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  • 1.
    Alakangas, Linda J.
    et al.
    Swedish Nucl Fuel & Waste Management Co, Sweden.
    Mathurin, Frédéric A.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Bur Rech Geol & Minieres, France.
    Åström, Mats E.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Water.
    Diverse fractionation patterns of Rare Earth Elements in deep fracture groundwater in the Baltic Shield - Progress from utilisation of Diffusive Gradients in Thin-films (DGT) at the Aspo Hard Rock Laboratory2020In: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, ISSN 0016-7037, E-ISSN 1872-9533, Vol. 269, p. 15-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rare earth elements (REEs) were studied in groundwater in fractures at depths between 144 m and 450 m in Proterozoic granitoids on the Baltic Shield at a coastal site in south eastern Sweden (Aspo Hard Rock Laboratory). A specially designed device was used to sample the groundwater under in situ high pressure and low redox conditions. The REEs were measured via both diffusive gradients in thin-films (DGT) samplers after approximately three-week deployment times, and after conventional filtration (0.45 mu m membrane filters). The concentrations of REEDGT were lower than the REE0.45 mu m concentrations in all 14 studied groundwaters. This is explained by development of a diffuse boundary layer (DBL) in the solution at the DGTs caused by the low flow, and in some of the groundwaters additionally by the presence of organically complexed REE that diffuse slowly in the diffusive gel of the DGT. Among the 14 studied groundwaters there was a huge range in REEDGT-fractionation patterns, ranging from enrichment to a nearly three-order-of-magnitude depletion of the heavy REEs (HREEs), despite a relatively homogenous bedrock (granitoids). The HREE enrichment is explained by preservation of the fractionation signature as HREE enriched sea water intruded and flowed through the fractures, supported by the high proportion of modelled REE fulvic-acid complexes in these waters. The strong HREE depletion, which occurred in saline groundwater, was ascribed to an advanced REE equilibrium between the groundwater and primary and/or secondary minerals and the pore water in the bedrock. Yet other groundwaters had flat or moderately HREE depleted patterns, which in some cases may have been caused by mixing of small portions of surficial waters with saline groundwater. (C) 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 2.
    Ale Ebrahim Dehkordi, Molood
    et al.
    Delft University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Ghorbani, Amineh
    Delft University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Bravo, Giangiacomo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Water.
    Farjam, Mike
    Lund University, Sweden.
    van Weeren, René
    Utrecht University, Netherlands.
    Forsman, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    De Moor, Tine
    Erasmus University, Netherlands.
    Long-term dynamics of institutions: Using ABM as a complementary tool to support theory development in historical studies2021In: JASSS: Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation, E-ISSN 1460-7425, Vol. 24, no 4, article id 7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Historical data are valuable resources for providing insights into social patterns in the past. However, these data often inform us at the macro-level of analysis but not about the role of individuals’ behaviours in the emergence of long-term patterns. Therefore, it is difficult to infer ‘how’ and ‘why’ certain patterns emerged in the past. Historians use various methods to draw hypotheses about the underlying reasons for emerging patterns and trends, but since the patterns are the results of hundreds if not thousands of years of human behaviour, these hypotheses can never be tested in reality. Our proposition is that simulation models and specifically, agent-based models (ABMs) can be used as complementary tools in historical studies to support hypothesis building. The approach that we propose and test in this paper is to design and configure models in such a way as to generate historical patterns, consequently aiming to find individual-level explanations for the emerging pattern. In this work, we use an existing, empirically validated, agent-based model of common pool resource management to test hypotheses formulated based on a historical dataset. We first investigate whether the model can replicate various patterns observed in the dataset, and second, whether it can contribute to a better understanding of the underlying mechanism that led to the observed empirical trends. We showcase how ABM can be used as a complementary tool to support theory development in historical studies. Finally, we provide some guidelines for using ABM as a tool to test historical hypotheses.

  • 3.
    Alegria Zufia, Javier
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Farnelid, Hanna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Water.
    Legrand, Catherine
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Water. Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Seasonality of Coastal Picophytoplankton Growth, Nutrient Limitation, and Biomass Contribution2021In: Frontiers in Microbiology, E-ISSN 1664-302X, Vol. 12, article id 786590Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Picophytoplankton in the Baltic Sea includes the simplest unicellular cyanoprokaryotes (Synechococcus/Cyanobium) and photosynthetic picoeukaryotes (PPE). Picophytoplankton are thought to be a key component of the phytoplankton community, but their seasonal dynamics and relationships with nutrients and temperature are largely unknown. We monitored pico- and larger phytoplankton at a coastal site in Kalmar Sound (K-Station) weekly during 2018. Among the cyanoprokaryotes, phycoerythrin-rich picocyanobacteria (PE-rich) dominated in spring and summer while phycocyanin-rich picocyanobacteria (PC-rich) dominated during autumn. PE-rich and PC-rich abundances peaked during summer (1.1 x 10(5) and 2.0 x 10(5) cells mL(-1)) while PPE reached highest abundances in spring (1.1 x 10(5) cells mL(-1)). PPE was the main contributor to the total phytoplankton biomass (up to 73%). To assess nutrient limitation, bioassays with combinations of nitrogen (NO3 or NH4) and phosphorus additions were performed. PE-rich and PC-rich growth was mainly limited by nitrogen, with a preference for NH4 at >15 degrees C. The three groups had distinct seasonal dynamics and different temperature ranges: 10 degrees C and 17-19 degrees C for PE-rich, 13-16 degrees C for PC-rich and 11-15 degrees C for PPE. We conclude that picophytoplankton contribute significantly to the carbon cycle in the coastal Baltic Sea and underscore the importance of investigating populations to assess the consequences of the combination of high temperature and NH4 in a future climate.

  • 4.
    Alegria Zufia, Javier
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Legrand, Catherine
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Water. Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Farnelid, Hanna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Water.
    Seasonal dynamics in picocyanobacterial abundance and clade composition at coastal and offshore stations in the Baltic Sea2022In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 12, no 1, article id 14330Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Picocyanobacteria (< 2 mu m in diameter) are significant contributors to total phytoplankton biomass. Due to the high diversity within this group, their seasonal dynamics and relationship with environmental parameters, especially in brackish waters, are largely unknown. In this study, the abundance and community composition of phycoerythrin rich picocyanobacteria (PE-SYN) and phycocyanin rich picocyanobacteria (PC-SYN) were monitored at a coastal (K-station) and at an offshore station (LMO; similar to 10 km from land) in the Baltic Sea over three years (2018-2020). Cell abundances of picocyanobacteria correlated positively to temperature and negatively to nitrate (NO3) concentration. While PE-SYN abundance correlated to the presence of nitrogen fixers, PC-SYN abundance was linked to stratification/shallow waters. The picocyanobacterial targeted amplicon sequencing revealed an unprecedented diversity of 2169 picocyanobacterial amplicons sequence variants (ASVs). A unique assemblage of distinct picocyanobacterial clades across seasons was identified. Clade A/B dominated the picocyanobacterial community, except during summer when low NO3, high phosphate (PO4) concentrations and warm temperatures promoted S5.2 dominance. This study, providing multiyear data, links picocyanobacterial populations to environmental parameters. The difference in the response of the two functional groups and clades underscore the need for further high-resolution studies to understand their role in the ecosystem.

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  • 5.
    Alneberg, Johannes
    et al.
    KTH Royal instute of technology, Sweden.
    Bennke, Christin
    Leibniz Inst Balt Sea Res, Germany.
    Beier, Sara
    Leibniz Inst Balt Sea Res, Germany;Sorbonne Univ, France.
    Bunse, Carina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Carl von Ossietzky Univ Oldenburg, Germany;Alfred Wegener Institut, Germany.
    Quince, Christopher
    Univ Warwick, UK.
    Ininbergs, Karolina
    Stockholm University, Sweden;Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Riemann, Lasse
    Univ Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Ekman, Martin
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Juergens, Klaus
    Leibniz Inst Balt Sea Res, Germany.
    Labrenz, Matthias
    Leibniz Inst Balt Sea Res, Germany.
    Pinhassi, Jarone
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Water.
    Andersson, Anders F.
    KTH Royal instute of technology, Sweden.
    Ecosystem-wide metagenomic binning enables prediction of ecological niches from genomes2020In: Communications Biology, E-ISSN 2399-3642, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 1-10, article id 119Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Alneberg et al. conduct metagenomics binning of water samples collected over major environmental gradients in the Baltic Sea. They use machine-learning to predict the placement of genome clusters along niche gradients based on the content of functional genes. The genome encodes the metabolic and functional capabilities of an organism and should be a major determinant of its ecological niche. Yet, it is unknown if the niche can be predicted directly from the genome. Here, we conduct metagenomic binning on 123 water samples spanning major environmental gradients of the Baltic Sea. The resulting 1961 metagenome-assembled genomes represent 352 species-level clusters that correspond to 1/3 of the metagenome sequences of the prokaryotic size-fraction. By using machine-learning, the placement of a genome cluster along various niche gradients (salinity level, depth, size-fraction) could be predicted based solely on its functional genes. The same approach predicted the genomes' placement in a virtual niche-space that captures the highest variation in distribution patterns. The predictions generally outperformed those inferred from phylogenetic information. Our study demonstrates a strong link between genome and ecological niche and provides a conceptual framework for predictive ecology based on genomic data.

  • 6.
    Arnott, Shelley E.
    et al.
    Queens Univ, Canada.
    Fugere, Vincent
    Grp Res Interuniv Limnol GRIL, Canada;Univ Quebec Trois Rivieres, Canada.
    Symons, Celia C.
    Univ Calif Irvine, USA.
    Melles, Stephanie J.
    Toronto Metropolitan Univ, Canada.
    Beisner, Beatrix E.
    Grp Res Interuniv Limnol GRIL, Canada;Univ Quebec Montreal, Canada.
    Canedo-Arguelles, Miguel
    Univ Barcelona, Spain.
    Hebert, Marie-Pier
    Grp Res Interuniv Limnol GRIL, Canada;Univ Quebec Montreal, Canada;McGill Univ, Canada.
    Brentrup, Jennifer A.
    Dartmouth Coll, USA.
    Downing, Amy L.
    Ohio Wesleyan Univ, USA.
    Gray, Derek K.
    Wilfrid Laurier Univ, Canada.
    Greco, Danielle
    Queens Univ, Canada.
    Hintz, William D.
    Univ Toledo, USA.
    McClymont, Alexandra
    Queens Univ, Canada.
    Relyea, Rick A.
    Rensselaer Polytech Inst, USA.
    Rusak, James A.
    Queens Univ, Canada;Ontario Minist Environm Conservat & Pk, Canada.
    Searle, Catherine L.
    Purdue Univ, USA.
    Astorg, Louis
    Grp Res Interuniv Limnol GRIL, Canada;Univ Quebec Montreal, Canada.
    Baker, Henry K.
    Univ Calif San Diego, USA.
    Ersoy, Zeynep
    Univ Evora, Portugal.
    Espinosa, Carmen
    Univ Vic Cent Univ Catalonia Uvic UCC, Spain.
    Franceschini, Jaclyn M.
    Wilfrid Laurier Univ, Canada.
    Giorgio, Angelina T.
    Rensselaer Polytech Inst, USA.
    Gobeler, Norman
    Univ Helsinki, Finland.
    Hassal, Emily
    Ontario Tech Univ, Canada.
    Huynh, Mercedes
    Wilfrid Laurier Univ, Canada.
    Hylander, Samuel
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Water.
    Jonasen, Kacie L.
    Purdue Univ, USA.
    Kirkwood, Andrea
    Ontario Tech Univ, Canada.
    Langenheder, Silke
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Langvall, Ola
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Laudon, Hjalmar
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Lind, Lovisa
    Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Lundgren, Maria
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Moffett, Emma R.
    Univ Calif Irvine, USA.
    Proia, Lorenzo
    Univ Vic Cent Univ Catalonia Uvic UCC, Spain.
    Schuler, Matthew S.
    Montclair State Univ, USA.
    Shurin, Jonathan B.
    Univ Calif San Diego, USA.
    Steiner, Christopher F.
    Wayne State Univ, USA.
    Striebel, Maren
    Carl von Ossietzky Univ Oldenburg, Germany.
    Thibodeau, Simon
    Grp Res Interuniv Limnol GRIL, Canada;Univ Quebec Montreal, Canada.
    Cordero, Pablo Urrutia
    Uppsala University, Sweden;Lund University, Sweden.
    Vendrell-Puigmitja, Lidia
    Univ Vic Cent Univ Catalonia Uvic UCC, Spain.
    Weyhenmeyer, Gesa A.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Derry, Alison M.
    Grp Res Interuniv Limnol GRIL, Canada;Univ Quebec Montreal, Canada.
    Widespread variation in salt tolerance within freshwater zooplankton species reduces the predictability of community-level salt tolerance2023In: Limnology and Oceanography Letters, E-ISSN 2378-2242, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 8-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The salinization of freshwaters is a global threat to aquatic biodiversity. We quantified variation in chloride (Cl-) tolerance of 19 freshwater zooplankton species in four countries to answer three questions: (1) How much variation in Cl- tolerance is present among populations? (2) What factors predict intraspecific variation in Cl- tolerance? (3) Must we account for intraspecific variation to accurately predict community Cl- tolerance? We conducted field mesocosm experiments at 16 sites and compiled acute LC(50)s from published laboratory studies. We found high variation in LC(50)s for Cl- tolerance in multiple species, which, in the experiment, was only explained by zooplankton community composition. Variation in species-LC50 was high enough that at 45% of lakes, community response was not predictable based on species tolerances measured at other sites. This suggests that water quality guidelines should be based on multiple populations and communities to account for large intraspecific variation in Cl- tolerance.

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  • 7.
    Augustsson, Anna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Water. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Sustainable Health.
    Lennqvist, Torbjörn
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Osbeck, Christofer M. G.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Tibblin, Petter
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Water.
    Glynn, A.
    Swedish university of agricultural sciences, Sweden.
    Nguyen, M. A.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Westberg, E.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Vestergren, R.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Consumption of freshwater fish: A variable but significant risk factor for PFOS exposure2021In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 192, p. 1-9, article id 110284Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PFOS, PFOA, PFNA and PFHxS are the PFAS substances that currently contribute most to human exposure, and in 2020 the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) presented a draft opinion on a tolerable intake of 8 ng/kg/week for the sum of these four substances (equaling 0.42 mu g/kg if expressed as an annual dose). Diet is usually the dominating exposure pathway, and in particular the intake of PFOS has been shown to be strongly related to the consumption of fish and seafood. Those who eat freshwater fish may be especially at risk since freshwater and its biota typically display higher PFOS concentrations than marine systems. In this study, we estimated the range in PFOS intake among average Swedish "normal" and "high" consumers of freshwater fish. By average we mean persons of average weight who eat average-sized portions. The "normal consumers" were assumed to eat freshwater fish 3 times per year, and the "high consumers" once a week. Under these assumptions, the yearly tolerable intake for "normal" and "high" consumers is reached when the PFOS concentrations in fish equals 59 and 3.4 mu g per kg fish meat. For this study, PFOS concentrations in the muscle tissue of edible-sized perch, pike and pikeperch were retrieved from three different Swedish datasets, covering both rural and urban regions and a total of 78 different inland waters. Mean PFOS concentrations in fish from these sites varied from 0.3 to 750 mu g/kg. From the available data, the annual min-max dietary PFOS intake for male "normal consumers" was found to be in the range 0.0021-5.4 mu g/kg/yr for the evaluated scenarios, with median values of 0.02-0.16 mu g/kg/yr. For male "high consumers", the total intake range was estimated to be 0.04-93 mu g/kg/yr, with median values being 0.27-1.6 mu g/kg/yr. For women, the exposure estimates were slightly lower, about 79% of the exposure in men. Despite highly variable PFOS concentrations in fish from different sites, we conclude that the three most commonly consumed freshwater species in Sweden constitute an important source for the total annual intake even for people who eat this kind of fish only a few times per year. The analyses of PFOA, PFNA and PFHxS showed values which were all below detection limit, and their contribution to the total PFAS intake via freshwater fish consumption is negligible in comparison to PFOS.

  • 8.
    Augustsson, Anna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Sustainable Health.
    Uddh Söderberg, Terese
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Fröberg, Mats
    Swedish Geotechnical Institute, Sweden.
    Berggren Kleja, Dan
    Swedish Geotechnical Institute, Sweden;Swedish university of agricultural sciences, Sweden.
    Åström, Mats E.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Water.
    Svensson, P. Andreas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Jarsjö, Jerker
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Failure of generic risk assessment model framework to predict groundwater pollution risk at hundreds of metal contaminated sites: Implications for research needs2020In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 185, p. 1-9, article id 109252Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Soil pollution constitutes one of the major threats to public health, where spreading to groundwater is one of several critical aspects. In most internationally adopted frameworks for routine risk assessments of contaminated land, generic models and soil guideline values are cornerstones. In order to protect the groundwater at contaminated sites, a common practice worldwide today is to depart from health risk-based limit concentrations for groundwater, and use generic soil-to-groundwater spreading models to back-calculate corresponding equilibrium levels (concentration limits) in soil, which must not be exceeded at the site. This study presents an extensive survey of how actual soil and groundwater concentrations, compiled for all high-priority contaminated sites in Sweden, relate to the national model for risk management of contaminated sites, with focus on As, Cu, Pb and Zn. Results show that soil metal concentrations, as well as total amounts, constitute a poor basis for assessing groundwater contamination status. The evaluated model was essentially incapable of predicting groundwater contamination (i.e. concentrations above limit values) based on soil data, and erred on the "unsafe side" in a significant number of cases, with modelled correlations not being conservative enough. Further, the risk of groundwater contamination was almost entirely independent of industry type. In essence, since neither soil contaminant loads nor industry type is conclusive, there is a need for a supportive framework for assessing metal spreading to groundwater accounting for site-specific, geochemical conditions.

  • 9.
    Bailey, Lydia R.
    et al.
    Univ Arizona, USA.
    Drake, Henrik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Water.
    Whitehouse, Martin J.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Sweden.
    Reiners, Peter W.
    Univ Arizona, USA;Univ Northern British Columbia, Canada.
    Characteristics and Consequences of Red Bed Bleaching by Hydrocarbon Migration: A Natural Example From the Entrada Sandstone, Southern Utah2022In: Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems, E-ISSN 1525-2027, Vol. 23, no 8, article id e2022GC010465Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Extensive regions of yellow and white ("bleached") sandstones within the terrestrial Jurassic red bed deposits of the Colorado Plateau reflect widespread interaction with subsurface reduced fluids which resulted in the dissolution of iron-oxide grain coatings. Reduced fluids such as hydrocarbons, CO2, and organic acids have been proposed as bleaching agents. In this study, we characterize an altered section of the Slick Rock member of the Jurassic Entrada Sandstone that exposes bleached sandstone with bitumen-saturated pore spaces. We observe differences in texture, porosity, mineralogy, and geochemistry between red, pink, yellow, and gray facies. In the bleached yellow facies we observe quartz overgrowths, partially dissolved K-feldspar, calcite cement, fine-grained illite, TiO2-minerals, and pyrite concretions. Clay mineral content is highest at the margins of the bleached section. Fe2O3 concentrations are reduced up to 3x from the red to gray facies but enriched up to 50x in iron-oxide concretions. Metals such as Zn, Pb, and rare-earth elements are significantly enriched in the concretions. Supported by a batch geochemical model, we conclude the interaction of red sandstones with reduced hydrocarbon-bearing fluids caused iron-oxide and K-feldspar dissolution, and precipitation of quartz, calcite, clay, and pyrite. Localized redistribution of iron into concretions can account for most of the iron removed during bleaching. Pyrite and carbonate stable isotopic data suggest the hydrocarbons were sourced from the Pennsylvanian Paradox Formation. Bitumen in pore spaces and pyrite precipitation formed a reductant trap required to produce Cu, U, and V enrichment in all altered facies by younger, oxidized saline brines.

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  • 10.
    Barnes, P. W.
    et al.
    Loyola University New Orleans, USA.
    Robson, T. M.
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Neale, P. J.
    Smithsonian Environmental Research Center, USA.
    Williamson, C. E.
    Miami University, USA.
    Zepp, R. G.
    US Environmental Protection Agency, USA.
    Madronich, S.
    National Center for Atmospheric Research, USA.
    Wilson, S. R.
    University of Wollongong, Australia.
    Andrady, A. L.
    North Carolina State University, USA.
    Heikkilä, A. M.
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Finland.
    Bernhard, G. H.
    Biospherical Instruments Inc, USA.
    Bais, A. F.
    Aristotle University, Greece.
    Neale, R. E.
    QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Australia.
    Bornman, J. F.
    Murdoch University, Australia.
    Jansen, M. A. K.
    University College Cork, Ireland.
    Klekociuk, A. R.
    Australian Antarctic Division, Australia.
    Martinez-Abaigar, J.
    University of La Rioja, Spain.
    Robinson, S. A.
    University of Wollongong, Australia.
    Wang, Q. -W
    Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), China.
    Banaszak, A. T.
    Universidad Nacional Autónoma De México, Mexico.
    Häder, D. -P
    Friedrich-Alexander University, Germany.
    Hylander, Samuel
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Water.
    Rose, K. C.
    Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, USA.
    Wängberg, S. -Å
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Foereid, B.
    Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research, Norway.
    Hou, W. -C
    National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan.
    Ossola, R.
    ETH Zürich, Switzerland.
    Paul, N. D.
    Lancaster University, UK.
    Ukpebor, J. E.
    University of Benin, Nigeria.
    Andersen, M. P. S.
    California State University, USA.
    Longstreth, J.
    The Institute for Global Risk Research, USA.
    Schikowski, T.
    Leibniz Institute of Environmental Medicine, Germany.
    Solomon, K. R.
    University of Guelph, Canada.
    Sulzberger, B.
    Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Switzerland.
    Bruckman, L. S.
    Case Western Reserve University, USA.
    Pandey, K. K.
    Institute of Wood Science and Technology, India.
    White, C. C.
    Polymer Science and Materials Chemistry (PSMC), USA.
    Zhu, L.
    Donghua University, China.
    Zhu, M.
    Donghua University, China.
    Aucamp, P. J.
    Ptersa Environmental Consultants, South Africa.
    Liley, J. B.
    National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research, New Zealand.
    McKenzie, R. L.
    National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research, New Zealand.
    Berwick, M.
    University of New Mexico, USA.
    Byrne, S. N.
    University of Sydney, Australia.
    Hollestein, L. M.
    Erasmus MC Cancer Institute, Netherlands.
    Lucas, R. M.
    Australian National University, Australia.
    Olsen, C. M.
    QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Australia.
    Rhodes, L. E.
    University of Manchester, UK.
    Yazar, S.
    Garvan Institute of Medical Research, Australia.
    Young, A. R.
    King’s College London (KCL), UK.
    Environmental effects of stratospheric ozone depletion, UV radiation, and interactions with climate change: UNEP Environmental Effects Assessment Panel, Update 20212022In: Photochemical and Photobiological Sciences, ISSN 1474-905X, E-ISSN 1474-9092, Vol. 21, p. 275-301Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Environmental Effects Assessment Panel of the Montreal Protocol under the United Nations Environment Programme evaluates effects on the environment and human health that arise from changes in the stratospheric ozone layer and concomitant variations in ultraviolet (UV) radiation at the Earth’s surface. The current update is based on scientific advances that have accumulated since our last assessment (Photochem and Photobiol Sci 20(1):1–67, 2021). We also discuss how climate change affects stratospheric ozone depletion and ultraviolet radiation, and how stratospheric ozone depletion affects climate change. The resulting interlinking effects of stratospheric ozone depletion, UV radiation, and climate change are assessed in terms of air quality, carbon sinks, ecosystems, human health, and natural and synthetic materials. We further highlight potential impacts on the biosphere from extreme climate events that are occurring with increasing frequency as a consequence of climate change. These and other interactive effects are examined with respect to the benefits that the Montreal Protocol and its Amendments are providing to life on Earth by controlling the production of various substances that contribute to both stratospheric ozone depletion and climate change.

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  • 11.
    Berggren, Hanna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Tibblin, Petter
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Water.
    Yildirim, Yeserin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Broman, Elias
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Larsson, Per
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Lundin, Daniel
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Water.
    Forsman, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Water.
    Fish Skin Microbiomes Are Highly Variable Among Individuals and Populations but Not Within Individuals2022In: Frontiers in Microbiology, E-ISSN 1664-302X, Vol. 12, article id 767770Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fish skin-associated microbial communities are highly variable among populations and species and can impact host fitness. Still, the sources of variation in microbiome composition, and particularly how they vary among and within host individuals, have rarely been investigated. To tackle this issue, we explored patterns of variation in fish skin microbiomes across different spatial scales. We conducted replicate sampling of dorsal and ventral body sites of perch (Perca fluviatilis) from two populations and characterized the variation of fish skin-associated microbial communities with 16S rRNA gene metabarcoding. Results showed a high similarity of microbiome samples taken from the left and right side of the same fish individuals, suggesting that fish skin microbiomes can be reliably assessed and characterized even using a single sample from a specific body site. The microbiome composition of fish skin differed markedly from the bacterioplankton communities in the surrounding water and was highly variable among individuals. No ASV was present in all samples, and the most prevalent phyla, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Proteobacteria, varied in relative abundance among fish hosts. Microbiome composition was both individual- and population specific, with most of the variation explained by individual host. At the individual level, we found no diversification in microbiome composition between dorsal and ventral body sites, but the degree of intra-individual heterogeneity varied among individuals. To identify how genetic and phenotypic characteristics of fish hosts impact the rate and nature of intra-individual temporal dynamics of the skin microbiome, and thereby contribute to the host-specific patterns documented here, remains an important task for future research.

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  • 12.
    Bergström, Kristofer
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Nordahl, Oscar
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Söderling, Peter
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Koch-Schmidt, Per
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Borger, Tobias
    County Administration Board Kalmar County, Sweden.
    Tibblin, Petter
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Water.
    Larsson, Per
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Exceptional longevity in northern peripheral populations of Wels catfish (Siluris glanis)2022In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 12, no 1, article id 8070Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies of life-history variation across a species range are crucial for ecological understanding and successful conservation. Here, we examined the growth and age of Wels catfish (Silurus glanis) in Sweden, which represent the northernmost populations in Europe. A total of 1183 individuals were captured, marked and released between 2006 and 2020. Mark-recapture data from 162 individuals (size range: 13-195 cm) were used to estimate von Bertalanffy growth curve parameters which revealed very slow growth rates compared to catfish within the core distribution area (central Europe). The fitted von Bertalanffy growth curve predicted a 150 cm catfish to be around 40 years old, while the largest recaptured individual (length 195 cm) was estimated to be 70 (95% CI 50-112) years old. This was substantially older than the previously documented maximum age of a catfish. The weight at length relationships in these northern peripheral populations were similar to those documented for catfish in central Europe indicating that resources did not constrain growth. This indicates that the slow growth and exceptional high age in the northern catfish populations are the result of lower temperatures and/or local adaptations.

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  • 13.
    Bernhard, G. H.
    et al.
    Biospherical Instruments Inc., USA.
    Neale, R. E.
    QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Australia.
    Barnes, P. W.
    Loyola University, USA.
    Neale, P. J.
    Smithsonian Environmental Research Center, USA.
    Zepp, R. G.
    United States Environmental Protection Agency, USA.
    Wilson, S. R.
    University of Wollongong, Australia.
    Andrady, A. L.
    North Carolina State University, USA.
    Bais, A. F.
    Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece.
    McKenzie, R. L.
    National Institute of Water & Atmospheric Research, New Zealand.
    Aucamp, P. J.
    Ptersa Environmental Consultants, South Africa.
    Young, P. J.
    Lancaster University, UK.
    Liley, J. B.
    National Institute of Water & Atmospheric Research, New Zealand.
    Lucas, R. M.
    Australian National University, Australia.
    Yazar, S.
    Garvan Institute of Medical Research, Australia.
    Rhodes, L. E.
    University of Manchester, UK;Salford Royal Hospital, UK.
    Byrne, S. N.
    University of Sydney, Australia.
    Hollestein, L. M.
    University Medical Center Rotterdam, Netherlands.
    Olsen, C. M.
    QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Australia.
    Young, A. R.
    King’s College London, UK.
    Robson, T. M.
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Bornman, J. F.
    Murdoch University, Australia.
    Jansen, M. A. K.
    University College Cork, Ireland.
    Robinson, S. A.
    University of Wollongong, Australia.
    Ballaré, C. L.
    University of Buenos Aires, Argentina.
    Williamson, C. E.
    Miami University, USA.
    Rose, K. C.
    Rensselaer Polytech Institute, USA.
    Banaszak, A. T.
    Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico.
    Häder, D. -P
    Friedrich-Alexander University, Germany.
    Hylander, Samuel
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Water.
    Wängberg, S. -Å
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Austin, A. T.
    University of Buenos Aires, Argentina.
    Hou, W. -C
    National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan.
    Paul, N. D.
    Lancaster University, UK.
    Madronich, S.
    National Center for Atmospheric Research, USA.
    Sulzberger, B.
    Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Switzerland.
    Solomon, K. R.
    University of Guelph, Canada.
    Li, H.
    Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, China.
    Schikowski, T.
    Leibniz Institute of Environmental Medicine, Germany.
    Longstreth, J.
    Institute for Global Risk Research, USA.
    Pandey, K. K.
    Institute of Wood Science and Technology, India.
    Heikkilä, A. M.
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Finland.
    White, C. C.
    Independent researcher, USA.
    Environmental effects of stratospheric ozone depletion, UV radiation and interactions with climate change: UNEP Environmental Effects Assessment Panel, update 20192020In: Photochemical and Photobiological Sciences, ISSN 1474-905X, E-ISSN 1474-9092, Vol. 19, no 5, p. 542-584Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This assessment, by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) Environmental Effects Assessment Panel (EEAP), one of three Panels informing the Parties to the Montreal Protocol, provides an update, since our previous extensive assessment (Photochem. Photobiol. Sci., 2019, 18, 595–828), of recent findings of current and projected interactive environmental effects of ultraviolet (UV) radiation, stratospheric ozone, and climate change. These effects include those on human health, air quality, terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, biogeochemical cycles, and materials used in construction and other services. The present update evaluates further evidence of the consequences of human activity on climate change that are altering the exposure of organisms and ecosystems to UV radiation. This in turn reveals the interactive effects of many climate change factors with UV radiation that have implications for the atmosphere, feedbacks, contaminant fate and transport, organismal responses, and many outdoor materials including plastics, wood, and fabrics. The universal ratification of the Montreal Protocol, signed by 197 countries, has led to the regulation and phase-out of chemicals that deplete the stratospheric ozone layer. Although this treaty has had unprecedented success in protecting the ozone layer, and hence all life on Earth from damaging UV radiation, it is also making a substantial contribution to reducing climate warming because many of the chemicals under this treaty are greenhouse gases.

  • 14.
    Braga, R.
    et al.
    Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
    Iglesias, Rodrigo S.
    Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
    Romio, Christiane
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Praeg, Daniel
    Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil;Géoazur, France.
    Miller, Dennis
    PETROBRAS, Brazil.
    Viana, Adriano
    PETROBRAS, Brazil.
    Ketzer, João Marcelo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Water.
    Modelling methane hydrate stability changes and gas release due to seasonal oscillations in bottom water temperatures on the Rio Grande cone, offshore southern Brazil2020In: Marine and Petroleum Geology, ISSN 0264-8172, E-ISSN 1873-4073, Vol. 112, p. 1-15, article id 104071Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The stability of methane hydrates on continental margins worldwide is sensitive to changes in temperature and pressure conditions. It has been shown how gradual increases in bottom water temperatures due to ocean warming over post-glacial timescales can destabilize shallow oceanic hydrate deposits, causing their dissociation and gas release into the ocean. However, bottom water temperatures (BWT) may also vary significantly over much shorter timescales, including due to seasonal temperature oscillations of the ocean bottom currents. In this study, we investigate how a shallow methane hydrate deposit responds to seasonal BWT oscillations with an amplitude of up to 1.5 °C. We use the TOUGH + HYDRATE code to model changes in the methane hydrate stability zone (MHSZ) using data from the Rio Grande Cone, in the South Atlantic Ocean off the Brazilian coast. In all the cases studied, BWT oscillations resulted in significant gaseous methane fluxes into the ocean for up to 10 years, followed by a short period of small fluxes of gaseous methane into the ocean, until they stopped completely. On the other hand, aqueous methane was released into the ocean during the 100 years simulated, for all the cases studied. During the temperature oscillations, the MHSZ recedes continuously both horizontally and, in a smaller scale, vertically, until a permanent and a seasonal region in MHSZ are defined. Sensitivity tests were carried out for parameters of porosity, thermal conductivity and initial hydrate saturation, which were shown to play an important role on the volume of methane released into the ocean and on the time interval in which such release occurs. Overall, the results indicate that in a system with no gas recharge from the bottom, seasonal temperature oscillations alone cannot account for long-term gas release into the ocean.

  • 15.
    Bravo, Giangiacomo
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Water. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Green Sustainable Development.
    Farjam, Mike
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Actions speak louder than words: Attitudes, behaviour, and partisan identity in a polarised environmental domain2022In: Energy Research & Social Science, ISSN 2214-6296, E-ISSN 2214-6326, Vol. 90, article id 102547Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The relationship between environmental attitudes and behaviour is known to be weak, especially when these variables are measured as self-report items in surveys. In addition many environmental questions are highly polarised, making it even more problematic to use survey data to inform policy making. To better explore the attitude–behaviour gap in the context of environmental policies, along with its interaction with partisan identity, we ran an online experiment with 805 U.S. residents. Four key variables – environmental attitudes, self-reported environmental behaviour, observed environmental behaviour (in the form of carbon-offset credit purchase), and partisan identity – were measured, and their interactions in promoting pro-environmental behaviour were analysed. We found that (1) self-reported and real behaviour are almost uncorrelated and (2) partisan identity mainly predicted self-reported not actual environmental behaviour. These results suggest that policy-making needs to rely more on behavioural insight to test policies’ actual effects and to promote real improvement of the local and global environment.

  • 16.
    Broman, Elias
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Holmfeldt, Karin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Water.
    Bonaglia, Stefano
    Stockholm University, Sweden;Univ Southern Denmark, Denmark;HADAL, Denmark;University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hall, Per O. J.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Nascimento, Francisco J. A.
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Cyanophage Diversity and Community Structure in Dead Zone Sediments2021In: mSphere, E-ISSN 2379-5042, Vol. 6, no 2, article id e00208-21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Up to 20% of prokaryotic organisms in the oceans are estimated to die every day due to viral infection and lysis. Viruses can therefore alter microbial diversity, community structure, and biogeochemical processes driven by these organisms. Cyanophages are viruses that infect and lyse cyanobacterial cells, adding bioavailable carbon and nutrients into the environment. Cyanobacteria are photosynthesizing bacteria, with some species capable of N-2 fixation, which are known to form large blooms as well as resistant resting cells known as akinetes. Here, we investigated cyanophage diversity and community structure plus cyanobacteria in dead zone sediments. We sampled surface sediments and sequenced DNA and RNA, along an oxygen gradient-representing oxic, hypoxic, and anoxic conditions-in one of the world's largest dead zones located in the Baltic Sea. Cyanophages were detected at all stations and, based on partial genome contigs, had a higher alpha diversity and different beta diversity in the hypoxic-anoxic sediments, suggesting that cyanobacteria in dead zone sediments and/or environmental conditions select for specific cyanophages. Some of these cyanophages can infect cyanobacteria with potential consequences for gene expression related to their photosystem and phosphate regulation. Top cyanobacterial genera detected in the anoxic sediment included Dolichospermum/Anabaena, Synechococcus, and Cyanobium. RNA transcripts classified to cyanobacteria were associated with numerous pathways, including anaerobic carbon metabolism and N-2 fixation. Cyanobacterial blooms are known to fuel oxygen-depleted ecosystems with phosphorus (so-called internal loading), and our cyanophage data indicate the potential for viral lysis of cyanobacteria which might explain the high nutrient turnover in these environments. IMPORTANCE Cyanophages are viruses that target cyanobacteria and directly control their abundance via viral lysis. Cyanobacteria are known to cause large blooms in water bodies, substantially contributing to oxygen depletion in bottom waters resulting in areas called dead zones. Our knowledge of cyanophages in dead zones is very scarce, and so far, no studies have assembled partial cyanophage genomes and investigated their associated cyanobacteria in these dark and anoxic sediments. Here, we present the first study using DNA and RNA sequencing to investigate in situ diversity of cyanophages and cyanobacteria in dead zones. Our study shows that dead zone sediments contain different cyanophages compared to oxic sediments and suggest that these viruses are able to affect cyanobacterial photosystem and phosphate regulation. Furthermore, cyanophage-controlled lysis of cyanobacteria might also increase the turnover of carbon, phosphorus, and nitrogen in these oxygen-free environments at the bottom of the sea.

  • 17.
    Buetti-Dinh, Antoine
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Università della Svizzera italiana, Switzerland;Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics, Switzerland.
    Herold, Malte
    University of Luxembourg, Luxembourg.
    Christel, Stephan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    El Hajjami, Mohamed
    QNLM, China.
    Delogu, Francesco
    Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Norway.
    Ilie, Olga
    Università della Svizzera italiana, Switzerland;Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics, Switzerland.
    Bellenberg, Sören
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Wilmes, Paul
    University of Luxembourg, Luxembourg.
    Poetsch, Ansgar
    Ruhr University Bochum, Germany;QNLM, China;Ocean University of China, China.
    Sand, Wolfgang
    University Duisburg-Essen, Germany;Donghua University, China;Mining Academy and Technical University Freiberg, Germany.
    Vera, Mario
    Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Chile.
    Pivkin, Igor V.
    Università della Svizzera italiana, Switzerland;Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics, Switzerland.
    Friedman, Ran
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Water.
    Dopson, Mark
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Reverse engineering directed gene regulatory networks from transcriptomics and proteomics data of biomining bacterial communities with approximate Bayesian computation and steady-state signalling simulations2020In: BMC Bioinformatics, E-ISSN 1471-2105, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 1-15, article id 23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Network inference is an important aim of systems biology. It enables the transformation of OMICs datasets into biological knowledge. It consists of reverse engineering gene regulatory networks from OMICs data, such as RNAseq or mass spectrometry-based proteomics data, through computational methods. This approach allows to identify signalling pathways involved in specific biological functions. The ability to infer causality in gene regulatory networks, in addition to correlation, is crucial for several modelling approaches and allows targeted control in biotechnology applications. Methods: We performed simulations according to the approximate Bayesian computation method, where the core model consisted of a steady-state simulation algorithm used to study gene regulatory networks in systems for which a limited level of details is available. The simulations outcome was compared to experimentally measured transcriptomics and proteomics data through approximate Bayesian computation. Results: The structure of small gene regulatory networks responsible for the regulation of biological functions involved in biomining were inferred from multi OMICs data of mixed bacterial cultures. Several causal inter- and intraspecies interactions were inferred between genes coding for proteins involved in the biomining process, such as heavy metal transport, DNA damage, replication and repair, and membrane biogenesis. The method also provided indications for the role of several uncharacterized proteins by the inferred connection in their network context. Conclusions: The combination of fast algorithms with high-performance computing allowed the simulation of a multitude of gene regulatory networks and their comparison to experimentally measured OMICs data through approximate Bayesian computation, enabling the probabilistic inference of causality in gene regulatory networks of a multispecies bacterial system involved in biomining without need of single-cell or multiple perturbation experiments. This information can be used to influence biological functions and control specific processes in biotechnology applications.

  • 18.
    Burlakovs, Juris
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Estonia university of life sciences, Estonia.
    Hogland, William
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Water.
    Vincevica-Gaile, Zane
    University of Latvia, Latvia.
    Kriipsalu, Mait
    Estonia university of life sciences, Estonia;University of Latvia, Latvia.
    Klavins, Maris
    University of Latvia, Latvia.
    Jani, Yahya
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Setyobudi, Roy Hendroko
    university of Muhammadiyah Malang, Indonesia.
    Bikše, Jānis
    University of Latvia, Latvia.
    Rud, Vasiliy
    Russian Agricultural Academy, Russia.
    Tamm, Toomas
    Estonia university of life sciences, Estonia.
    Environmental Quality of Groundwater in Contaminated Areas—Challenges in Eastern Baltic Region2020In: Water Resources Quality and Management in Baltic Sea Countries / [ed] Abdelazim M. Negm, Martina Zelenáková & Katarzyna Kubiak-Wójcicka, Switzerland: Springer, 2020, p. 59-84Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The lack of water in the future will force society to find more sophisticated solutions for treatment and improvement of groundwater wherever it comes from. Contamination of soil and groundwater is a legacy of modern society, prevention of contaminants spread and secondary water reuse options shall be considered. The aim of the book chapter is to give oversight view on problems and challenges linked to groundwater quality in Eastern Baltic region whilst through case studies explaining the practical problems with groundwater monitoring, remediation and overall environmental quality analysis. The reader will get introduced with case studies in industry levels as credibility of scientific fundamentals is higher when practical solutions are shown. Eastern Baltic countries experience cover contamination problems that are mainly of historic origin due to former Soviet military and industrial policy implementation through decades. Short summaries for each case study are given and main conclusions provided in form of recommendations at the very end of the chapter.

  • 19.
    Burlakovs, Juris
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Geo IT Ltd, Latvia.
    Jani, Yahya
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Kriipsalu, M.
    Estonian Univ Life Sci, Estonia.
    Grinfelde, I.
    Latvia Univ Life Sci & Technol, Latvia.
    Pilecka, J.
    Latvia Univ Life Sci & Technol, Latvia.
    Hogland, William
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Water.
    Implementation of new concepts in waste management in tourist metropolitan areas2020In: 2019 9TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ENVIRONMENT SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING (ICESE 2019) / [ed] Sevilla, NPM Quanrud, D, IOP Publishing , 2020, p. 1-10, article id 012017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The urban waste in tourist cities needs comprehensive global research efforts and proceeded action as for metropolitan areas huge impact and load on waste management is generated. Waste management and resource conservation strategies are prepared in state-of-the-art level however implementation and future improvement of the current situation is crucial. Some examples in waste prevention and management for better tourism, waste and resource management are provided in the paper as outcomes from Horizon2020 project "Urban Strategies for Waste Management in Tourist Cities". The policy and tools based on information gathered by scientists, municipal and NGOs experience (e.g. separation of bio-waste in catering industries, "sin-wastes" as from the bars, nightclubs and smoker places, reuse of unnecessary items that can serve for others and many more) are described. In addition, regulatory instruments (e.g. ban of plastic bags, reduction of allowed bio-waste in landfilling), economic instruments (taxes) and voluntary agreements (e.g. deposit systems; cleaning actions by volunteers) might be used to implement and elaborate the situation within environmental management and prevention practices in tourist metropolitan cities. Food waste prevention, beach and littoral management, special practices for festival waste and large amount specific waste generating facilities (e.g., entertainment industry, cruises etc.) are of high importance. The future outlook may be concentrated on digitalizing of waste flows and using the "big data" concept for better and smarter waste management.

  • 20.
    Caliendo, V
    et al.
    Erasmus MC, Netherlands.
    Lewis, N. S.
    Royal Vet Coll, UK;Anim & Plant Hlth Agcy, UK.
    Pohlmann, A.
    Friedrich Loeffler Inst, Germany.
    Baillie, S. R.
    British Trust Ornithol, UK;European Union Bird Ringing, UK.
    Banyard, A. C.
    Anim & Plant Hlth Agcy, UK.
    Beer, M.
    Friedrich Loeffler Inst, Germany.
    Brown, I. H.
    Anim & Plant Hlth Agcy, UK.
    Fouchier, R. A. M.
    Erasmus MC, Netherlands.
    Hansen, R. D. E.
    Anim & Plant Hlth Agcy, UK.
    Lameris, T. K.
    Royal Netherlands Inst Sea Res, Netherlands.
    Lang, A. S.
    Mem Univ Newfoundland, Canada.
    Laurendeau, S.
    Canadian Food Inspect Agcy, Canada.
    Lung, O.
    Canadian Food Inspect Agcy, Canada.
    Robertson, G.
    Environm & Climate Change Canada, Canada.
    van der Jeugd, H.
    Vogeltrekstn Netherlands Inst Ecol NIOO KNAW, Netherlands.
    Alkie, T. N.
    Canadian Food Inspect Agcy, Canada.
    Thorup, K.
    Univ Copenhagen, Denmark.
    van Toor, Mariëlle L.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Water.
    Yason, C.
    Univ Prince Edward Isl, Canada.
    Kuiken, T.
    Erasmus MC, Netherlands.
    Berhane, Y.
    Canadian Food Inspect Agcy, Canada.
    Transatlantic spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 by wild birds from Europe to North America in 20212022In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 12, no 1, article id 11729Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses of the A/Goose/Guangdong/1/1996 lineage (GsGd), which threaten the health of poultry, wildlife and humans, are spreading across Asia, Europe, Africa and North America but are currently absent from South America and Oceania. In December 2021, H5N1 HPAI viruses were detected in poultry and a free-living gull in St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. Our phylogenetic analysis showed that these viruses were most closely related to HPAI GsGd viruses circulating in northwestern Europe in spring 2021. Our analysis of wild bird migration suggested that these viruses may have been carried across the Atlantic via Iceland, Greenland/Arctic or pelagic routes. The here documented incursion of HPAI GsGd viruses into North America raises concern for further virus spread across the Americas by wild bird migration.

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  • 21.
    Capo, Eric
    et al.
    Umeå University, Sweden;Swedish university of agricultural sciences, Sweden.
    Bravo, Andrea G.
    Inst Ciencies Mar ICM CSIC, Spain.
    Soerensen, Anne L.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Sweden.
    Bertilsson, Stefan
    Swedish university of agricultural sciences, Sweden.
    Pinhassi, Jarone
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Water.
    Feng, Caiyan
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Andersson, Anders F.
    KTH Royal institute of technology, Sweden.
    Buck, Moritz
    Swedish university of agricultural sciences, Sweden.
    Bjorn, Erik
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Deltaproteobacteria and Spirochaetes-Like Bacteria Are Abundant Putative Mercury Methylators in Oxygen-Deficient Water and Marine Particles in the Baltic Sea2020In: Frontiers in Microbiology, E-ISSN 1664-302X, Vol. 11, p. 1-11, article id 574080Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Methylmercury (MeHg), a neurotoxic compound biomagnifying in aquatic food webs, can be a threat to human health via fish consumption. However, the composition and distribution of the microbial communities mediating the methylation of mercury (Hg) to MeHg in marine systems remain largely unknown. In order to fill this knowledge gap, we used the Baltic Sea Reference Metagenome (BARM) dataset to study the abundance and distribution of the genes involved in Hg methylation (thehgcABgene cluster). We determined the relative abundance of thehgcABgenes and their taxonomic identity in 81 brackish metagenomes that cover spatial, seasonal and redox variability in the Baltic Sea water column. ThehgcABgenes were predominantly detected in anoxic water, but somehgcABgenes were also detected in hypoxic and normoxic waters. Phylogenetic analysis identified putative Hg methylators within Deltaproteobacteria, in oxygen-deficient water layers, but also Spirochaetes-like and Kiritimatiellaeota-like bacteria. Higher relative quantities ofhgcABgenes were found in metagenomes from marine particles compared to free-living communities in anoxic water, suggesting that such particles are hotspot habitats for Hg methylators in oxygen-depleted seawater. Altogether, our work unveils the diversity of the microorganisms with the potential to mediate MeHg production in the Baltic Sea and pinpoint the important ecological niches for these microorganisms within the marine water column.

  • 22.
    Capo, Eric
    et al.
    Umeå University, Sweden;SLU Uppsala, Sweden.
    Broman, Elias
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Bonaglia, Stefano
    Stockholm University, Sweden;University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bravo, Andrea G.
    CSIC, Spain.
    Bertilsson, Stefan
    Swedish University of agricultural sciences, Sweden.
    Soerensen, Anne L.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Sweden.
    Pinhassi, Jarone
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Water.
    Lundin, Daniel
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Water.
    Buck, Moritz
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Hall, Per O. J.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Nascimento, Francisco J. A.
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Björn, Erik
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Oxygen-deficient water zones in the Baltic Sea promote uncharacterized Hg methylating microorganisms in underlying sediments2022In: Limnology and Oceanography, ISSN 0024-3590, E-ISSN 1939-5590, Vol. 67, no 1, p. 135-146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Human-induced expansion of oxygen-deficient zones can have dramatic impacts on marine systems and its resident biota. One example is the formation of the potent neurotoxic methylmercury (MeHg) that is mediated by microbial methylation of inorganic divalent Hg (Hg-II) under oxygen-deficient conditions. A negative consequence of the expansion of oxygen-deficient zones could be an increase in MeHg production due to shifts in microbial communities in favor of microorganisms methylating Hg. There is, however, limited knowledge about Hg-methylating microbes, i.e., those carrying hgc genes critical for mediating the process, from marine sediments. Here, we aim to study the presence of hgc genes and transcripts in metagenomes and metatranscriptomes from four surface sediments with contrasting concentrations of oxygen and sulfide in the Baltic Sea. We show that potential Hg methylators differed among sediments depending on redox conditions. Sediments with an oxygenated surface featured hgc-like genes and transcripts predominantly associated with uncultured Desulfobacterota (OalgD group) and Desulfobacterales (including Desulfobacula sp.) while sediments with a hypoxic-anoxic surface included hgc-carrying Verrucomicrobia, unclassified Desulfobacterales, Desulfatiglandales, and uncharacterized microbes. Our data suggest that the expansion of oxygen-deficient zones in marine systems may lead to a compositional change of Hg-methylating microbial groups in the sediments, where Hg methylators whose metabolism and biology have not yet been characterized will be promoted and expand.

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  • 23.
    Capo, Eric
    et al.
    Umeå University, Sweden;Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Feng, Caiyan
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Bravo, Andrea G.
    CSIC, Spain.
    Bertilsson, Stefan
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Soerensen, Anne L.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Sweden.
    Pinhassi, Jarone
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Water.
    Buck, Moritz
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Camilla
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Hawkes, Jeffrey
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Björn, Erik
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Expression Levels of hgcAB Genes and Mercury Availability Jointly Explain Methylmercury Formation in Stratified Brackish Waters2022In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 56, no 18, p. 13119-13130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Neurotoxic methylmercury (MeHg) is formed by microbial methylation of inorganic divalent Hg (Hg-II) and constitutes severe environmental and human health risks. The methylation is enabled by hgcA and hgcB genes, but it is not know nif the associated molecular-level processes are rate-limiting or enable accurate prediction of MeHg formation in nature. In this study, we investigated the relationships between hgc genes and MeHg across redox-stratified water columns in the brackish Baltic Sea. We showed, for the first time, that hgc transcript abundance and the concentration of dissolved Hg-II-sulfide species were strong predictors of both the Hg-II methylation rate and MeHg concentration, implying their roles as principal joint drivers of MeHg formation in these systems. Additionally, we characterized the metabolic capacities of hgc(+) microorganisms by reconstructing their genomes from metagenomes (i.e., hgc(+) MAGs), which highlighted the versatility of putative Hg-II methylators in the water column of the Baltic Sea. In establishing relationships between hgc transcripts and the Hg-II methylation rate, we advance the fundamental understanding of mechanistic principles governing MeHg formation in nature and enable refined predictions of MeHg levels in coastal seas in response to the accelerating spread of oxygen-deficientzones.

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  • 24.
    Capo, Eric
    et al.
    CSIC, Spain;Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Peterson, Benjamin D.
    Univ Wisconsin, USA.
    Kim, Minjae
    Colorado State Univ, USA.
    Jones, Daniel S.
    New Mexico Inst Min & Technol, USA;Natl Cave & Karst Res Inst, USA.
    Acinas, Silvia G.
    CSIC, Spain.
    Amyot, Marc
    Univ Montreal, Canada.
    Bertilsson, Stefan
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Bjoern, Erik
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Buck, Moritz
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Cosio, Claudia
    Univ Reims, France.
    Elias, Dwayne A.
    Elias Consulting LLC, USA.
    Gilmour, Cynthia
    Smithsonian Environm Res Ctr, USA.
    Goni-Urriza, Marisol
    Univ Pau & Pays Adour, France.
    Gu, Baohua
    Oak Ridge Natl Lab, USA.
    Lin, Heyu
    Univ Melbourne, Australia.
    Liu, Yu-Rong
    Huazhong Agr Univ, China.
    McMahon, Katherine
    Univ Wisconsin, USA.
    Moreau, John W.
    Univ Glasgow, UK.
    Pinhassi, Jarone
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Water.
    Podar, Mircea
    Oak Ridge Natl Lab, USA.
    Puente-Sanchez, Fernando
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Sanchez, Pablo
    CSIC, Spain.
    Storck, Veronika
    Univ Montreal, Canada.
    Tada, Yuya
    Natl Inst Minamata Dis, Japan.
    Vigneron, Adrien
    Univ Pau & Pays Adour, France.
    Walsh, David A.
    Concordia Univ, Canada.
    Vandewalle-Capo, Marine
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Bravo, Andrea G.
    CSIC, Spain.
    Gionfriddo, Caitlin M.
    Smithsonian Environm Res Ctr, USA.
    A consensus protocol for the recovery of mercury methylation genes from metagenomes2023In: Molecular Ecology Resources, ISSN 1755-098X, E-ISSN 1755-0998, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 190-204Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mercury (Hg) methylation genes (hgcAB) mediate the formation of the toxic methylmercury and have been identified from diverse environments, including freshwater and marine ecosystems, Arctic permafrost, forest and paddy soils, coal-ash amended sediments, chlor-alkali plants discharges and geothermal springs. Here we present the first attempt at a standardized protocol for the detection, identification and quantification of hgc genes from metagenomes. Our Hg-cycling microorganisms in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems (Hg-MATE) database, a catalogue of hgc genes, provides the most accurate information to date on the taxonomic identity and functional/metabolic attributes of microorganisms responsible for Hg methylation in the environment. Furthermore, we introduce "marky-coco", a ready-to-use bioinformatic pipeline based on de novo single-metagenome assembly, for easy and accurate characterization of hgc genes from environmental samples. We compared the recovery of hgc genes from environmental metagenomes using the marky-coco pipeline with an approach based on coassembly of multiple metagenomes. Our data show similar efficiency in both approaches for most environments except those with high diversity (i.e., paddy soils) for which a coassembly approach was preferred. Finally, we discuss the definition of true hgc genes and methods to normalize hgc gene counts from metagenomes.

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  • 25.
    Cerro-Galvez, Elena
    et al.
    IDAEA CSIC, Spain.
    Dachs, Jordi
    IDAEA CSIC, Spain.
    Lundin, Daniel
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Water.
    Fernandez-Pinos, Maria-Carmen
    IDAEA CSIC, Spain.
    Sebastian, Marta
    ICM CSIC, Spain.
    Vila-Costa, Maria
    IDAEA CSIC, Spain.
    Responses of Coastal Marine Microbiomes Exposed to Anthropogenic Dissolved Organic Carbon2021In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 55, no 14, p. 9609-9621Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Coastal seawaters receive thousands of organic pollutants. However, we have little understanding of the response of microbiomes to this pool of anthropogenic dissolved organic carbon (ADOC). In this study, coastal microbial communities were challenged with ADOC at environmentally relevant concentrations. Experiments were performed at two Mediterranean sites with different impact by pollutants and nutrients: off the Barcelona harbor ("BCN"), and at the Blanes Bay ("BL"). ADOC additions stimulated prokaryotic leucine incorporation rates at both sites, indicating the use of ADOC as growth substrate. The percentage of "membranecompromised" cells increased with increasing ADOC, indicating concurrent toxic effects of ADOC. Metagenomic analysis of the BCN community challenged with ADOC showed a significant growth of Methylophaga and other gammaproteobacterial taxa belonging to the rare biosphere. Gene expression profiles showed a taxon-dependent response, with significantly enrichments of transcripts from SAR11 and Glaciecola spp. in BCN and BL, respectively. Further, the relative abundance of transposon-related genes (in BCN) and transcripts (in BL) correlated with the number of differentially abundant genes (in BCN) and transcripts (in BLA), suggesting that microbial responses to pollution may be related to pre-exposure to pollutants, with transposons playing a role in adaptation to ADOC. Our results point to a taxon-specific response to low concentrations of ADOC that impact the functionality, structure and plasticity of the communities in coastal seawaters. This work contributes to address the influence of pollutants on microbiomes and their perturbation to ecosystem services and ocean health.

  • 26.
    Chen, Deliang
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden;Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Rodhe, Henning
    Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden;Stockholm University, Sweden;Centre of Natural Hazards and Disaster Science, Sweden.
    Emanuel, Kerry
    MIT, USA.
    Seneviratne, Sonia, I
    Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Switzerland.
    Zhai, Panmao
    Chinese Acad Meteorol Sci, China.
    Allard, Bert
    Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden;Örebro University, Sweden.
    Berg, Peter
    Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, Sweden.
    Bjorck, Svante
    Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden;Lund University, Sweden.
    Brown, Ian A.
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Barring, Lars
    Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, Sweden.
    Chafik, Leon
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Deng, Kaiqiang
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Gaillard, Marie-José
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Water. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Hieronymus, Magnus
    Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, Sweden.
    Kjellstrom, Erik
    Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, Sweden;Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Linderholm, Hans W.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    May, Wilhelm
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Naslund, Jens-Ove
    Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co, Sweden.
    Ou, Tinghai
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Rutgersson, Anna
    Centre of Natural Hazards and Disaster Science, Sweden;Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Sahlee, Erik
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Schenk, Frederik
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Sjolte, Jesper
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Sporre, Moa K.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Stigebrandt, Anders
    Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden;University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Weyhenmeyer, Gesa A.
    Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden;Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Zhang, Peng
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Zhang, Qiong
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Summary of a workshop on extreme weather events in a warming world organized by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences2020In: Tellus. Series B, Chemical and physical meteorology, ISSN 0280-6509, E-ISSN 1600-0889, Vol. 72, no 1, p. 1-13, article id 1794236Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change is not only about changes in means of climatic variables such as temperature, precipitation and wind, but also their extreme values which are of critical importance to human society and ecosystems. To inspire the Swedish climate research community and to promote assessments of international research on past and future changes in extreme weather events against the global climate change background, the Earth Science Class of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences organized a workshop entitled 'Extreme weather events in a warming world' in 2019. This article summarizes and synthesizes the key points from the presentations and discussions of the workshop on changes in floods, droughts, heat waves, as well as on tropical cyclones and extratropical storms. In addition to reviewing past achievements in these research fields and identifying research gaps with a focus on Sweden, future challenges and opportunities for the Swedish climate research community are highlighted.

  • 27.
    Cupertino, José Antonio
    et al.
    Instituto do Petróleo e dos Recursos Naturais - PUCRS, Brazil.
    Augustin, Adolpho Herbert
    Instituto do Petróleo e dos Recursos Naturais - PUCRS, Brazil.
    Rodrigues, Luiz Frederico
    Universidad Austral de Chile, Chile.
    Ketzer, João Marcelo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Water.
    Viana, Adriano Roessler
    Petrobras, Brazil.
    Miller, Dennis James
    Centro de Pesquisas da Petrobras (CENPES), Brazil.
    Estado da arte das ocorrências de hidratos de gás ao longo da margem continental Brasileira2022In: Economia azul - vetores para o desenvolvimento do Brasil. / [ed] Santos, T., Sao Paulo: Marinha do Brasil , 2022, p. 623-648Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 28.
    Dadvar, Atefeh
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Forss, Jörgen
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Water.
    Water Use Behavior in a Multicultural Urban Area in Sweden2021In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 13, no 15, article id 8603Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing world population and climate change are major concerns for the supply of water needs. Understanding user behavior facilitates the development of effective strategies of domestic water management. This research applied a questionnaire survey and data analysis methods to analyze the water consumption behavior of tenants in a multicultural urban area, dominated by immigrants of different ethnic origins, in the city of Växjö in Sweden. Results showed that the majority of the studied participants perceived themselves to be environmentally friendly. They reported to be engaged in water conservation activities quite often, but analysis showed that they did not have accurate perceptions of their water consumption. Positive attitudes towards water conservation and self-reported water conservation activities significantly but negatively influenced respondents’ actual water consumption, i.e., water consumption was higher. Subjective norms did not have a significant influence. The results also revealed that individual measurement and debit positively influenced, i.e., reduced, actual water consumption. Therefore, water management systems should include an individual measurement and debit system combined with a visualization system to enable tenants to monitor the quantity and cost of their water consumption.

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  • 29.
    De Moor, Tine
    et al.
    Erasmus University Rotterdam, Netherlands.
    Farjam, Mike
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM).
    Van Weeren, René
    Utrecht University, Netherlands.
    Bravo, Giangiacomo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Water.
    Forsman, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Ghorbani, Amineh
    Delft University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Dehkordi, Molood Ale Ebrahim
    Delft University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Taking sanctioning seriously: The impact of sanctions on the resilience of historical commons in Europe2021In: Journal of Rural Studies, ISSN 0743-0167, E-ISSN 1873-1392, Vol. 87, p. 181-188Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In their studies of collective exploitation of common-pool resources, Ostrom and other scholars have stressed the importance of sanctioning as an essential method for preventing overuse and, eventually, the collapse of commons. However, most of the available evidence is based on data covering a relatively small period in history, and thus does not inform us about the evolution of rules, including sanctions, over time. In this article, we demonstrate, based on historical sources covering several centuries, that sanctioning was not always the preferred way of preventing or dealing with free-riding in institutions for collective action, but that the legal context is decisive to understand why commoners in some countries were using more sanctions than those in others to regulate commoners' behavior. Commoners that could self-govern their resources used fewer sanctions, and when they did, it was mainly to avoid overuse of their most vulnerable resources. Moreover, graduated sanctioning seems to be less important than suggested in Ostrom's famous Design Principles, and was reserved primarily for immediate threats to the commons' resources. We also show the importance of other types of rules, such as differentiated rules, which have hardly been taken into account in literature to date.

  • 30.
    Dehkordi, Molood Ale Ebrahim
    et al.
    Delft University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Ghorbani, Amineh
    Delft University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Herder, Paulien
    Delft University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Farjam, Mike
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM).
    Forsman, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    van Weeren, René
    Utrecht University, Netherlands.
    De Moor, Tine
    Erasmus University, Netherlands.
    Bravo, Giangiacomo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Water.
    The role of wealth inequality on collective action for management of common pool resource2021In: Advances in social simulation / [ed] Petra Ahrweiler; Martin Neumann, Springer, 2021, p. 375-379Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Drake, Henrik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Water.
    Spår av uråldrigt mikrobiellt liv djupt ner i Siljansringen2020In: Geologiskt Forum, ISSN 1104-4721, no 105Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 32.
    Drake, Henrik
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Water.
    Ivarsson, Magnus
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Sweden.
    Fossil svamp i Siljansringens meteoritkrater2021In: Geologiskt Forum, ISSN 1104-4721, no 110, p. 18-21Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 33.
    Drake, Henrik
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Water.
    Ivarsson, Magnus
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Sweden.
    Heim, Christine
    University of Cologne, Germany.
    Tracking the Deep Biosphere through Time2020In: Geosciences, E-ISSN 2076-3263, Vol. 10, no 11, p. 1-6, article id 461Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The oceanic and continental lithosphere constitutes Earth’s largest microbial habitat, yet it is scarcely investigated and not well understood. The physical and chemical properties here are distinctly different from the overlaying soils and the hydrosphere, which greatly impact the microbial communities and associated geobiological and geochemical processes. Fluid–rock interactions are key processes for microbial colonization and persistence in a nutrient-poor and extreme environment. Investigations during recent years have spotted microbial processes, stable isotope variations, and species that are unique to the subsurface crust. Recent advances in geochronology have enabled the direct dating of minerals formed in response to microbial activity, which in turn have led to an increased understanding of the evolution of the deep biosphere in (deep) time. Similarly, the preservation of isotopic signatures, as well as organic compounds within fossilized micro-colonies or related mineral assemblages in voids, cements, and fractures/veins in the upper crust, provides an archive that can be tapped for knowledge about ancient microbial activity, including both prokaryotic and eukaryotic life. This knowledge sheds light on how lifeforms have evolved in the energy-poor subsurface, but also contributes to the understanding of the boundaries of life on Earth, of early life when the surface was not habitable, and of the preservation of signatures of ancient life, which may have astrobiological implications. The Special Issue “Tracking the Deep Biosphere through Time” presents a collection of scientific contributions that provide a sample of forefront research in this field. The contributions involve a range of case studies of deep ancient life in continental and oceanic settings, of microbial diversity in sub-seafloor environments, of isolation of calcifying bacteria as well as reviews of clay mineralization of fungal biofilms and of the carbon isotope records of the deep biosphere.

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  • 34.
    Drake, Henrik
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Water.
    Ivarsson, MagnusSwedish Museum of Natural History, Sweden.Heim, ChristineUniversity of Cologne, Germany.
    Tracking the Deep Biosphere through Time2022Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This book is a printed edition of the Special Issue Tracking the Deep Biosphere through Time that was published in  Geosciences.

  • 35.
    Drake, Henrik
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Water.
    Ivarsson, Magnus
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Sweden.
    Heim, Christine
    Georg-August University, Germany;University of Cologne, Germany.
    Snoeyenbos-West, Oona
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Sweden.
    Bengtson, Stefan
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Sweden.
    Belivanova, Veneta
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Sweden.
    Whitehouse, Martin
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Sweden.
    Fossilized anaerobic and possibly methanogenesis-fueling fungi identified deep within the Siljan impact structure, Sweden2021In: Communications Earth & Environment, E-ISSN 2662-4435, Vol. 2, article id 34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent discoveries of extant and fossilized communities indicate that eukaryotes, including fungi, inhabit energy-poor and anoxic environments deep within the fractured igneous crust. This subterranean biosphere may constitute the largest fungal habitat on our planet, but knowledge of abyssal fungi and their syntrophic interactions with prokaryotes and their concomitant metabolisms is scarce. Here we report findings of fossilized, chitin-bearing fungal hyphae at ~540 m depth in fractured bedrock of the Siljan impact structure, the largest crater in Europe. Strong 13C-enrichment of calcite precipitated with and on the fungi suggests formation following methanogenesis, and that the anaerobic fungi decomposed dispersed organic matter producing for example H2 that may have fueled autotrophic methanogens. An Eocene age determined for the calcite infers the first timing constraint of fossilized fungi in the continental igneous crust. Fungi may be widespread decomposers of organic matter and overlooked providers of H2 to autotrophs in the vast rock-hosted deep biosphere.

  • 36.
    Drake, Henrik
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Water.
    Kooijman, Ellen
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Sweden.
    Kielman-Schmitt, Melanie
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Sweden.
    Using 87Sr/86Sr LA-MC-ICP-MS Transects within Modern and Ancient Calcite Crystals to Determine Fluid Flow Events in Deep Granite Fractures2020In: Geosciences, E-ISSN 2076-3263, Vol. 10, no 9, p. 1-23, article id 345Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The strontium isotope signature (87Sr/86Sr) of calcite precipitated in rock fractures and faults is a frequently used tool to trace paleofluid flow. However, bedrock fracture networks, such as in Precambrian cratons, have often undergone multiple fracture reactivations resulting in complex sequences of fracture mineral infillings. This includes numerous discrete calcite crystal overgrowths. Conventional 87Sr/86Sr analysis of dissolved bulk samples of such crystals is not feasible as they will result in mixed signatures of several growth zonations. In addition, the zonations are too fine-grained for sub-sampling using micro-drilling. Here, we apply high spatial resolution 87Sr/86Sr spot analysis (80 µm) in transects through zoned calcite crystals in deep Paleoproterozoic granitoid fractures using laser ablation multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-MC-ICP-MS) to trace discrete signs of paleofluid flow events. We compare the outermost calcite growth zone with 87Sr/86Sr values of the present-day groundwater sampled in the same boreholes to distinguish potential modern precipitates. We then connect our results to previously reported radiometric dating and C and O isotope signatures to understand the temporal history and physicochemical evolution of fluid flow within the fractures. Comparisons of modern calcite precipitated in a borehole over a period of 17 years with modern waters prove the concept of using 87Sr/86Sr as a marker for fluid origin in this environment and for how 87Sr/86Sr changed during marine water infiltration. Intermittent calcite precipitation over very long time spans is indicated in calcite of the currently open fractures, showing an evolution of 87Sr/86Sr from ~0.705–0.707—a population dated to ~1.43 billion years—to crystal overgrowth values at ~0.715–0.717 that overlap with the present-day groundwater values. This shows that high spatial resolution Sr isotope analysis of fine-scaled growth zonation within single calcite crystals is applicable for tracing episodic fluid flow in fracture networks

  • 37.
    Drake, Henrik
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Water.
    Reiners, Peter W.
    University of Arizona, USA.
    Thermochronologic perspectives on the deep-time evolution of the deep biosphere2021In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 118, no 45, article id e2109609118Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Earth’s deep biosphere hosts some of its most ancient chemolithotrophic lineages. The history of habitation in this environment is thus of interest for understanding the origin and evolution of life. The oldest rocks on Earth, formed about 4 billion years ago, are in continental cratons that have experienced complex histories due to burial and exhumation. Isolated fracture-hosted fluids in these cratons may have residence times older than a billion years, but understanding the history of their microbial communities requires assessing the evolution of habitable conditions. Here, we present a thermochronological perspective on the habitability of Precambrian cratons through time. We show that rocks now in the upper few kilometers of cratons have been uninhabitable (>∼122 °C) for most of their lifetime or have experienced high-temperature episodes, such that the longest record of habitability does not stretch much beyond a billion years. In several cratons, habitable conditions date back only 50 to 300 million years, in agreement with dated biosignatures. The thermochronologic approach outlined here provides context for prospecting and interpreting the little-explored geologic record of the deep biosphere of Earth’s cratons, when and where microbial communities may have thrived, and candidate areas for the oldest records of chemolithotrophic microbes.

  • 38.
    Drake, Henrik
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Water.
    Roberts, Nick
    British Geological Survey, UK.
    Reinhardt, Manuel
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Whitehouse, Martin
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Sweden.
    Ivarsson, Magnus
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Andreas
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Sweden.
    Kooijman, Ellen
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Sweden.
    Kielman-Schmitt, Melanie
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Sweden.
    Biosignatures of ancient microbial life are present across the igneous crust of the Fennoscandian shield2021In: Communications Earth & Environment, E-ISSN 2662-4435, Vol. 2, no 1, article id 102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Earth's crust contains a substantial proportion of global biomass, hosting microbial life up to several kilometers depth. Yet, knowledge of the evolution and extent of life in this environment remains elusive and patchy. Here we present isotopic, molecular and morphological signatures for deep ancient life in vein mineral specimens from mines distributed across the Precambrian Fennoscandian shield. Stable carbon isotopic signatures of calcite indicate microbial methanogenesis. In addition, sulfur isotope variability in pyrite, supported by stable carbon isotopic signatures of methyl-branched fatty acids, suggest subsequent bacterial sulfate reduction. Carbonate geochronology constrains the timing of these processes to the Cenozoic. We suggest that signatures of an ancient deep biosphere and long-term microbial activity are present throughout this shield. We suggest that microbes may have been active in the continental igneous crust over geological timescales, and that subsurface investigations may be valuable in the search for extra-terrestrial life. Cenozoic signatures of life in calcite and pyrite deposits suggest deep biosphere activity throughout the Fennoscandian Shield, as revealed by isotopic, molecular and morphological analyses of mineral specimens.

  • 39.
    Drake, Henrik
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Water.
    Roberts, Nick
    British Geological Survey, UK.
    Whitehouse, Martin
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Sweden.
    Geochronology and Stable Isotope Analysis of Fracture-fill and Karst Mineralization Reveal Sub-Surface Paleo-Fluid Flow and Microbial Activity of the COSC-1 Borehole, Scandinavian Caledonides2020In: Geosciences, E-ISSN 2076-3263, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 1-17, article id 56Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The deep biosphere hosted in fractured rocks within the upper continental crust is one of the least understood and studied ecological realms on Earth. Scarce knowledge of ancient life and paleo-fluid flow within this realm is owing to the lack of deep drilling into the crust. Here we apply microscale high spatial-resolution analytical techniques to fine-grained secondary minerals in a deep borehole (COSC-1) drilled into the Silurian-Devonian Scandinavian Caledonide mountain range in central Sweden. The aim is to detect and date signs of ancient microbial activity and low-temperature fluid circulation in micro-karsts (foliation-parallel dissolution cavities in the rock) and fractures at depth in the nappe system. Vein carbonates sampled at 684 to 2210 m show a decreased C isotope variability at depths below 1050 m; likely due to decreased influence of organic-C at great depth. Micro-karsts at 122–178 m depth feature at least two generations of secondary calcite and pyrite growth in the voids as shown by secondary ion mass spectrometry analytical transects within individual grains. The younger of these two precipitation phases shows 34S-depleted δ34Spyrite values (−19.8 ± 1.6‰ vs Vienna-Canyon Diablo Troilite (V-CDT)) suggesting microbial sulfate reduction in situ. The calcite of this late phase can be distinguished from the older calcite by higher δ18Ocalcite values that correspond to precipitation from ambient meteoric water. The late stage calcite gave two separate laser ablation inductively coupled mass spectrometry-derived U-Pb ages (9.6 ± 1.3 Ma and 2.5 ± 0.2 Ma), marking a minimum age for widespread micro-karst formation within the nappe. Several stages of fluid flow and mineral precipitation followed karst formation; with related bacterial activity as late as the Neogene-Quaternary; in structures presently water conducting. The results show that our combined high spatial-resolution stable isotope and geochronology approach is suitable for characterizing paleo-fluid flow in micro-karst; in this case, of the crystalline crust comprising orogenic nappe units.

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  • 40.
    Drobysheva, Arina V.
    et al.
    Skolkovo Inst Sci & Technol, Russia.
    Panafidina, Sofia A.
    Skolkovo Inst Sci & Technol, Russia;Russian Acad Sci, Russia.
    Kolesnik, Matvei V.
    Skolkovo Inst Sci & Technol, Russia.
    Klimuk, Evgeny I.
    Skolkovo Inst Sci & Technol, Russia;Russian Acad Sci, Russia.
    Minakhin, Leonid
    Rutgers State Univ, USA.
    Yakunina, Maria V.
    Peter Great St Petersburg Polytech Univ, Russia.
    Borukhov, Sergei
    Rowan Univ, USA.
    Nilsson, Emelie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Holmfeldt, Karin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Water.
    Yutin, Natalya
    NIH, USA.
    Makarova, Kira S.
    NIH, USA.
    Koonin, Eugene V.
    NIH, USA.
    Severinov, Konstantin V.
    Russian Acad Sci, Russia;Rutgers State Univ, USA.
    Leiman, Petr G.
    Univ Texas Med Branch, USA.
    Sokolova, Maria L.
    Skolkovo Inst Sci & Technol, Russia.
    Structure and function of virion RNA polymerase of a crAss-like phage2021In: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 589, no 7841, p. 306-309Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The RNA polymerase from the crAss-like bacteriophage phi14:2, which is translocated into the host cell with phage DNA and transcribes early phage genes, is structurally most similar to eukaryotic RNA interference polymerases, suggesting that the latter have a phage origin. CrAss-like phages are a recently described expansive group of viruses that includes the most abundant virus in the human gut(1-3). The genomes of all crAss-like phages encode a large virion-packaged protein(2,4) that contains a DFDxD sequence motif, which forms the catalytic site in cellular multisubunit RNA polymerases (RNAPs)(5). Here, using Cellulophaga baltica crAss-like phage phi14:2 as a model system, we show that this protein is a DNA-dependent RNAP that is translocated into the host cell along with the phage DNA and transcribes early phage genes. We determined the crystal structure of this 2,180-residue enzyme in a self-inhibited state, which probably occurs before virion packaging. This conformation is attained with the help of a cleft-blocking domain that interacts with the active site and occupies the cavity in which the RNA-DNA hybrid binds. Structurally, phi14:2 RNAP is most similar to eukaryotic RNAPs that are involved in RNA interference(6,7), although most of the phi14:2 RNAP structure (nearly 1,600 residues) maps to a new region of the protein fold space. Considering this structural similarity, we propose that eukaryal RNA interference polymerases have their origins in phage, which parallels the emergence of the mitochondrial transcription apparatus(8).

  • 41.
    Farjam, Mike
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    de Moor, Tine
    Utrecht University, Netherlands.
    van Weeren, René
    Utrecht University, Netherlands.
    Forsman, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Dehkordi, Molood Ale Ebrahim
    Delft University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Ghorbani, Amineh
    Delft University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Bravo, Giangiacomo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Water.
    Shared Patterns in Long-Term Dynamics of Commons as Institutions for Collective Action2020In: International Journal of the Commons, E-ISSN 1875-0281, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 78-90Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present an analysis of regulatory activities in historical commons offering a unique picture of their long-term institutional dynamics. The analysis took into account almost 3,800 regulatory activities in eighteen European commons in two countries across seven centuries. Despite differences in time and space, we found a shared pattern where an initial, highly-dynamic institutional-definition phase was followed by a relatively long period of stability and a final burst of activities, possibly in an attempt to respond to new challenges. In addition, most of the initial regulatory activities focused on resource use, while towards the end other activities prevailed. Our approach allows for a better understanding of institutional dynamics and our findings also provide important insights about how to regulate the use of current natural resources.

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  • 42.
    Farnelid, Hanna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Water. Univ Calif Santa Cruz, USA.
    Turk-Kubo, Kendra
    Univ Calif Santa Cruz, USA.
    Zehr, Jonathan P.
    Univ Calif Santa Cruz, USA.
    Cell sorting reveals few novel prokaryote and photosynthetic picoeukaryote associations in the oligotrophic ocean2021In: Environmental Microbiology, ISSN 1462-2912, E-ISSN 1462-2920, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 1469-1480Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Close associations between single-celled marine organisms can have a central role in biogeochemical processes and are of great interest for understanding the evolution of organisms. The global significance of such associations raises the question of whether unidentified associations are yet to be discovered. In this study, fluorescence-activated cell sorted photosynthetic picoeukayote (PPE) populations and single cells were analysed by sequencing of 16S rRNA genes in the oligotrophic North Pacific Subtropical Gyre. Samples were collected during two cruises, spanning depths near the deep chlorophyll maximum, where the abundance of PPEs was highest. The association between the widespread and significant nitrogen (N-2)-fixing cyanobacterium, UCYN-A and its prymnesiophyte host was prevalent in both population and single-cell sorts. Several bacterial sequences, affiliating with previously described symbiotic taxa were detected but their detection was rare and not well replicated, precluding identification of novel tightly linked species-specific associations. Similarly, no enrichment of dominant seawater taxa such as Prochlorococcus, SAR11 or Synechococcus was observed suggesting that these were not systematically ingested by the PPE in this study. The results indicate that apart from the UCYN-A symbiosis, similar tight species-specific associations with PPEs are unusual in the oligotrophic ocean.

  • 43.
    Ferrans, Laura
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Jani, Yahya
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Burlakovs, Juris
    Estonian University of Life Sciences, Estonia.
    Klavins, Maris
    University of Latvia, Latvia.
    Hogland, William
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Water.
    Chemical speciation of metals from marine sediments: assessment of potential pollution risk while dredging, a case study in southern Sweden2021In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 263, no January, p. 1-9, article id 128105Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Contamination associated with metals is a critical concern related to their toxicity, persistence, and bio-accumulation. Trace elements are partitioned into several chemical forms, which some are more labile during fluctuations in the environment. Studying the distribution of metals between the different chemical fractions contributes to assess their bioavailability and to identify their potential risk of contamination to surrounding environments. This study concerns the speciation of metals (Pb, Cr, Ni, Zn and Fe) from sediments coming out from Malmfjärden bay, Sweden. The aim was to assess the potential risk of metal pollution during present and future dredging as well as while using dredged sediments in beneficial uses. The Tessier speciation procedure was chosen, and the results showed that low concentrations of metals were associated with the exchangeable fraction. In contrast, the major concentrations were linked to the residual part. The risk indexes (contamination factor and risk assessment code) showed that, during dredging activities, there is a low concern of pollution for Cr, Ni and Fe and a medium risk for Pb and Zn. Additionally, in all elements, the sum of non-residual concentrations was below the Swedish limits for using dredged sediments in sensitive lands. The findings suggested that the investigated metals in Malmfjärden sediments are related to low risks of spreading during using in beneficial uses.

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  • 44.
    Ferrans, Laura
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Jani, Yahya
    Malmö University, Sweden.
    Hogland, William
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Water.
    Chemical extraction of trace elements from dredged sediments into a circular economy perspective: Case study on Malmfjärden Bay, south-eastern Sweden2021In: Resources, Environment and Sustainability, E-ISSN 2666-9161, Vol. 6, article id 100039Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Worldwide, sediments are dredged from water bodies to guarantee proper water levels and remediate aquatic ecosystems. Dredged sediments contain metals that could interfere with recycling if the concentrations overpass permissible limits. Washing of elements from sediments represents a technique to decrease the concentration of metals, and it could introduce a new source of elements. The current study aimed to employ ethylenediamine-tetraacetic acid (EDTA) and ethylenediamine-disuccinic acid (EDDS) and investigate the effect of operational parameters (concentration and pH) on the chemical extraction of metals from dredged sediments. Core sediments were extracted from sampling stations around Malmfjärden bay, Sweden. The results suggested that lead, zinc and copper were the elements with higher extraction rates, followed by arsenic and nickel. Chromium was poorly extracted. EDTA was more efficient than EDDS in dissolving the elements. Moreover, acidic conditions offered higher extraction rates for As using both chelators and for Pb employing EDTA. The 0.05 M concentration presented a higher mean extraction rate than 0.01 M for Cu, Cr and Ni for EDTA and EDDS. The findings in this study suggest that sediment washing is a promising technique to decrease metal concentrations in sediments and enhancing the feasibility to use the material for beneficial uses.

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  • 45.
    Figueroa, Daniela
    et al.
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Capo, Eric
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Lindh, Markus V.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, Sweden.
    Rowe, Owen F.
    Baltic Marine Environm Protect Commiss HELCOM, Finland.
    Paczkowska, Joanna
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Pinhassi, Jarone
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Water.
    Andersson, Agneta
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Terrestrial dissolved organic matter inflow drives temporal dynamics of the bacterial community of a subarctic estuary (northern Baltic Sea)2021In: Environmental Microbiology, ISSN 1462-2912, E-ISSN 1462-2920, Vol. 23, no 8, p. 4200-4213Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change is projected to cause increased inflow of terrestrial dissolved organic matter to coastal areas in northerly regions. Estuarine bacterial community will thereby receive larger loads of organic matter and inorganic nutrients available for microbial metabolism. The composition of the bacterial community and its ecological functions may thus be affected. We studied the responses of bacterial community to inflow of terrestrial dissolved organic matter in a subarctic estuary in the northern Baltic Sea, using a 16S rRNA gene metabarcoding approach. Betaproteobacteria dominated during the spring river flush, constituting similar to 60% of the bacterial community. Bacterial diversity increased as the runoff decreased during summer, when Verrucomicrobia, Betaproteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Gammaproteobacteria and Planctomycetes dominated the community. Network analysis revealed that a larger number of associations between bacterial populations occurred during the summer than in spring. Betaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes populations appeared to display similar correlations to environmental factors. In spring, freshly discharged organic matter favoured specialists, while in summer a mix of autochthonous and terrestrial organic matter promoted the development of generalists. Our study indicates that increased inflows of terrestrial organic matter-loaded freshwater to coastal areas would promote specialist bacteria, which in turn might enhance the transformation of terrestrial organic matter in estuarine environments.

  • 46.
    Flink, Henrik
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Nordahl, Oscar
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Hall, Marcus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Rarysson, Anton
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Bergström, Kristofer
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Larsson, Per
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Petersson, Erik
    Swedish University of agricultural sciences, Sweden.
    Merilä, Juha
    University of Helsinki, Finland;University of Hong Kong, China.
    Tibblin, Petter
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Water. University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Examining the effects of authentic C&R on the reproductive potential of Northern pike2021In: Fisheries Research, ISSN 0165-7836, E-ISSN 1872-6763, Vol. 243, article id 106068Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The practice within recreational fisheries to release captured fish back to the wild, known as catch-and-release (C&R), is an increasingly important strategy to protect fish stocks from overexploitation. However, C&R is a stressor and since animal reproduction is particularly sensitive to stress there is reason to suspect that such a practice induces sublethal fitness consequences. Here, we investigated whether and how C&R fishing influenced the reproductive potential in an anadromous population of Northern pike (Esox lucius). First, female pike were exposed to authentic C&R using rod-and-reel fishing in a coastal foraging habitat prior to the spawning period. Next, we observed the migration to the freshwater spawning habitat and compared both the timing of arrival and maturity stage between C&R-treated and control individuals. Finally, to evaluate effects on the quality and viability of eggs we stripped captured control and recaptured C&R-treated females, measured egg dry mass to assess nutrient content, conducted artificial fertilisations and incubated eggs in a controlled laboratory experiment. We found no evidence of C&R causing alterations in either arrival time, maturity stage, or the quality and viability of fertilised eggs. In combination, our results suggest that long-term effects of C&R-induced stress on key reproductive traits of pike, if any, are minor.

  • 47.
    Flink, Henrik
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Tibblin, Petter
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Water.
    Hall, Marcus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Hellström, Gustav
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Nordahl, Oscar
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Variation among bays in spatiotemporal aggregation of Baltic Sea pike highlights management complexity2023In: Fisheries Research, ISSN 0165-7836, E-ISSN 1872-6763, Vol. 259, article id 106579Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding the movement ecology of fish communities is necessary to take effective management actions that aim to reverse population declines, especially in fish stocks containing sympatric subpopulations with local adaptations, such as Northern pike (Esox lucius) in the Baltic Sea. We followed the movement and survival of adult pike for one year by tagging 198 individuals in an estuary (an anadromous subpopulation) as well as in two neighbouring bays (individuals of unknown origin) with acoustic transmitters. We found that the estuary was vital in sustaining the local coastal pike stock, that anadromous pike mainly inhabited a coastal area with a radius of 3 km and aggregated in large numbers in the estuary several months prior to spawning. Management should thus prioritise to identify, restore, and protect estuaries from exploitation. The two neighbouring bays demonstrated distinct differences in spatiotemporal aggregations of pike with no aggregations prior to, and during, spawning in the bay without estuaries. The habitat choice during spawning season suggests that 92% of pike sampled in the bay adjacent to the estuary belong to the anadromous subpopulation, while 94% of pike sampled in the neighbouring bay belong to unknown subpopulation(s) of resident brackish spawners. Survival of tagged pike was 84% and suggest low mortality from fisheries and top predators, which have been proposed as threats to pike populations in other areas of the Baltic Sea. Together, these results call for management of high resolution and highlight the importance of detailed movement data.

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  • 48.
    Forsman, Anders
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    De Moor, Tine
    Univ Utrecht, Netherlands.
    van Weeren, Rene
    Univ Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Bravo, Giangiacomo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Water.
    Ghorbani, Amineh
    Delft Univ Technol, Netherlands.
    Dehkordi, Molood Ale Ebrahim
    Delft Univ Technol, Netherlands.
    Farjam, Mike
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Eco-evolutionary perspectives on emergence, dispersion and dissolution of historical Dutch commons2020In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 15, no 7, p. 1-21, article id e0236471Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Historical commons represent self-governed governance regimes that regulate the use and management of natural and man-made shared resources. Despite growing scientific interests, analyses of commons evolution and temporal dynamics are rare and drivers of change (birth, adaptation, dissolution) remain obscure. We apply an interdisciplinary approach and address these issues from an eco-evolutionary perspective. Analyses of > 400 Dutch commons over more than a millennium (between the 9(th)and the 20(th)century) uncovered that most commons originated between 1200 and 1700, and that there was a particularly high rate of evolution during 1300-1550, a pattern intermediate to gradualism and punctuated equilibrium in biological evolution. Dissolutions of commons were rare prior to 1800 and peaked around 1850, comparable to a mass extinction in biology. Temporal trends in number, spatial distribution, density, and dispersion of historical commons were distinctive and resembled developments seen at the levels of species and individuals in the growth of biological communities and populations, in that they showed signs of saturation determined by the abundance and distribution of resources. The spatiotemporal dynamics of commons also pointed to important roles of social, economic and political factors, such as new reclamations of resources and pressure on resources due to population growth. Despite internal and external pressures, the self-governing commons studied here were very successful, in the sense that they persisted for on average >350 years. There was a weak positive relationship between the use of multiple resources and the lifespan of commons, resembling associations between diversity and persistence seen in biological systems. It is argued that eco-evolutionary perspectives can further the understanding of the long-term dynamics of commons as institutions for collective action, vitalize future research, improve management of shared goods, and advise about sustainable utilization of finite resources.

  • 49.
    Forsman, Anders
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    De Moor, Tine
    Erasmus University, Netherlands.
    van Weeren, René
    Utrecht University, Netherlands.
    Farjam, Mike
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Molood, Ale Ebrahim Dehkordi
    Delft University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Amineh, Ghorbani
    Delft University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Bravo, Giangiacomo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Water.
    Comparisons of historical Dutch commons inform about the long-term dynamics of social-ecological systems2021In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 16, no 8, article id e0256803Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Human societies and natural ecosystems are under threat by growing populations, overexploitation of natural resources and climate change. This calls for more sustainable utilization of resources based on past experiences and insights from many different disciplines. Interdisciplinary approaches to studies of historical commons have potential to identify drivers of change and keys to success in the past, and offer advice about the management and use of shared resources in contemporary and future systems. We address these issues by applying an ecological perspective to historical data on social-ecological systems. We perform comparisons and time series analyses for nine successful Dutch commons for which high-resolution data on the regulatory activities and use of shared resources is available for on average 380 years (range 236 to 568) during the period 1300 to 1972. Within commons, institutional developments were oscillating, with periods of intense regulatory activity being separated by periods of low activity, and with the dynamics of regulations being largely independent across commons. Ecological theory posits that species that occupy similar niches should show correlated responses to environmental challenges; however, commons using more similar resources did not have more parallel or similar institutional developments. One notable exception was that sanctioning was more frequent in commons that directed more regulatory activities towards non-renewable subsoil resources, whereas there was no association between sanctioning and the use of renewable resources. This might indicate that commoners were aware of potential resource depletion and attempted to influence freeriding by actively trying to solve the underlying social dilemmas. Sanctioning regulations were more frequent during the first than during the second part of a common’s life, indicating that while sanctioning might have been important for the establishment of commons it was not key to the long-term persistence of historical commons.

  • 50.
    Fridolfsson, Emil
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Augustsson, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Forss, Jörgen
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Water.
    Larsson, Per
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Water.
    Witthöft, Cornelia M.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Sustainable Health.
    Hylander, Samuel
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Water.
    Förstudie kring hållbar vattenförsörjning i södra Sverige2021Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Dricksvatten är vårt viktigaste livsmedel men detta rena vatten används även för bevattningsändamål, i vårt avloppssystem och inom industrin. Våra samlade vattenresurser ger dessutom ekosystemtjänster i form av fiske, rekreationsvärde m.m. (Bergek m. fl., 2017). Trots att Sverige är ett mycket vattenrikt land sett ur ett internationellt perspektiv har vattenbrist uppstått i flera delar av landet under senare år. Vidare förväntas pågående och kommande klimatförändringar, befolkningstillväxt och urbanisering påverka vattenkvaliteten negativt samt öka konkurrensen om vatten ytterligare (IPCC, 2014; SMHI, 2020a). Med ökad konkurrens uppstår dessutom målkonflikter mellan olika viktiga samhällsfunktioner. Det finns således ett stort behov av tvärsektoriell forskning samt policyutveckling för att säkerställa en hållbar framtida vattenförsörjning.

    Denna rapport syftar till att sammanställa kunskapsläget vad gäller förutsättningarna för en hållbar vattenförsörjning i Kronobergs län. Först beskrivs tillgång och uttag av dricksvatten i Kronoberg i jämförelse med Kalmar och Skåne län samt förutsättningarna för god framtida vattenkvalitet med Bolmen som exempel. Därefter fokuserar vi på de målkonflikter som kan förväntas uppstå kring dricksvattnet och diskuterar slutligen de kunskapsluckor samt det behov av tvärsektoriell forskning och samhällsutveckling som behövs för en hållbar vattenförsörjning.

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    Förstudie kring hållbar vattenförsörjning i södra Sverige
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