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  • 1.
    Abell, Annika
    et al.
    University of Tennessee, USA.
    Lund, Kaisa
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing and Tourism Studies (MTS).
    How Can a Product Display Lead to Healthier Choices?: Horizontal and Vertical Organization of Foods and Beverages2023In: Society for Consumer Psychology Annual Conference 2023, San Juan, Puerto Rico, March 2-4, Society for consumer psychology , 2023Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Abramsson, Alma
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing and Tourism Studies.
    Wärenkrona, Evelina
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing and Tourism Studies.
    From Breadbasket to Breadcrumbs: International economic turbulence as a domino effect of Russia's invasion of Ukraine2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The invasion of Ukraine has initiated significant challenges and risks for international businesses operating in the region or engaging in trade with Ukraine. The geopolitical tensions and economic instability resulting from the conflict can impact various aspects of international business operations, including supply chains, investments, trade, and reputation management. The purpose of this thesis is to examine wether or not Russia's invasion of Ukraine has triggered a domino effect causing economic turbulence in Europe. Additionally, the authors aim to identify the types of strategies employed by various European small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) to manage their international operations in the aftermath of the invasion. This study further intends to explore strategies that can enhance the resilience of businesses and coporate clients during periods of turbulence.

    In order to establish a solid foundation of the topic, this research has employed a qualitative strategy. By conducting semi-structured interviews, a wide range of data has been gathered, which have been analyzed in conjunction with the literature review. Through analyzing all gathered data, the outcome of the research illustrates how Russia's invasion of Ukraine has impacted various European small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) as well as the strategies employed to manage their international operations.

    Finally, the thesis concludes that despite the significant impact of the invasion on various firms, there is evidence that, initially, some companies actually experienced profitability due to the war before the domino effect took hold. Consequently, these firms adjusted their focus, restricting imports or exports to and from Russia and Ukraine. The findings of this study emphasize the importance for firms to employ creativity, decisiveness, and transparency, particularly in managing their public image and understanding customer dynamics.

  • 3.
    Adamsen, Michelle
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing and Tourism Studies (MTS).
    Belskaya, Izabel
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing and Tourism Studies (MTS).
    The Cultural Impacts On Working Conditions for Employees in the Tourism Industry: Sweden Versus Turkey2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Travel is an adventure into a new unexplored culture, different from what surrounds the traveler in the usual life at home. Culture is reflected not only in architecture, food, and literature but also in social relationships. How people react to everything they hear and see is based on the characteristics of their cultures. During travel, there is a clash of multiple cultures in the faces of tourists and tourism workers. The workers are the people presenting their culture to the tourists, but how does culture itself affect the working conditions of these people? The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between cultural norms and the working conditions of workers in the tourism industry. To achieve the purpose of this paper, the cases of Sweden and Turkey were used, since their cultures are fundamentally different from each other. The result of this study showed that Turkish culture is largely based on social relationships and not on following regulations, which leads to corruption and disregard for labor laws. On the other hand, Swedish culture is rule-based, and these characteristics have a beneficial influence on the enforcement of labor laws. The information obtained as a result of this work can be used to study and understand how culture affects the state of working conditions and how the relationship between tourists and tourism workers differs depending on their cultural characteristics.

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    AdamsenBelskaya
  • 4.
    Akhshik, Arash
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Management (MAN). Jagiellonian Univ, Poland.
    Tusznio, A.
    Jagiellonian Univ, Poland.
    Strzelecka, Marianna
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing and Tourism Studies (MTS). Jagiellonian Univ, Poland.
    Equifinal paths to megafauna conservation through memorable wildlife tourism experiences: evidence from the restitution of the European bison (Bison bonasus) in Poland2023In: Current Issues in Tourism, ISSN 1368-3500, E-ISSN 1747-7603, Vol. 26, no 18, p. 3064-3084Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite a vast literature conceptualizing a memorable tourism experience, empirical studies overlook the context in which those experiences are produced and compiled into actions that benefit the environment. Accordingly, we need to better understand to what extent the experience of megafauna enclosures strengthens visitors' overall support for wildlife protection. To close this knowledge gap, we study memorable tourism experiences in the Bison enclosures within Poland to better understand the significance of the environmental context in which the experience induces support for protecting the species. To this end, the study employs both symmetric and asymmetric models to uncover the complexity of individual behavioural paths. The PLS-SEM results confirm the role of memorable experiences in the relationship between attitudinal and behavioural outcomes. In a complimentary manner, the fsQCA results reveal how environmental planners can analyze complex constellations of internal and external factors to elucidate the conditions that generate visitor support for wildlife protection.

  • 5.
    Alexe, Diana
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing and Tourism Studies.
    The effect of persuasive communication on rock climbers' environmental behavior2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Rock climbing has become a popular adventure activity, yet it poses a threat to the environment, particularly to the rare species that inhabit the lower vegetation density of rock faces. To address this concern, effective evironmental communication is necessary to provoke environmentally responsible behavior among climbers. This study explores what the most effective form of environmental communication is, that elicits a positive response from rock climbers. Regulatory Focus Theory as well as the nature values distinction (intrinsic, instrumental, and relational) are employed to assess the effect of value-based messages on rock climbers' environmental behavior. Moreover, this research investigates how personal values of rock climbers (biospheric, altruistic, and egoistic) impact their response to messages that highlight different nature values. Environmental messaging that resonates with the personal values of rock climbers can influence their response positively. Thus, crafting messages that are aligned with the target audience's environmental dispositions is essential for effective environmental communication. While the findings did not yield definitive results, the study indicates that messages emphasizing the instrinsic value of nature coupled with prevention-oriented foucus may be more effective for rock climbers. Moreover, altruistic and biospheric values significantly moderated climbers' response to environmental messages framed with nature values. Regulatory focus was not found to significantly influence rock climbers' environmental behavior. The study also shows that demographic characteristics such as age and gender can influence the environmental behavior of rock climbers. The study's insights provide a baseline for future research in persuasive messaging for adventure tourists. The research opens up new directions in tourism studies and identifies environmental values most relevant to the rock climbing community, providing guidance to climbing area managers and other stakeholders invested in safeguarding natural habitats. By shedding light on possible environmental communication strategies for the promotion of pro-environmental behavior among rock climbers, this research offers an important contribution to the protection of vulnerable ecosystems and the preservation of natural habitats.

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  • 6.
    Almqvist, Elin
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing and Tourism Studies (MTS).
    Larsson, Tilde
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing and Tourism Studies (MTS).
    The great and green cosmetic choice: A quantitative study explaining behavioral intentions behind purchasing green cosmetic products.2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this thesis is to explain the impacts of attitude, subjective normsand perceived behavioral control on Swedish consumers' intentions to purchase greencosmetics.Methodology - This thesis utilizes a multiple regression analysis based on an onlineself-completion questionnaire with respondents inside the sampling frame of SwedishMillennials and generation z consumers.Results - This thesis provides an understanding that Attitude, Subjective Norm and Perceivedbehavioral control can positively impact green cosmetic purchase intention.Originality / value - Testing the model of TPB as previously applied in green cosmeticconsumption research, in a greener highly competitive growing market of Swedish personalcare products. 

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    The great and green cosmetic choice
  • 7.
    Amrén, Martin
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing and Tourism Studies (MTS).
    Nilsson, Albin
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing and Tourism Studies (MTS).
    Longtail-fenomenet i svenskdagligvaruhandel: En kvantitativ studie av försäljningskoncentrationen i den svenska dagligvaruhandelns e-handel jämfört med fysisk handel.2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Digital development has increased the use of digital channels to buy products. This development puts increased pressure on the retail sector to enhance its digital offerings.

    Problem statement: The conditions for buying and selling products differ online compared to offline for both the buyer and seller. Limited space in a physical store in the local area compared to a large central warehouse for e-commerce. Consumers have access to nearly an infinite number of digital stores with easy comparisons of prices and products.

    Purpose: The purpose of this thesis is to examine how the sales concentration of products in the grocery retail sector in Sweden differs between e-commerce and physical stores.

    Research questions: How does the distribution of product sales differ online compared to physical stores? Is the sales concentration in physical stores more focused to fewer products compared to e-commerce?

    Theory: Both the longtail phenomenon and the Pareto principle exist practically and literarily, but their validity depends on the type of product, period, and market in question.

    Method: Quantitative method using primary data from the grocery retail sector, where the sales of 2 585 products online and offline have been analyzed using a combination of RStudio and Microsoft Excel.

    Conclusions: Sales are more concentrated to fewer products online compared to offline, there are however variations between product categories.

    Keywords: Long tail, Pareto, superstars, grocery, e-commerce, omni-channel, multi-channel, sales concentration.

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  • 8.
    Anchidin, Andreea
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing and Tourism Studies.
    Bigert, Sofia
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing and Tourism Studies.
    Brand equity in the Twitch streamers market: A quantitative study of David Aaker’s brand equity model. 2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This research aims to test the application of a customer-based brand equity model, based on Aaker´s well-known conceptual framework of brand equity in the context of streamers. 

    Design/Methodology- This research has used multiple linear regression to test the relationship between brand equity and brand loyalty, brand awareness, brand associations as well as perceived quality. The data was collected through a self-completion questionnaire that was distributed via Facebook groups of desired target audience. Following, the data has been processed through the statistics software IBM SPSS. The outputs have been interpreted to later lead to the conclusions. 

    Findings: This research has found that Aaker´s conceptual framework of brand equity is applicable in the streamers context. 

    Research limitations: The limitations of this study were regarding sampling methods that lead to the study to not be generalizable. 

    Originality/Value: This study contributed to the body of knowledge as streamers as influencers is not a widely researched topic.

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  • 9.
    Anderson, Helén
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing and Tourism Studies (MTS).
    Müllern, Tomas
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Danilovic, Mike
    Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Exploring barriers to collaborative innovation in supply chains: a study of a supplier and two of its industrial customers2023In: Business Process Management Journal, ISSN 1463-7154, E-ISSN 1758-4116, Vol. 29, no 8, p. 25-47Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose is to identify and explore barriers to overcome for developing collaborative innovation between a global service supplier and two of its industrial customers in Sweden. Design/methodology/approach: The research had an action-based research approach in which the researchers were interacting and collaborating with the practitioners in the companies. The empirical part includes primary data from multiple interviews, and two workshops with dialogues with participants from the involved companies. The use of complementary data collection methods gave rich input to understanding the context for collaborative innovation, and to uncovering barriers, to develop solutions for collaborative innovation. The empirical barriers were analysed using theoretically derived barriers from a literature review. The analysis generated four broad themes of barriers which were discussed and led to conclusions and theoretical and practical implications on: the customer's safety culture, the business model, the parties' understanding of innovation and the management of collaborative innovation in supply chains. Findings: The thematic analysis generated four broad themes: the customer's safety culture, the business model, the parties' understanding of innovation and the management of collaborative innovation. These themes where analysed using theoretically derived barriers from a literature review. The industrial context, the understanding of innovation and its management created barriers. Originality/value: The unique access to the service supplier and its two independent industrial customers adds a rich contextual framing to the process of identifying and exploring the barriers to collaborative innovation. The conclusion emphasizes the importance of an industrial business context, the business logic in terms of business models and for the understanding and management of collaborative innovation.

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  • 10.
    Anderzén, Tim
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing and Tourism Studies.
    Ramadan, Lia
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing and Tourism Studies.
    Is Green brand image the saviour of consumers' well-being?: An exploration on how consumers' subjective well-being can be influenced by green brand image.2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Subjective-well being is an increasingly important concept within consumer research. Previous studies have thus far shown the capability of brand image and other types of image to influence separate components of subjective well-being, mainly life satisfaction, positive and negative affect. This phenomenon is relevant not least in terms of green branding, as environmentally sustainable behaviour has been shown to also influence certain components of subjective well-being. The study focuses on resolving a theoretical gap in which subjective well-being as a phenomenon with all three of its components has not yet been studied, while recognising the importance of subjective well-being for consumers. 

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to explore how consumers' subjective well-being can be influenced by a green brand image

    Method: In order to explore the field properly a qualitative nature was adopted. The qualitative material was thereafter gained through 16 semi structured interviews. To capture the essence of the empirical material the paper implemented a coding method inspired by grounded theory. The resulting categories and concepts were used in the analysis of the empirical material.  

    Findings: The main findings brought forth by this study showcase that green brand image is able to positively influence subjective well-being, through its positive impact on life satisfaction and its components, as well as through eliciting positive affect while minimising negative affect within the context of engaging with brands that present a green image. These findings have both theoretical and practical implications further discussed. 

    Conclusion: In concluding remarks this paper discovered that a green brand image could influence consumer Subjective well-being due to altruism and self-image. 

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    GBI and SWB thesis
  • 11.
    Andlöw, Alexander
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing and Tourism Studies.
    Carlgren, Gustaf
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing and Tourism Studies.
    The impact of onboarding andnurturing fans: A qualitative research of Swedish ice hockeyorganizations strategies in their interaction withoccasional and devoted fans2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With the constant challenge of successfully appealing to new customers andnurturing the relationships that sports organizations have created with theircustomers, well-thought-out and adapted strategies are required incommunication. Since organizations from the sports industry are characterizedby great competition from other organizations but also from other industriessuch as the entertainment industry, a clear and well-thought-out approach isneeded for how customers are to be engaged and build loyalty. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to research how Swedish ice hockey organizationscultivate relationships with their devoted and occasional fans and whichstrategies they use to influence them as well as the impact the fan engagementhas on their loyalty.

    The empirical findings in this research derived from a qualitative researchapproach, specifically utilizing semi-structured interviews. The focus of theresearch was on four ice hockey organizations from the top two tiers inSweden, enabling a comprehensive examination of the subject matter. Thenthe results from the interviews that were carried out together with the presentedliterature review were discussed and analyzed to compare and distinguishsimilarities and differences.

    The conclusion of the degree project drew attention to a clear differentiationbetween occasional and devoted fans, where it appeared that they wereengaged by different factors, namely experience and sporting aspects. Byleveraging this insight and following the modern trends and digitization,organizations can create opportunities to convert new fans into more loyal andengaged supporters and then nurture the relationship on a deeper level.

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  • 12. Andresen, Edith
    et al.
    Öberg, Christina
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing and Tourism Studies (MTS).
    Sustainable implementation of public sector innovation2023In: IMP Seminar, Milan, 2023Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Angelakis, Angelos
    et al.
    University of Vienna, Austria.
    Inwinkl, Petra
    University of Vienna, Austria.
    Berndt, Adele
    Jönköping University, Sweden;University of Pretoria, South Africa.
    Ozturkcan, Selcen
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing and Tourism Studies (MTS). Sabanci University, Türkiye;INTI International University, Malaysia.
    Zelenajova, Anna
    University of Vienna, Austria.
    Rozkopal, Veronika
    University of Vienna, Austria.
    Gender differences in leaders’ crisis communication: a sentiment-based analysis of German higher education leaderships’ online posts2024In: Studies in Higher Education, ISSN 0307-5079, E-ISSN 1470-174X, Vol. 49, no 4, p. 609-622Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined the communication styles of rectors and vice-rectors of German public universities during the COVID-19 pandemic to explore the influence of gender on leadership communication. We collected data from social media and university websites; and analysed the language used to identify transformational, transactional, and servant leadership styles. Our results showed that female leaders demonstrated more positive communication than men and a stronger preference for transformational leadership, while male leaders tended to use a transactional style. Additionally, we found that both male and female leaders exhibited a high degree of empathetic concern for their stakeholders, contributing to the overall positive tone of communication. These findings suggest that gender may play a role in how university leaders communicate during times of crisis, highlighting the importance of inclusive and compassionate leadership in higher education.

  • 14.
    Angelakis, Angelos
    et al.
    University of Vienna, Austria.
    Inwinkl, Petra
    University of Vienna, Austria.
    Berndt, Adele
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Ozturkcan, Selcen
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing and Tourism Studies (MTS).
    Zelenajova, Anna
    University of Vienna, Austria.
    Rozkopal, Veronika
    University of Vienna, Austria.
    Gender (Still) Matters in the Crisis Communication: A Sentiment-Based Analysis of German Higher Education Leaderships' Online Posts in the Context of COVID-192023In: Presented at the 25th Hochschulmanagement Workshop-Conference, Vienna, Austria, February 23-24, 2023, 2023Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Angelakis, Angelos
    et al.
    University of Vienna, Austria.
    Inwinkl, Petra
    University of Vienna, Austria.
    Ozturkcan, Selcen
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing and Tourism Studies (MTS).
    Berndt, Adele
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Winkler, Raphaela
    Hodzic, Nejra
    Female CEOs: A structured literature review2023In: Presented at the International Symposium in Business (ISBIZ23), Greece, July 24-28, 2023, 2023Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: "Where Are All the Women CEOs?" (Fuhrmans, 2020) is a corporate question describing the growing sense of gender diversity and women's discrimination in top leadership positions. Nowadays, gender equality is an important topic and plays a strategically important role in corporations. However, women remain underrepresented and are treated differently than men counterparts in top executive positions. Thus, this research aims to provide insights into the major themes and critically reflect on the literature regarding women/female CEOs of the past two decades.

    Design/methodology/approach: A Structured Literature Review (SLR) was conducted. All included articles stemmed from the ABS or ABDC journal rankings, resulting in 162 relevant articles. The time frame was 2000 through 2020 (20 years). Databases included in this review were: Scopus (Elsevier), ProQuest, Emerald Insight, JSTOR and ABI/Inform. All results were limited to English-only peer-reviewed scientific journal articles.

    Findings: The analysed literature on women/female CEOs addresses their personal and professional characteristics (outer appearance and leadership style), their appointment and hierarchical advancement, their effect on different business organizational aspects (such as firm performance and governance), the gender pay gap and the glass ceiling/cliff. Furthermore, the findings suggest that women are underrepresented in CEO positions, face various discrimination statuses, and bear with cultural and ethnic barriers to elevating hierarchy.

    Research limitations/implications: The coding process, in particular, the code grouping, could be influenced by the researchers’ subjectivity. In addition, not all collected data was analysed, as some codes and data were not considered beneficial for this research. 

    Originality/value: To the best of the authors' knowledge, such research regarding female leadership, namely the CEO position, is limited, and no structured literature review within the AJG/ABDC ranking was found during the data collection phase. Hence, such an effort can serve for future research to dive deeper into the topic of female/women CEOs. The method has been described in detail to ensure transparency and researchers’ reproducibility of the results.

  • 16.
    Anisimova, Tatiana
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing and Tourism Studies (MTS).
    Billore, Soniya
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing and Tourism Studies (MTS).
    Kitchen, Philip J.
    ICN Artem Business Sch, France.
    Ego-depletion is in the way: the challenges of controlled communication and the role of the regulatory focus theory in sustainable goals pursuit2024In: Journal of Communication Management, ISSN 1363-254X, E-ISSN 1478-0852, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 134-146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - Via the lens of the ego-depletion phenomenon (Baumeister et al., 1998) and Higgins' (1998) regulatory focus theory, this paper seeks to explain why current controlled communications are failing to achieve coherence between people's free will and their actions pursuing sustainable goals in a society. This paper explains how ego-depletion triggered by controlled communications can lead to confusion and decision fatigue in a society, thus potentially sabotaging people's participation in sustainable behaviour. Design/methodology/approach - The authors applied Jaakkola's (2020) theory synthesis approach to integrate concepts from previously unconnected disciplines in order to generate novel insights in the area of controlled communication management. Findings- The authors develop a theoretical framework and present research propositions that can help advance research and the discourse at the intersection of controlled communication and self-regulation theories. Research limitations/implications - This paper possesses the limitations associated with conceptual papers, e.g. the lack of empirical support of the study's conceptual arguments. Practical implications - This paper generates novel insights to assist communication practitioners and policymakers to improve vehicles and mechanisms of controlled communication with the public regarding sustainable goals pursuit. Originality/value - To the best of authors' knowledge, this is one of the first papers that has merged the domains of self-regulation, ego-depletion, and controlled communication in an integrative framework in order to explain the mechanisms of how to enhance the effectiveness of controlled communication associated with sustainable goals pursuit.

  • 17.
    Anisimova, Tatiana
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing and Tourism Studies (MTS).
    Weiss, Jan
    Montpellier Business School, France;Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Toward a better understanding of the attitude–behavior gap in organic food conative loyalty: a moderation and moderated mediation analysis2023In: Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, ISSN 1355-5855, E-ISSN 1758-4248, Vol. 35, no 6, p. 1474-1493Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has found mixed evidence of an attitude–behavior gap in organic food consumption. However, the complex mechanisms underlying this gap warrant further investigation. The purpose of this study is to examine the role of word-of-mouth (WOM), trust, and involvement in the relationship between consumer organic food attitudes and conative loyalty. The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) was used as underlying framework for modeling our conceptualized arguments. Design/methodology/approach A moderation and moderated mediation analysis was performed on a cross-sectional sample of 1,011 Australian organic food consumers. Findings The results support the TPB-inspired moderated-mediation model. Specifically, the authors found moderated mediation effects of WOM, trust, and involvement on conative loyalty via attitudes toward organics. Research limitations/implications The cross-sectional research design and the focus solely on Australian consumers constitute limitations of this study. Practical implications The authors' findings imply that an analysis of the attitude–behavior gap should go beyond the testing of contingent consistency hypotheses and instead combine moderation and mediation mechanisms to better model consumer decision-making leading to conative loyalty. Practitioners would face a resource challenge when targeting low-trust, low-involvement, and low-WOM consumers as developing conative loyalty of these segments would require a longer-term approach through building favorable attitudes toward organic foods. Originality/value This study is one of the first to demonstrate the potential of examining the attitude–behavior gap in the organic food context through a moderated mediation lens in explaining the dynamics of conative loyalty.

  • 18.
    Antonopoulos, Christos
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing and Tourism Studies.
    Abzakh, Nartan
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing and Tourism Studies.
    Carlsson, Alexander
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing and Tourism Studies.
    Integrerad Marknadskommunikation: En kvalitativ undersökning2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Idag ser marknadsföringsverktygen tillgängliga för organisationer annorlunda ut i jämförelse med 20 år sen. Digitala utvecklingen har inneburit nya möjligheter för organisationer att interagera med sin omvärld på ett sätt som skapar värde för såväl organisationen som dess intressegrupperingar. Marknadsföring och Public Relations har därmed blivit alltmer sammanflätade, vilket ställer nya krav på organisationens förmåga att bygga relationer till sin omvärld och som leder till ökad kundlojalitet och ökad kundnöjdhet. Integrerad Marknadskommunikation (IMC) är ett konstant förändrande verktyg beroende på de teknologiska framsteg som sker, därför kan det finnas ett gap mellan tidigare teori och den aktuella verkligheten. Organisationer som arbetar med marknadsföring har oftast en naturlig övergång till en IMC användning. Därav kan det vara av intresse att undersöka organisationer som är i startfasen av sin IMC användning för att få en klarare bild av IMC arbetet i en modern kontext.

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  • 19.
    Aoun, Kevin
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing and Tourism Studies.
    Adaptability and Tourism: Changes In Tourism Consumption From Swedish Multi-Person Households2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This research project investigates the adaptability of travel consumption in Sweden to global crises, with a focus on families. Tourism is a major contributor to the global economy, but it is also highly sensitive to global crises such as natural disasters, political instability, economic recessions, and health pandemics. These crises can disrupt travel and have significant impacts on the tourism industry and destination communities. In response to these crises, tourists may alter their travel plans and behaviour, including choosing alternative destinations and engaging in budget travel. This study aims to compare the adaptability of tourists under global crises by reviewing relevant literature and examining interviews of how Swedish families and their tourism behaviours have responded to specific global crises. 

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  • 20.
    Baray, Alexis
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing and Tourism Studies.
    Levander, Jacob
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing and Tourism Studies.
    Westerberg, Caroline
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing and Tourism Studies.
    Nordic Banks’ Internationalization Process and Their Effectiveness in the Digital World2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the last couple of decades internationalization of firms has increased all over the world, and banks are not an exception. Different factors are impacting the decision of entering a new market and digitalization is certainly one of the main factors contributing to the internationalization process. Hence, the purpose of this thesis is to investigate what the internationalization process looks like for banks originating from the Nordic region and the impact of digitalization on the process as well as how digitalization impacts the banks' effectiveness. The data were acquired using a qualitative multiple case study of five leading banks originating from the Nordic region through semi-structured interviews. Afterward, the collected data was discussed in the literature review chapter in the analysis chapter to detect similarities and differences. 

    The findings in this thesis revealed that the factors that are evaluated are both internal and external before entering a market and that the significance of each factor varies depending on what bank it is. Additionally, the role of digitalization has also played a big part in how the process of the banks looks and how the current process of internationalizing is done. Instead of expanding which has been the previous focus for these leading banks, the focus has the recent years switched to withdrawing from foreign markets with their physical presence to focusing on offering their services from their home markets and on digital investments. Along with how digitalization has affected Nordic banks' internationalization process, this thesis also presents how effectiveness and assessment are impacted by digitalization. 

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  • 21.
    Bazerbashi, Ayman
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing and Tourism Studies (MTS).
    Nguyen, Erik
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing and Tourism Studies (MTS).
    Optimal Portfolio Allocation in the Middle East Real Estate Market: A Comparative Study of the UAE and Qatar: Why could UAE or Qatar be an opportunity for European businesses and portfolio investors in the Middle East?2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This research compares the real estate markets of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and Qatar, focusing on opportunities and challenges for European businesses and portfolio investors. The study integrates theoretical frameworks, empirical findings from interviews, and analysis of official reports. The theoretical insights highlight the importance of economic factors, cultural understanding, and risk management. The empirical findings reinforce these concepts, revealing varying risk tolerance levels among investors. The analysis indicates that the UAE offers more significant investment opportunities than Qatar due to sustained economic growth and infrastructure development. The research provides practical implications for investors and sets the foundation for future studies.

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  • 22.
    Benmakhlouf, Sara
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing and Tourism Studies.
    Fajardo, Rodrigo
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing and Tourism Studies.
    Tourism Marketing Management and Competitiveness A Case Study in Öland & Gotland 2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The drastic growth in the tourism industry is continuously raising questions for destinations regarding competitiveness in today's global market share. For small island destinations, destination management in the terms of marketing is a crucial factor that defines the competitiveness and success of smaller islands in order to remain competitive and economically benefit in the fast growing tourism industry. The purpose of this study was to uncover specific marketing strategies that needed to be incorporated within small island tourism destinations. To fill in the knowledge gap within the marketing of small island tourism, a case study was conducted by examining the challenges and opportunities in two small islands, Öland and Gotland, located in Sweden. The findings of the case study revealed the significance of cultural tourism and its role in the marketing of the destinations. The cultural attributes include the importance of heritage and nature; by providing unique travel attributes that step out of the typical 3S (sea, sun, sand). The findings were looked upon from local residents, businesses, and local tourism organizations which both concluded that cultural attributes are important factors to consider to solve the seasonality challenges with a clear market segmentation in order to continually remain competitive. 

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  • 23.
    Bergman, August
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing and Tourism Studies.
    Thalin, Elliot
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing and Tourism Studies.
    Dealing With Competitiveness in Emerging Markets: Discovering the Use of Competitive Strategies of NIBEIndependent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis focuses on examining key competitive strategies for multinational corporations(MNCs) operating in emerging markets, and what factors contribute to the success or failureof these strategies. Also, this research will study how MNCs can adapt competitive strategiesto fit emerging market characteristics and local market conditions. It will also examine thefactors of variation for competitive strategies across different emerging markets.The empirical findings in this study were acquired using a qualitative single case study of anMNC operating in international markets. The findings were gathered through semi-structuredinterviews to then be analysed and discussed with the literature review to highlight differencesand similarities.The conclusion of this thesis displays competitive strategies used by MNCs in emergingmarkets and the factors that impact success or failure. The single case study of NIBEgenerated examples of competitive strategies in emerging markets, more specifically howacquisition and subsidiaries were used to adapt to local market characteristics. Factorsaffecting the success or failure of MNCs are institutions, networks, local regulations andnorms, together with local market conditions.

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  • 24.
    Bhatti, Waheed Akbar
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing and Tourism Studies (MTS).
    Chwialkowska, Agnieszka
    University of West Georgia, USA.
    Hussain, Nazim
    University of Groningen, Netherlands.
    Glowik, Mario
    Berlin School of Economics and Law, Germany.
    Profitable or Sustainable? Contradiction or Necessity in Modern Strategy Development?2024In: 2024 AMA Winter Academic Conference, Florida USA, 2024Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Billore, Soniya
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing and Tourism Studies (MTS).
    Digital museums anyone?: Consumer perceptions for digital cultural consumption in a developing country2023In: International Journal of Management Practice, ISSN 1477-9064, E-ISSN 1741-8143, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 1-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Museums are essential to cultural consumption, heritage, and knowledge. In the scenario of the global pandemic, Digital museums can be a relevant solution for consumers’ cultural engagement in the safety of their homes. However, more research is needed for assessing consumers’ acceptance of technology and the intention to use digital museums. Data was collected from 125 consumers in India and was analyzed via the TAM model through linear regression using SPSS 21. Results indicated that perceived usefulness has a stronger impact than perceived ease of use but both positively impact attitude and intention to use. To the best of the author’s knowledge, this research is the first of its kind that explores consumers’ perceptions for digital museums in India. Academic contributions are done in testing this issue through TAM and the practical implication is identifying a positive scenario for reinforcing digital museums as a new form of digital markets. 

  • 26.
    Billore, Soniya
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing and Tourism Studies (MTS).
    Innovative Marketing Through Creative Digitalization: Rethinking Customer Service in the Japanese Well-being Industry2024In: Tourism Planning and Destination Marketing / [ed] Mark Anthony Camillieri, Leeds, UK: Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2024, 2, p. 151-173Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The pandemic had a huge negative impact globally on small and micro firms, particularly on cultural enterprises, making it imperative for them to create strategic solutions for sustainable business models and customer relationships. This chapter studies the digital interventions employed by the micro cultural enterprises in the Japanese Onsens (Hot baths) sector during the pandemic period in Japan. Using the theoretical lenses of service dominant logic and value creation, the study extracts four prominent value creation processes from the analysis of the employed secondary data. The study underlines the importance of collaboration between a firm's internal and external resources, their creative use of operant resources, and a robust customer orientation leading to creative digitalization. The results of the study show how cultural enterprises can rethink customer service in the cultural and creative sector. It also draws attention to the need for more robust policies and support systems that can encourage global cultural enterprises to develop sustainable business models.

  • 27.
    Billore, Soniya
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing and Tourism Studies (MTS).
    Anisimova, Tatiana
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing and Tourism Studies (MTS).
    Vrontis, Demetris
    Univ Nicosia, Cyprus.
    Self-regulation and goal-directed behavior: A systematic literature review, public policy recommendations, and research agenda2023In: Journal of Business Research, ISSN 0148-2963, E-ISSN 1873-7978, Vol. 156, article id 113435Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The act of self-regulation, also referred to as self-control, is antithesis to profligacy. Self-regulation is central to human behavior and is the core of a well-functioning society. Although self-regulation as a research topic has been well-researched, systematic literature reviews on this domain are rare. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this article is one of the first to present a systematic literature review on self-regulation and goal -directed behavior. The authors compiled a study pool of 78 papers over a period of 1990-2021. This study complements the Theory, Characteristics, Context, and Methodology (TCCM) framework, and presents the TCCMP framework to provide public policy recommendations. Further, the authors extract seminal models in the self-regulation literature to re-integrate them into contemporary marketing research. Through the insights gained from the literature review, this paper presents suggestions for public policies, and develops a detailed research agenda.

  • 28.
    Bishar, Aisha
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing and Tourism Studies (MTS).
    Robertine, Piffo Lakpa
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing and Tourism Studies (MTS).
    Branding and Promotion of Tourism Destinations in Africa: An investigation of the branding and promotion of tourism in Africa, case of Cameroon.2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores the branding, and promotion of tourist destinations in Cameroon. The research aims to identify strategies and challenges faced in positioning Cameroon as a competitive tourist destination and suggest areas for improvement. The research methodology employed a combination of content analysis, case studies, and interviews with industry experts. The findings highlight the significance of effective branding and promotion strategies in attracting tourists and creating economic benefits. Challenges such as language barriers and access to industry experts were encountered during the research process. The study recommends further research with a larger time frame to gain more insights. Overall, this research contributes to understanding the implications and opportunities for enhancing the branding and promotion efforts of tourist destinations in Cameroon.

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  • 29.
    Bjärsholm, Daniel
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Backman, Jyri
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing and Tourism Studies (MTS).
    Possiblities for Tax Optimization in Swedish Sport2023In: EASM BELFAST 2023 CONFERENCE ABSTRACTS: 31st European Association for Sport Management Conference, September 12-15, 2023, Belfast, Northern Ireland, ESAM Belfast , 2023, p. 371-372Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim and Research Question

    Ice hockey and football are two sports that are at the forefront when it comes to professionalization and commercialization in Swedish sport. Players in the top tiers of these sports are full-time professionals, and the topleagues in these sports (Swedish Hockey League [SHL] and Swedish Football League [SFL]) are the biggest in turn of financial turnover. A consequence of these leagues becoming increasingly professionalized and commercialized is that sport law has become more important in Sweden.

    This juridification of sport is, however, more evident in other countries (e.g., the United States). The European Parliament has also drawn attention to this, and a sub-area that has recently received attention is taxes for football players (Houben et al., 2021). In their study, Houben et al. (2021) scrutinized the tax treatment of professional footballplayers remuneration in 7 member states. Two of their conclusions were: 1) that the tax treatment differs widely between the countries; and 2) that “this topic of research is underdeveloped from a scholarly perspective” (p. 10). Against this background, the aim of this study is to analyze how sport clubs in Sweden can use Swedish taxlegislation to create better economic conditions for their organizations.

    Theoretical Background

    The concept of utility-maximization and the work by Houben et al. (2021) will be used as theoretical points of departure. According to Vamplew (1988), utility-maximization (also known as win-maximization) in a sporting context means that financial profitability is subordinated to the clubs’ interest in achieving sporting success. Consequently, these clubs can well be financially unprofitable and make financial loss in favour of sporting success.

    Research Design, Methodology and Data Analysis

    This study is based on what can be described as legal method (i.e., a form of document analysis). In this research, this means that Swedish tax law, preparatory work, case law and doctrines are analysed. These sets of data will provide knowledge of how tax legislation can be used to to create better economic conditions.

    Results/Findings and Discussion

    Sweden is known for having a high tax burden. The main rule in Swedish tax legislation is that individuals are unlimitedly liable for tax (see SFS 1999:1229). Income that a player receives from a club is charged with municipal tax, which despite its name includes both a municipal tax and a regional tax. In 2023, this tax rate amounts to an average of 32.24 percent (SCB, 2022). Furthermore, if an unlimited taxable person earns more than SEK 554.900 per year before deductions, they also need to pay an additional state income tax corresponding to 20 percent of the partof the taxable earned income that exceeds the strata level. For players with a salary exceeding the strata limit, the taxis approximately 50–55 percent depending on which municipality the player lives in.

    However, there are some tax solutions for sports clubs to attract professional players. Alongside the main rule ofunlimited tax liability, there are two different tax solutions that can be used in Swedish sport. The first was introduced in 1991 and is called the Special income tax for foreign residents, artists, and athletes (A-SINK) (SFS 1991:591). This act stipulates that players who resides outside Sweden can play at a tax rate of 15 percent on their taxable income, but they can only stay a maximum of 183 days during a 12-month period. Bonuses such as a signing bonuscan also be taxed according to A-SINK. The second solution is the so- called “expert tax relief“ (SFS 1999:1229). The aim of this tax relief is to attract foreign citizens carrying out particularly qualified tasks (e.g., researchers), and since 2012 this relief also includes professional athletes (Björkman, 2012). If the expert tax relief applies, players will get a reduced tax corresponding to 25 percent of their earned income. However, the employment and stay must be limited in time (maximum of 5 years).

    Conclusion, Contribution, and Implication

    In general, there are as presented possibilities for tax optimization in Swedish sport. Sport clubs can use A-SINK or the expert tax relief to cost-effectively attract skilled elite players who would otherwise be too expensive. As such, sport clubs can use the tax legislation to become even more “win-maximizers”. However, even if Swedish clubs,especially in SHL and SFL, are using these solutions, they are still having difficulties competing and winning at the highest international level. Additionally, considering that both tax solutions are limited in time, and applies toforeigners only, clubs can have difficulties with their long-term planning if they use these solutions to a high extent. In sum, this study contributes to the limited knowledge on tax legislation in sport in general, and on tax legislation and possibilities for tax optimization in Swedish sport in particular.

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  • 30.
    Broszeit, Charlotte
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing and Tourism Studies.
    Johansson, Olivia
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing and Tourism Studies.
    Just a Drop in the Ocean: A dive tour operator's perspective on contributing factors for environmental change in coastal zones. The case of Moalboal.2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Research question: What do dive tour operators perceive to be contributing factors for environmental change in coastal zones?

    Purpose: The aspiration is that the study will advance the understanding of factors impacting coastal zones in order to support achievements for Agenda 2030, Goal 14, Life Below Water. The purpose of the field study is therefore to investigate what aspects impact coastal zones through the case of the coastal zones in Moalboal. The study’s perspective is from workers within dive tour operations. 

    Method: The study was conducted through a qualitative strategy and an inductive approach. The empirical data was collected through semi-structured interviews with dive tour operators. Additionally, observations were used to add further insight into the phenomenon. 

    Conclusion: This study concluded that dive tour operators have similar perceptions of the impacts on the environment, however, the degree to which each participant mentioned each factor varied. The research resulted in eleven factors that contribute to environmental change in the coastal zones in Moalboal. The conclusion ends by highlighting that environmental change is an important aspect that concerns the dive tour operators.

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  • 31.
    Burch, Isabel
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing and Tourism Studies.
    Lu, Bofei
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing and Tourism Studies.
    Ren, Yihui
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing and Tourism Studies.
    Spotlight on the factors impacting customer satisfaction in offline shopping: A quantitative study2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Customers find great psychological satisfaction and pleasure when shopping. Customer satisfaction is crucial for a business's success, and increasing it will strengthenfinancial performance and competitiveness. Offline shopping still dominates the customersindustry, although customers are increasingly choosing online shopping as a result offast-growing technological developments in society. However, physical experiences shouldnot be left behind due to customer’s satisfaction from the instant gratification they desire.

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explain how customer perceived value, customerexpectations, and touch experience have an impact on customer satisfaction in an offlineshopping context.

    Methodology: This research is conducted through a deductive and quantitative approach,which has an explanatory aim. Three hypotheses have been deducted from theoreticalconcepts found from previous research. The data collection method was collected through aninternet-based, self-completion questionnaire, to see if the hypotheses were supported or not.A total of 105 respondents participated in the study.

    Findings: The findings indicate that customer perceived value H1, which explains a positiveimpact on customer satisfaction in the context of offline shopping, cannot be supported due tostatistical insignificance. Customer expectation, as presented through H2, and touchexperience, as presented through H3, were found to have a statistically significant andpositive impact on customer satisfaction. The conceptual model was revised in this studybased on the new findings, retaining the acceptable assumptions as the new model.

    Conclusion: In offline shopping, the positive impact of customer expectation on customersatisfaction is the most obvious, followed by the touch experience. Customer perceived valuehas no positive impact on customer satisfaction, and the reason for this situation may be thatthe perceived value of customers differs among different consumption levels. 

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  • 32.
    Buter, Anna
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing and Tourism Studies (MTS).
    The Impact of Social Media inTourist Identity Creation: A netnographic study of travel posts on Cyprus2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Two years after the COVID-19 pandemic it appears that the consumer behaviour oftourism is returning to pre-pandemic unsustainable behaviour. Whereas scholarscontinually stress that tourism needs to transform if it is to remain a viable option forfuture generations. Additionally, the rapid innovations of technology in thisdigitalising society are affecting how tourism is managed and experienced, especially,the current rise of visual content. Therefore, this thesis aimed to investigate thedynamic relationship between visual content and the tourist identity to find nudgingareas for social change. A netnographic study was conducted of travel posts onCyprus and the main findings were that the tourist identity is mainly constructedthrough user generated content and official promotional material have little influence.The main content categories belonging to Cyprus’ tourist identity are the beach, wateractivities, historic villages, food, and partying. Indicating that nudging tourists inthese categories will be most effective.

  • 33.
    Carlzén, Jesper
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing and Tourism Studies.
    Thornton Wallén, Oscar
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing and Tourism Studies.
    The effect of Covid-19 on international business negotiations.: A qualitative thesis on international business negotiations.2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis aims to examine how Covid-19 affected international business negotiations. This paper uses empirical data collected from four international companies from different industries. The respondents from the companies have different roles, in this case, procurement managers, sales manager, and marketing manager. The findings show that the Covid-19 pandemic has accelerated digitalization and the adoption of digital tools in international business negotiations. Furthermore, the increased digitalization as a result of Covid-19 normalized the use of digital tools in international business negotiations. Additionally, the findings show that the international business negotiation process is less divided and has a better flow with more frequent interactions as a result of the adoption of digital tools. The findings further show when conducting international business negotiations online the cultural differences are less evident due to the difficulties of body language and cultural customs in an online environment. According to the findings, maintaining international business relationships are now easier with the use of digital tools that allow more frequent meaningful communication. Lastly, the thesis concludes with the theoretical and practical implications as well as suggestions for future research.  

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  • 34.
    Cheer, Joseph M.
    et al.
    Western Sydney University, Australia.
    Hayward, PhilipUniversity of Technology Sydney, Australia.Prince, SoleneLinnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing and Tourism Studies (MTS). Mid-Sweden University, Sweden;European Tourism Research Institute, Sweden.
    Islandscapes and Tourism: An Anthology2023Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The links between islands and tourism, as sights of pleasure is embodied in the touristification of sun, sand and sea. Islandscapes are central to the tourist imaginaries that shape islands as touristified places - curated, designed and commodified for both mass tourism and more niche inclined versions. Yet while islands are parlayed for touristic pleasure seekers, islands are also home to longstanding communities that have variously battled with the tyranny of distance from metropolitan centres, as well as the everyday challenges of climate change effects, and benefitted from their isolation from modern-day pressures. 

    To what extent are islandscapes resilient to rapidly changing utilities, significances and ways of life wrought by tourism expansion? The vulnerability-resilience duality remains firmly entrenched in the discourse on islands where tourism has become prominent. Although tourism provides some resiliency, overall, islandscapes remain subject to externally driven fast and slow change that exercises an overwhelming influence. 

    This anthology of articles previously published in the journal Shima explores emergent themes that describe how island peoples adapt and respond in localised cultural islandscapes as a consequence of tourism expansion. It is aimed at researchers in island studies, tourism, sustainability, human geography, cultural studies, sociology and anthropology. The anthology will also be of interest to those with an abiding interest in the trajectories of islands and their peoples, particularly where tourism has come to shape islandscapes.

  • 35.
    Chen, Zixiong
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing and Tourism Studies.
    Mao, Yidi
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing and Tourism Studies.
    The Effect Of Social Media (Paid, Earned, Owned) On Consumer Green Purchase Behaviour In Chinese Market: A Quantitative Research2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    As people become more aware of environmental protection, green purchasing has gradually become a trend among consumers. Social media, as an emerging marketing approach, has also started to gain more and more companies' attention and application. Therefore, this study will explore the relationship between different types of social media and green purchasing behaviour.

    Purpose

    The aim of this paper is to explain how social media marketing (Owned Media, Earned Media and Paid Media) affects consumer' green purchasing behaviour in Chinese market.

    Methodology

    This study is based on positivism, and the researchers conducted the study through a quantitative research approach by developing a quantifiable online questionnaire and placing it on different social media platforms. The respondents of this study were in the age range of 18 to 39 years old, and they were highly followers of social media. Finally the researchers collected 264 effective questionnaires and entered them into SPSS and analyzed the data through descriptive and multiple regression analyses, KMO tests and Cronbach's Alphas.

    Findings

    The different types of social media marketing (Owned Media, Earned Media, and Paid Media) have a positive impact on Chinese consumers' green purchasing behaviour. 

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  • 36.
    Chwialkowska, Agnieszka
    et al.
    University of West Georgia, USA.
    Bhatti, Waheed Akbar
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing and Tourism Studies (MTS).
    Bujac, Andreea
    University of Southern Denmark, Denmark.
    Abid, Sidra
    Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia.
    An interplay of the consumption values and green behavior in developed markets: A sustainable development viewpoint2024In: Sustainable Development, ISSN 0968-0802, E-ISSN 1099-1719Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Green products result from innovations aimed at designing products that cause less environmental harm, but they often come at a higher cost or are perceived as less effective. Therefore, there is a need to highlight the consumption values that trigger green product purchases. In our study, we conceptualize the consumer values, including social, conditional, and knowledge value, and investigate their effect on the green product purchase behavior among consumers in two developed countries. Our main contribution is that aside from looking at the direct impact of consumption values on purchasing behavior, we examine the mediating role of contextual factors that may strengthen or weaken this relationship. We consider the mediators such as environmental and health concerns, functional value, and social pressures. We compare how the mechanism underlying the interaction between consumption and green choices differs in masculine (USA) and feminine (Finland) countries. Our findings underscore the importance of integrating social and knowledge values into marketing strategies to foster green product adoption. Businesses should leverage advertising themes that resonate with customers' desire for social belonging and self-improvement.

  • 37.
    Chwialkowska, Agnieszka
    et al.
    University of West Georgia, USA.
    Bhatti, Waheed Akbar
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing and Tourism Studies (MTS).
    Hussain, Nazim
    University of Groningen, Netherlands.
    Glowik, Mario
    Berlin School of Economics and Law, Germany.
    Profitable or Sustainable? Contradiction or Necessity in Modern Strategy Development?2024In: Presented at the 2024 American Marketing Association Winter Academic Conference, St. Pete Beach, USA, February 23-25, 2024, 2024Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 38. Cui, Yu Fan
    et al.
    Kalaridi, Maria
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing and Tourism Studies.
    Lita, Andreea
    A mapping of the ethical, cultural and psychological aspects of attitudes towards Cosmetic Surgery Tourism2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This qualitative research maps the attitudes of the cosmetic surgery tourism stakeholders towards the phenomenon from their ethical, cultural and psychological aspects. Utilitarianism, media culture and mental health state that leads to the decision to experience cosmetic tourism, inform the investigation of the aforementioned aspects. There is a pronounced socio-cultural pressure affecting the motive to travel for cosmetic services, combined with the mental health issues ascending largely from culturally prescribed norms. The authors, by utilizing the constructivist genre of grounded theory, established conclusive evidence that a certain amount of emotional well-being does stem from cosmetic surgery, as long as the societal beauty standards are not solely what drove this decision, in the long run. Thus, the postoperative eudaimonia is temporary, and in order to gain physical and psychological benefits from this medical tourism experience in the long term, a positive aging shift in the perception and operations of cosmetic surgery tourism is deemed as necessary, as the findings of this research demonstrate. Finally, future research opportunities should be directed towards the implications of cosmetic surgery tourism on evolution and the establishment of biohacking as a large share of the offered cosmetic tourism services.

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    Cosmetic Surgery Tourism Thesis Kalaridi M
  • 39.
    Cui, Yufan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing and Tourism Studies.
    Nattakrannuwat, Varissara
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing and Tourism Studies.
    Visual Merchandising Approaches: A Comparative Study of High-End and Fast-Fashion Window Dressing Design2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this comparative study, the design elements and visual merchandising approaches employed in window displays by high-end and fast-fashion retailers are investigated. The study utilizes a visual content analysis method with standardized evaluation criteria to analyze the window displays of six high-end and six fast-fashion stores located in Paris. By adopting an analytical framework adapted mainly from Morgan (2015) and Diamond and Diamond (2007), the research aims to uncover shared patterns and distinguishing factors in the approaches of these two sectors. The findings reveal clear differences in purpose, layout, visual weight, focal points, color schemes, and prop usage between highend and fast-fashion retailers. These insights offer valuable practical implications for enhancing the visual appeal of window displays in the highly competitive retail landscape

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  • 40.
    Dadzie, Samuel Bucklock Ato
    et al.
    Ghana Institute of Management and Public Administration, Ghana.
    Owusu, Richard A.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing and Tourism Studies (MTS).
    The influence of small business funding decisions on performance: The moderated mediation role of the corporate governance system2023In: Proceedings of the 65th Annual Meeting of the Academy of International Business: "International Business Resilience under Global Disruptions", Warsaw, Poland, July 6-9, 2023 / [ed] Kazuhiro Asakawa;Tunga Kiyak, 2023, p. 223-223Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The paper investigates the role of corporate governance on the relationship between small businesses financing choice decisions on the business performance.

    Design/methodology/approach: The paper was situated within the theory of the financial growth cycle and adopted survey approach for data collection and analysis done through partial least square structural equation modelling.

    Findings: The study found that the interaction of corporate governance and financing choice decisions strengthen the performance relationship. Further, corporate governance mediates the positive relationship between financing choice decisions and performance. Thus, suggesting that corporate governance can carry the effect of the financing choice decisions to performance.

    Originality: The study contributes to the small business financing choice and performance literature by employing the financial growth cycle theory in explaining the financing choice decisions and in particular the role of corporate governance in the relationship.

  • 41.
    De Schepper, Marisa
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing and Tourism Studies (MTS).
    An Exploratory Case Study of Intersectionality in LGBTQ+ Tourism: Applying Roger's Diffusion of Innovation Theory2022Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    LGBTQ+ tourism is an important segment of the tourism sector. Although the LGBTQ+ community includes a large variety of sexual- and gender-diverse people, the research on LGBTQ+ tourism has mainly taken a homogenous approach with a focus on LGTBQ+ travellers. Consequently, there are several knowledge gaps in LGBTQ+ tourism research, including a lack of focus on diversity and intersectionality, as well as business perspectives and innovation research. Hence, the field lacks focus on the complexity and diversity within the community.

    Concepts like intersectionality offer new research opportunities in the tourism industry and a possibility to rethink tourism from a social sustainability perspective. This research project applies Rogers’ diffusion of innovations theory to an exploratory study of intersectionality in the LGBTQ+ tourism industry. It answers the question 'how do LGBTQ+ tourism businesses account for intersectionality as an innovation in their business practices?’. The data is based on open interviews with representatives of eight LGBTQ+ tourism organisations in variable subsectors and locations that include intersectionality as a core value in their business.

    The results confirm that intersectionality can be considered a radical market innovation in LGTBQ+ tourism. However, there is still a long way to go before intersectionality can become the norm in the industry due to several barriers, including a lack of resources in the sector. Intersectional LGBTQ+ tourism can create positive effects on both the tourism sector and society at large, but more research is necessary to ensure that organisations are fully prepared to include everyone under the rainbow umbrella.

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    Intersectionality in LGBTQ+ Tourism
  • 42.
    Deboris S, Nofriyani Eka
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing and Tourism Studies.
    Pech, Meggane
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing and Tourism Studies.
    Can I count on online reviews?: A qualitative study on customers’ trust of electronic word-of-mouth through online reviews on fast-fashion websites among millennials in France.2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is situated in the research field of electronic commerce, specifically the aspect of fast fashion brands. This has drawn consumer interest because they find struggles when shopping for clothes online due to their inability to try the product before purchasing from sellers, which tends to result in information asymmetry. Therefore, they may be more hesitant to purchase online due to the perceived risk that results in low level of trust while shopping clothes online; therefore, businesses should strive to alleviate their concerns. Previous research has shown that electronic word of mouth (e-WOM) can guide and increase confidence. 

    The purpose of this study is to gain a better understanding of how consumers perceive online reviews as ways of reducing information asymmetry and reduce risk in order to ensure that they will be satisfied with their purchase. Furthermore, many factors identified in previous research that could influence the use of online reviews were identified and analyzed in the context of fast fashion for this study. Therefore, the study discovered several factors that influenced the use of online reviews. 

    This study investigates the role of trust as a mediator between customers' perception of electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) and their subsequent actions. Specifically, the study focuses on the influence of the perceived usefulness of online reviews on customer trust in fast fashion websites. To gain a comprehensive understanding of consumers' opinions on online reviews, a qualitative research approach employing semi-structured interviews was conducted. The interviews provided participants with the opportunity to elaborate on their responses and provide nuanced insights. The findings indicate that fast fashion brands should prioritize the inclusion of online reviews and enhance their mechanisms based on the factors identified in this study. By recognizing the importance of customer trust and addressing the perceived usefulness of online reviews, fast fashion brands can improve their relationship with customers and foster positive consumer actions. This study contributes to the existing literature on eWOM, trust, and online reviews, offering practical implications for fast fashion brands aiming to optimize their online platforms.

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    fulltext
  • 43. Degbey, William
    et al.
    Pelto, Elin
    Öberg, Christina
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing and Tourism Studies (MTS).
    Customers Driving a Firm’s Responsible Innovation for Grand Challenges: A Co-active Issue-Selling Perspective2023In: SCANCOR Weatherhead Alumni Conference, Harvard University, 2023Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 44.
    Degbey, William Y.
    et al.
    Univ Vaasa, Finland.
    Pelto, Elina
    Univ Turku, Finland.
    Öberg, Christina
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing and Tourism Studies (MTS). Ratio Institute, Sweden.
    Carmeli, Abraham
    Tel Aviv Univ, Israel.
    Customers driving a firm's responsible innovation response for grand challenges: A co-active issue-selling perspective2024In: The Journal of product innovation management, ISSN 0737-6782, E-ISSN 1540-5885, Vol. 41, no 2, p. 379-402Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Grand challenges vary across industries and call for firms to craft a responsible innovation response to effectively address them. However, key questions concerning why firms embrace responsible innovation and the process by which they respond to grand challenges have yet to be fully answered. We integrate an issue-selling theoretical lens and the customer role from an innovation perspective to theorize about the different influencing motives that customers exert on their corresponding supplying firm to craft a more responsible innovation response to grand challenges. Based on qualitative data collected in almost a 10-year period from multiple respondents across eight customer firms and two supplying firms, we identify three core motives-regulatory, business opportunity, and socio-environmental motives-that propel customers to influence supplying firms to craft different forms of responsible innovation responses. Our research also reveals three vital socio-human capital pathways-human capital, socio-behavioral, and relationship-which, in turn, foster a co-active engagement in addressing grand challenges innovatively and responsibly. In so doing, this research advances novel theorizing on co-active engagement in responsible innovation where the customer acts as the primary champion and the supplier as the implementer. We discuss the important implications for customers and other stakeholders.

  • 45.
    Delcroix, Malo
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing and Tourism Studies.
    Meyer, Louis
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing and Tourism Studies.
    CSR and the fashion industry, closely linked: CSR in the online fashion industry, opportunities and challenges: The French example2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, CSR has taken on great importance in the life of companies, which are much more aware of the existing social, economic and environmental problems. So, when Ecommerce has taken an important place in the life of different industries, these companies (especially in the world of textiles) have had to adapt and understand how to exist and use CSR to stand out and enter the market.

    The purpose of this thesis is to explore how companies that make online sales of clothing in France can create one or more competitive advantages by using CSR, and analyze the habits and behaviors of French consumers, understand in depth the standards to which French companies face to create a competitive advantage.

    The empirical results were obtained thanks to a quantitative study, and a questionnaire of ten questions that could meet the objective mentioned above. The results obtained were then collected and analyzed by the authors in order to find similarities or differences with the secondary data collected previously.

    The conclusion of this thesis shows that CSR can become a real competitive advantage, and give real opportunities to online fashion companies in France provided that their implementation is done in good conditions. Customers being more and more attentive to ecological, societal and ethical issues, companies are almost obliged to implement sustainable and ethical practices in their practices, from production to distribution in order to develop.

    In summary, the thesis identified consumer resentment towards these CSRs, and the benefits that French online fashion companies can derive from their implementation in the near future.

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  • 46.
    Devine, Åsa
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing and Tourism Studies (MTS).
    Sandell, Michaela
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing and Tourism Studies (MTS).
    Application of the Sustainable Business Model Framework: Evidence from a Multinational Company2023In: European Journal of Sustainable Development, ISSN 2239-5938, E-ISSN 2239-6101, Vol. 12, no 3, article id 119Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    All organizationsare unique, not least considering when and how certain sustainable business practices are initiated and managed. Organizations therefore need an instrument that is possible to adapt to allow for monitoring sustainability progress. In the Sustainable Business Model (SBM) framework, developed by the authors, the sustainability activities of stakeholders connected to the organizationare coded into a matrix formed of sustainability archetypes and value dimensions. The purpose of this paper is to describe how the SBM framework can be adapted and used for depicting sustainability activities and values annually and over time. In the example used to demonstrate the application of the framework an extra archetype had to be added, which resulted in a modification of the model. By analyzing the adapted and applied matrix, not only which archetypes have the most activity can be seen, but also which stakeholders are involved in initiating,delivering,and capturingof value. The contribution of the paper is to show the applicability and versatilityofthe developed SBM frameworkwhen used in practice.

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    fulltext
  • 47.
    Diaz Ruiz, Carlos
    et al.
    Hanken School of Economics, Finland.
    Nilsson, Tomas
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing and Tourism Studies (MTS).
    Disinformation and Echo Chambers: How Disinformation Circulates on Social Media Through Identity-Driven Controversies2023In: Journal of Public Policy & Marketing JPP&M, ISSN 0743-9156, E-ISSN 1547-7207, Vol. 42, no 1, p. 18-35Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates how disinformation circulates on social media as adversarial narratives embedded in identity-driven controversies. Empirically, the article reports on the flat Earth echo chamber on YouTube, a controversial group arguing that the earth is a plane, not a sphere. By analyzing how they weave their arguments, this study demonstrates that disinformation circulates through identity-based grievances. As grudges intensify, back-and-forth argumentation becomes a form of knowing that solidifies viewpoints. Moreover, the argument resists fact-checking because it stokes the contradictions of identity work through grievances (pathos) and group identification (ethos). The conceptual contribution proposes a two-phase framework for how disinformation circulates on social media. The first phase, “seeding,” is when malicious actors strategically insert deceptions by masquerading their legitimacy (e.g., fake news). The second phase, “echoing,” enlists participants to cocreate the contentious narratives that disseminate disinformation. A definition of disinformation is proposed: Disinformation is an adversarial campaign that weaponizes multiple rhetorical strategies and forms of knowing—including not only falsehoods but also truths, half-truths, and value-laden judgments—to exploit and amplify identity-driven controversies. Finally, the paper has implications for policy makers in handling the spread of disinformation on social media.

  • 48.
    Diehm, Raphael
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing and Tourism Studies.
    Siphambili, Ngqabutho
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing and Tourism Studies.
    Internationalisation through business ecosystems: What is the value of ecosystems in launching and growing digital firms in Europe?2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis focus lies on the topic of business ecosystems and their use for digital firms in their internationalisation. The aim is to investigate the value creation and capture process for digital firms through the perspective of business ecosystems. For this endeavour, different concepts such as the born digital theory, key interlinked internationalisation process theories and business ecosystems theory are described throughout the literature review. Other models of previous researchers are used as a foundation to render an own created framework that is more applicable to the scenario and combination of the three aspects this paper investigates. The knowledge gap defined by the authors is about adding new insights on the ecosystem perspective in international businesses by exploring the value creation and capture process of born digitals. Furthermore, it will display the bottlenecks and benefits deriving from a business ecosystem. This leads to the research questions investigating the utilisation of business ecosystems for value creation and capture in internationalisation of digital firms, as well as the bottlenecks and benefits that come with it. For the empirical data collection to receive insights on the research questions and successfully draw conclusions, semi-structured interviews were conducted within the scope of a multiple case study. In addition, secondary data from various authors and experts in the respective research areas were used to bedrock the findings.As the results of the study showed, business ecosystems are greatly appreciated and utilised by digital firms. Moreover, they create value for them and let them strive in many ways, such as focusing on their core business, to succeed and be able to enter new markets. This is only possible with the cooperation of the various actors in the business ecosystem. Nevertheless, there are also severe bottlenecks that have been brought to light that reach beyond what has been present in the literature and considered by other scholars, as well as benefits that keep them competitive. Furthermore, this study provides managerial implications on how to deal with the liability of outsidership and smallness, and for the policy implications, that policymakers should be aware of global and political issues, and their impact on businesses.

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    fulltext
  • 49.
    Dietrichsteiner, Sebastian
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing and Tourism Studies (MTS).
    Hukic, Amir
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing and Tourism Studies (MTS).
    From Minutes to Millions: Explaining the Link Between Time Scarcity and the Addicts of Microtransactions: A Quantitative Study2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Microtransactions is a relatively new concept within the gaming industry witha very large monetary value for businesses. Companies utilize persuasivedesign strategies such as time-based scarcity in order to incentivize players tospend money on microtransactions which in turn creates addiction towardsmicrotransactions. The purpose of this paper is to explain the addictiveinfluence limited time scarcity possesses on purchase intention for randomizedvirtual cosmetics (RVC) or definite virtual cosmetics (DVC), and which ofRVC and DVC carries the stronger influence. To arrive to a fitting conclusion,a quantitative method was utilized in order to collect the data required. Sincethis research is explanatory in nature and built on existing research, a crosssectional approach was utilized. Two hypotheses were tested, and aquestionnaire was conducted. The findings from this study suggest that bothRVC and DVC has an impact on purchase intention, however RVC proves tocarry a stronger influence than DVC. 

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    fulltext
  • 50.
    Dike, Max
    et al.
    De Montfort University, UK.
    Owusu, Richard A.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing and Tourism Studies (MTS).
    China-Africa Business Relationships: A Systematic Literature Review and Future Directions2023In: Proceedings of the 65th Annual Meeting of the Academy of International Business: "International Business Resilience under Global Disruptions", Warsaw, Poland, July 6-9, 2023 / [ed] Kazuhiro Asakawa;Tunga Kiyak, Academy of International Business , 2023, p. 256-256Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chinese-African business relationships has become a major topic of academic relevance recently. This paper presents a systematic review of the relevant extant literature on Chinese-African business relationships published in the period 2000-2019. We use the antecedents-strategies-consequences framework for an enhanced appreciation of the subject. The findings suggest that China’s presence in Africa is economically and politically-motivated, with loans, grants, and infrastructure-for-resources as the main strategies to woo the Africans. China is accused of opportunism in Africa, exploiting the continent’s natural-resource base for its domestic use and seeking political support from African nations to drive its global agenda. The study contributes to an improved understanding of the research and provides bases for future researchers to find gaps and add to the knowledge of the subject. Managers and policy-makers from both sides can also use the findings to enhance their strategies and policies respectively.

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