The response of forested catchments diverged with climatic change (11–40 mm increase in AET), reflecting the differences in forest age, topography and water holding capacity within and between catchments. For grass-dominated catchments, however, transpiration responded in a similar manner to climate change (light management: 23–32 mm AET decrease, heavy management: 29–44 mm AET decrease), likely because grassroots are concentrated in the uppermost soil layers. Both the water and the carbon cycle were more strongly influenced by land use compared to climatic changes, as land use had not only a direct effect on carbon storage and transpiration, but also an indirect effect by modifying the climate change response of transpiration and carbon flux in the catchments. For the carbon cycle, climate change led to a cessation of the catchment response (sink/source strength is limited), whereas for the water cycle, the effect of land use change remains evident throughout the simulation period (changes in evapotranspiration do not attenuate). Thus we conclude that management will have a large potential to influence the carbon and water cycle, which needs to be considered in management planning as well as in climate and hydrological modelling.

  • 50.
    Wolf, Annett
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, The University Administration. Department of Physical Geography and Ecosystem Analyses, Lund University, Sölvegatan 12, S-223 62 Lund, Sweden.
    Møller, P. F.
    Environmental History Research Group, Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland, Øster Voldgade 10, DK-1350 Copenhagen K, Denmark.
    Bradshaw, R. H. W.
    Environmental History Research Group, Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland, Øster Voldgade 10, DK-1350 Copenhagen K, Denmark.
    Bigler, J.
    Unit of Forestry, The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Rolighedsvej 23, DK-1958 Frederiksberg C, Denmark.
    Storm damage and long-term mortality in a semi-natural, temperate deciduous forest2004In: Forest Ecology and Management, ISSN 0378-1127, E-ISSN 1872-7042, Vol. 188, no 1-3, p. 197-210Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1. Wind-damaged trees, following the severe storm of 1999, are compared with data from a 50-year monitoring of Draved Forest, Denmark, to assess differing causes of mortality through time in an unmanaged semi-natural forest. Species-specific mortality characteristics and the changing effects of tree size and growth rate (diameter increment) on mortality through time are also investigated. 2. Storm was found to be the major mortality factor affecting large trees in this forest. For smaller trees, competition was an important cause of death, as trees that were found standing dead had a slower growth rate (diameter increment) than survivors. 3. Individual species showed different mortality patterns. Betula died more often and Fagus less often than expected from their abundance. Betula, Fagus and Tilia were mainly wind-thrown, whereas for Alnus and Fraxinus, 50% of the mortality was observed as standing dead trees. 4. Both wind and competition are important mortality factors in Draved Forest. (C) 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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