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  • 1.
    Donner, Erica
    et al.
    Middlesex University, UK.
    Eriksson, Eva
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Revitt, Mike
    Middlesex University, UK.
    Scholes (Lundy), Lian
    Middlesex University, UK.
    Lützhøft, Hans-Christian Holten
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Ledin, Anna
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Presence and fate of priority substances in domestic greywater treatment and reuse systems2010In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 408, no 12, p. 2444-2451Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A wide range of household sources may potentially contribute to contaminant loads in domestic greywater. The ability of greywater treatment systems to act as emission control barriers for household micropollutants, thereby providing environmental benefits in addition to potable water savings, have not been fully explored. This paper investigates the sources, presence and potential fate of a selection of xenobiotic micropollutants in on-site greywater treatment systems. All of the investigated compounds are listed under the European Water Framework Directive as either "Priority Substances" (PS) or "Priority Hazardous Substances" (PHS). Significant knowledge gaps are identified. A wide range of potential treatment trains are available for greywater treatment and reuse but treatment efficiency data for priority substances and other micropollutants is very limited. Geochemical modelling indicates that PS/PHS removal during treatment is likely to be predominantly due to sludge/solid phase adsorption, with only minor contributions to the water phase. Many PS/PHS are resistant to biodegradation and as the majority of automated greywater treatment plants periodically discharge sludge to the municipal sewerage system, greywater treatment is unlikely to act as a comprehensive PS/PHS emission barrier. Hence, it is important to ensure that other source control options (e.g. eco-labeling, substance substitution, and regulatory controls) for household items continue to be pursued, in order that PS/PHS emissions from these sources are effectively reduced and/or phased out as required under the demands of the European Water Framework Directive.

  • 2.
    Eriksson, Eva
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Donner, Erica
    Middlesex University, UK.
    Metals in greywater: Sources, presence and removal efficiencies2009In: Desalination, ISSN 0011-9164, E-ISSN 1873-4464, Vol. 248, no 1-3, p. 271-278Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To date, risk assessment for greywater reuse systems has almost exclusively been focussed on pathogenic microorganisms and conventional water quality parameters. Little is known about the risks from micropollutants present in greywater, nor about the potential for greywater treatment systems to act as barriers for micropollutants. In this paper, the sources, presence and potential fate of cadmium, mercury, lead, and nickel in onsite greywater treatment systems are investigated. Annual metal loads from bathroom greywater are small in comparison with typical municipal wastewater loads but still do not always meet environmental quality standards for surface waters. This study shows that onsite treatment may remove a third to a half of lead, mercury and nickel from bathroom greywater but showed no significant removal of cadmium. Geochemical modelling indicates that metals should not pose a problem for reuse in toilet flushing, irrigation and clothes washing. Rather, the major potential problems associated with the presence of metals in greywater are related to the issue of sludge disposal.

  • 3.
    Eriksson, Eva
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Donner, Erica
    Middlesex University, UK ; University of South Australia, Australia.
    Ledin, Anna
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Presence of selected priority and personal care substances in an onsite bathroom greywater treatment facility2010In: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732, Vol. 62, no 12, p. 2889-2898Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, concerns about climate change and the inefficient use and ongoing pollution of water resources have increased the political motivation to encourage water recycling. This has led to the widespread introduction of water saving measures and to advances in the decentralised treatment and reuse of wastewater. In particular, the treatment and reuse of greywater has received attention, although important information such as greywater substance loadings is still only rarely available. With the implementation of the European Water Framework Directive the focus on controlling and phasing-out Priority/Priority Hazardous Substances (PS/PHS) is growing, and it is vital to know their sources and flows in order to generate sustainable emission control strategies. The main objective of this study was to quantify the concentrations and loads of PS/PHS and personal care substances in bathroom greywater, and to thereby assess the contribution of household activities to municipal wastewater loads for these substances. Nickel and mercury may be sourced substantially from household activities as it shown in the paper that bathroom greywater contributed a significant proportion of the overall load of these substances at the municipal wastewater treatment plant. Organic matter in the influent greywater was found to be principally associated with large particles (>8 µm), however it was the dissolved and small sized particles that were predominantly removed in the treatment.

  • 4.
    Lützhøft, Hans-Christian Holten
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Donner, Erica
    Middlesex University, UK ; University of South Australia, Australia.
    Wickman, Tonie
    City of Stockholm.
    Eriksson, Eva
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Banovec, Primož
    University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Mikkelsen, Peter Steen
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Ledin, Anna
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    A source classification framework supporting pollutant source mapping, pollutant release prediction, transport and load forecasting, and source control planning for urban environments2012In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 1119-1130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    Implementation of current European environmental legislation such as the Water Framework Directive requires access to comprehensive, well-structured pollutant source and release inventories. The aim of this work was to develop a Source Classification Framework (SCF) ideally suited for this purpose.

    Methods

    Existing source classification systems were examined by a multidisciplinary research team, and an optimised SCF was developed. The performance and usability of the SCF were tested using a selection of 25 chemicals listed as priority pollutants in Europe.

    Results

    The SCF is structured in the form of a relational database and incorporates both qualitative and quantitative source classification and release data. The system supports a wide range of pollution monitoring and management applications. The SCF functioned well in the performance test, which also revealed important gaps in priority pollutant release data.

    Conclusions

    The SCF provides a well-structured approach for European pollutant source and release classification and management. With further optimisation and demonstration testing, the SCF has the potential to be fully implemented throughout Europe.

  • 5.
    Mikkelsen, Peter Steen
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Lützhøft, Hans-Christian Holten
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Eriksson, Eva
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Ledin, Anna
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Donner, Erica
    Middlesex University, UK.
    Scholes (Lundy), Lian
    Middlesex University, UK.
    Revitt, Mike
    Middlesex University, UK.
    Seriki, Kemi
    Veolia Research and Innovation, France.
    Castillo, Luis
    Veolia Research and Innovation, France.
    Pettersson, Maria
    Stockholms Stad.
    Wickman, Tonie
    Stockholms Stad.
    Lecloux, André
    Envicat Consulting, Belgium.
    Atanasova, Natasha
    University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Kompare, Boris
    University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Banovec, Primos
    University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Options de contrôle à la source pour la réduction d'émissions de substances prioritaires en zone urbaine: [ Source control options for reducing emissions of priority pollutants ]2009In: Techniques Sciences Methodes, Genie Urbain Genie Rural, ISSN 0299-7258, Vol. 104, no 4, p. 77-87Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of the ScorePP project is to develop comprehensive and appropriate source control strategies that authorities, cities, water utilities and the chemical industry can employ to reduce emissions of priority pollutants (PPs) into the receiving water environment in urban areas. Focus is on the 33 priority and priority hazardous substances and substance groups identified in the European Water Framework Directive. However, this list may be expanded to include emerging pollutants or reduced if appropriate model compounds can be identified. The initial work focuses on 67 substances, including substances identified in the proposed European environmental quality standard (EQS) directive as well as the defined example compounds and several organometallic derivatives. Information on inherent properties, environmental presence and fate, and legislative issues is made available in open database format, and a data management system combining chemical identification (CAS#), economic activity classifications (NACE) and NOSE-P emission source classifications has been developed as a basis for spatial characterisation of PP sources using GIS. Further work will focus on dynamic urban scale source-flux models, identifying emission patterns and optimising monitoring programmes in case studies and multi-criteria comparison of source control versus end-of-pipe mitigation options in relation to their economic, social and environmental impacts. Part of the project consists in acquiring data on PPs in case cities and to redistribute them within the project. This will allow to identify possible PPs sources in case cities, to map sources using GIS, understand the flow of some PPs and propose emission control strategies specific to each case city.

  • 6.
    Revitt, Mike
    et al.
    Middlesex University, UK.
    Eriksson, Eva
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Donner, Erica
    Middlesex University, UK.
    The implications of household greywater treatment and reuse for municipal wastewater flows and micropollutant loads2011In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 45, no 4, p. 1549-1560Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An increasing worldwide interest in water recycling technologies such as greywater treatment and reuse suggests that additional research to elucidate the fate of xenobiotics during such practices would be beneficial. In this paper, scenario analyses supported by empirical data are used for highlighting the potential fate of a election of xenobiotic micropollutants in decentralised greywater treatment systems, and for investigation of the possible implications of greywater recycling for the wider urban water cycle. Potential potable water savings of up to 43% are predicted for greywater recycling based on Danish water use statistics and priority substance monitoring at a greywater treatment plant in Denmark. Adsorption represents an important mechanism for the removal of cadmium, nickel, lead and nonylphenol from influent greywater and therefore the disposal route adopted for the generated sludge can exert a major impact on the overall efficiency and environmental sustainability of greywater treatment. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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