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  • 1.
    Khan, Ershad Ullah
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Mainali, Brijesh
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Martin, Andrew
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Techno-economic analysis of small scale biogas based polygeneration systems: Bangladesh case study2014In: Sustainable Energy Technologies and Assessments, ISSN 2213-1388, E-ISSN 2213-1396, Vol. 7, p. 68-78Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Access to electricity, clean energy, and safe drinking water services are genuine needs of the rural poor for their welfare. These needs can be addressed either individually or in an integrated approach. Biogas digesters are promising in the rural setting and integration of biogas production with power generation and water purification is an innovative concept that could be applied in remote areas of Bangladesh. This paper presents a new concept for integrated biogas based polygeneration and analyzes the techno-economic performance of the scheme for meeting the demand of electricity, cooking energy and safe drinking water of 30 households in a rural village of Bangladesh. The specific technologies chosen for the key energy conversion steps are as follows: plug-flow digester; internal combustion engine; and air-gap membrane distillation. Mass flows and energy balance, levelized cost of producing electricity, cooking gas and safe drinking water as well as the payback period of such a polygeneration system were analyzed. The results indicate that this polygeneration system is much more competitive and promising (in terms of levelized cost) than other available technologies when attempting to solve the energy and arsenic-related problems in Bangladesh. The payback period of such system is between 2.6 and 4 years.

  • 2.
    Mainali, Brijesh
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Emran, Saad Been
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Silveira, Semida
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Greenhouse gas mitigation using poultry litter management techniques in Bangladesh2017In: Energy Journal, ISSN 0195-6574, E-ISSN 1944-9089, Vol. 127, p. 155-166Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Poultry activities have expanded significantly in Bangladesh in recent years. The litter generated from rural poultry farms is often dumped in low ground neighboring areas resulting in greenhouse gas emissions, as well as water and air pollution. This study estimates the GHG emissions of a typical rural layer poultry farm in Bangladesh, and identifies the GHG emissions reduction potential when poultry litter management techniques are used to produce biogas, generating electricity and bio-fertilizer. Life-cycle assessment (LCA) has been used for a systematic evaluation of GHG-emissions considering the local supply chain in a typical rural layer poultry farm. The analysis shows that the GHG-emissions at the poultry farm amount to 1735 KgCO2eq/10000 eggs produced if the litter is untreated. With the installation of an anaerobic digester, the emission intensity could be reduced by 65% if the gas is used to replace LPG for cooking purposes. If 100% digested slurry is utilized as bio-fertilizer, the emissions intensity could be further reduced by 17 times compared to the case without slurry utilization. These results justify the consideration of national programs to improve conditions in poultry farms in Bangladesh. 

  • 3.
    Mainali, Brijesh
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Pachauri, Shonali
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Austria.
    Rao, Narasimha D.
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Austria.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Assessing rural energy sustainability in developing countries2014In: Energy for Sustainable Development, ISSN 0973-0826, Vol. 19, p. 15-28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Providing sustainable energy access is one of the most critical global challenges. This paper introduces a method for evaluating the status and progress of rural household energy sustainability in developing countries using a new composite indicator, the energy sustainability index (ESI). The ESI combines 13 techno-economic, environmental and social indicators of sustainability using principal component analysis (PCA). We apply the ES! to China, India, South Africa, Sri-Lanka, Bangladesh and Ghana between 1990 and 2010. The analysis suggests that South Africa's rural energy sustainability index is highest followed by China, Sri Lanka, India, Bangladesh and Ghana respectively. All the countries' rural energy sustainability has improved relatively over time except Ghana's. Improvements result mainly from increasing rural electricity use and increasing access to clean and efficient cooking fuels.

  • 4.
    Mainali, Brijesh
    et al.
    KTH Royal Instute of Technology.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH Royal Instute of Technology.
    Alternative pathways for providing access to electricity in developing countries2013In: Renewable energy, ISSN 0960-1481, E-ISSN 1879-0682, Vol. 57, p. 299-310Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The discussion on electrification pathways tends to dangle between the merits of centralized on-grid versus decentralized off-grid electrification, and most of the time, both routes are promoted in parallel. However, the basis for choosing pathways has neither been very clear nor rational. This study compares three pathways for rural electrification considering (i) off-grid renewable energy (RE) technologies for individual households (ii) mini grids (with micro hydro and diesel generators) and (iii) grid extension. Different technological pathways are analyzed considering various technical and socio-economic parameters in two country cases: Nepal and Afghanistan. Levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) is taken as the main basis for comparison of the various options, in which both environmental externalities and life cycle costs are considered. The analysis shows that the micro hydro based mini grid technology is the most competitive alternative for electrifying isolated and remote rural areas in both countries. Individual household technology should be promoted only in places with scattered households where there is no possibility of mini grid solution. The choice of technology and the pathway adopted in Nepal seems functional, though some flaws within the pathways need to be addressed. In Afghanistan, the technological pathways for rural electrification are not well-defined and the country lacks a clear cut national policy framework for rural electrification. Here, micro hydro based mini grid would be a more sustainable proposition rather than diesel generators as promoted in the transitional phase. Afghanistan can benefit from lessons learnt in Nepal not least in the formation of markets for renewable technologies.

  • 5.
    Mainali, Brijesh
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Silveira, Semida
    Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Financing off-grid rural electrification: Country case Nepal2011In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 36, no 4, p. 2194-2201Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    More than 61% of the total population of Nepal has no access to electricity. The majority is poor and live in rural areas. In recent years, rural electrification has had high priority in government policies, and micro hydro and solar PV have been the most commonly adopted off-grid technologies. The financial mix in the off-grid rural electrification is generally characterized by subsidy, equity and credit. In this paper, we analyze how rural electrification has been funded and the impact of subsidy policies on the renewable energy market, focusing on the projects implemented under the ‘subsidy policy 2000’. Our study is based on official data obtained from authorities in Nepal and a survey carried out among private supply and installation companies, NGOs and financial institutions. The study shows that awareness levels in adopting RE-technologies and willingness of people to access and pay for electricity have increased significantly. However, there is a huge financial gap between the cost of electrification and the affordability. Bridging this gap is a crucial issue that needs to be addressed for the smooth expansion of rural electrification in the country.

  • 6.
    Mainali, Brijesh
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Silveira, Semida
    Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Renewable Energy Market in Rural Electrification: Country Case Nepal2012In: Energy for Sustainable Development, ISSN 0973-0826, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 168-178Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Markets for Renewable Energy (RE) technologies are emerging in Nepal in connection with rural electrification in the country. Two promising technologies are in evidence – solar home system (SHS) and micro-hydro. The availability of abundant renewable resources, lack of fossil fuels and difficult geographical terrain for grid line extensions contribute to the advantages of RE based decentralized rural electrification in Nepal. The distributional analysis shows increase in extensive growth and decrease in the intensive growth rate of rural electrification thus indicating market expansion with uneven penetration among the rural people. Solar PV technology is still not in the reach of the economic poor. This paper discusses and analyzes RE based rural electrification supply models, economics behind rural electrification, market drivers and market distribution in the rural areas of Nepal. Access to credit and cumbersome subsidy delivery mechanism have been perceived as the major factors affecting the expansion of rural electrification by the stakeholders, requiring innovations in credit and subsidy delivery system so that a larger rural population can have access to electrification.

  • 7.
    Mainali, Brijesh
    et al.
    KTH Royal Instute of Technology.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH Royal Instute of Technology.
    Using a sustainability index to assess energy technologies for rural electrification2015In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 41, p. 1351-1365Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper introduces a method for evaluating the sustainability performance of energy technologies applied in rural electrification, using the multivariate technique called Principal component analysis (PCA).The sustainability is assessed in terms of energy technology sustainability index (ETSI). The ETSI has been used for assessing the sustainability performance of ten different energy systems in the case of India. Since this method is static in nature, the sustainability performance analysis is made for three different years (2005, 2010 and 2015) to capture technological advancements and changes in market conditions for the various technologies over time. The result shows that mature technologies such as biomass gasifiers, biogas and microhydro technologies have relatively better sustainability performance among the options analyzed. There is slight increment in their sustainability performance in the ten year period considered. Emerging technologies such as solar and wind have fairly good improvement in the sustainability performance over the studied time but still have difficulties competing with the mature technologies and conventional technologies without policy support. Analysis has been made with probable, minimum and maximum capital costs, operational and fuel costs to capture uncertainty among the input assumptions, and sensitivity has been reflected in the analysis of energy technology sustainability index (ETSI). This ETSI could help improve energy technology assessments, particularly when it comes to the feasibility of available alternatives.

  • 8.
    Silveira, Semida
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Sweden.
    Mainali, Brijesh
    Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Sweden.
    Khatiwada, Dilip
    Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Sweden.
    Green energy for development in Nepal2011In: The Road to Rio +20: For a development-led green economy, New York and Geneva: United Nations, UNCTAD , 2011, 2, p. 79-83Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In their outline of ongoing rural electrification in Nepal, the three authors note that the country is endowed with large amounts of renewable energy resources but still trapped in imports of fossil fuels, a major drain on the national economy. They argue that the ongoing process of rural electrification is progressing well but unevenly and that challenges lie ahead for reaching the poorest communities. The authors call on government agencies and donors to consider strengthening credit opportunities for renewable energy at the local level. They say that market-based rural electrification mechanisms can function well in least developed countries, subject to understanding the peculiarities of the local demand, anchoring efforts on locally available human and natural resources and creating mechanisms of support to improve affordability.

  • 9.
    Tessema, Zereay
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Mainali, Brijesh
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Mainstreaming and sector-wide approaches to sustainable energy access in Ethiopia2014In: Energy Strategy Reviews, ISSN 2211-467X, E-ISSN 2211-4688, Vol. 2, no 3-4, p. 313-322Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Access to modern and sustainable energy services is a real challenge for countries where the majority of rural population is living in austere poverty. The importance of sustainable energy access is recognized in many developing countries, and there is growing international development assistance in the sector. However the achievements are still meager particularly in Sub Saharan African countries. Most countries often fail to prioritize sustainable energy services at the local level as a means to achieve economic growth at the national level as well as the Millennium Development Goals. This study is focused on Ethiopia and investigates the existing challenges and future prospects of mainstreaming sustainable energy access into the development planning process of the country, and the implications this may have for international donor agencies, national policy makers, private actors and local energy planners. The paper analyzes the institutional framework, sector policy and financial mechanisms in the country. It also discusses operational modalities of state and non-state actors in the process, and extracts policy recommendations.

1 - 9 of 9
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  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
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  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
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  • text
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