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  • 1.
    Burke, Louise M.
    et al.
    Australian Inst Sport, Australia;Australian Catholic Univ, Australia.
    Lundy, Bronwen
    Australian Inst Sport, Australia;Australian Catholic Univ, Australia.
    Fahrenholtz, Ida L.
    Univ Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Melin, Anna K.
    Univ Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Pitfalls of Conducting and Interpreting Estimates of Energy Availability in Free-Living Athletes2018In: International Journal of Sport Nutrition & Exercise Metabolism, ISSN 1526-484X, E-ISSN 1543-2742, Vol. 28, no 4, p. 350-363Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The human body requires energy for numerous functions including, growth, thermogenesis, reproduction, cellular maintenance, and movement. In sports nutrition, energy availability (EA) is defined as the energy available to support these basic physiological functions and good health once the energy cost of exercise is deducted from energy intake (EI), relative to an athlete's fat-free mass (FFM). Low EA provides a unifying theory to link numerous disorders seen in both female and male athletes, described by the syndrome Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport, and related to restricted energy intake, excessive exercise or a combination of both. These outcomes are incurred in different dose-response patterns relative to the reduction in EA below a "healthy" level of similar to 45 kcal.kg FFM-1.day(-1). Although EA estimates are being used to guide and monitor athletic practices, as well as support a diagnosis of Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport, problems associated with the measurement and interpretation of EA in the field should be explored. These include the lack of a universal protocol for the calculation of EA, the resources needed to achieve estimates of each of the components of the equation, and the residual errors in these estimates. The lack of a clear definition of the value for EA that is considered "low" reflects problems around its measurement, as well as differences between individuals and individual components of "normal"/"healthy" function. Finally, further investigation of nutrition and exercise behavior including within-and between-day energy spread and dietary characteristics is warranted since it may directly contribute to low EA or its secondary problems.

  • 2.
    Melin, Anna K.
    et al.
    Univ Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Torstveit, Monica Klungland
    Univ Agder, Norway.
    Burke, Louise
    Australian Inst Sport, Australia.
    Marks, Saul
    Univ Toronto, Canada.
    Sundgot-Borgen, Jorunn
    Norwegian Sch Sport Sci, Norway.
    Disordered Eating and Eating Disorders in Aquatic Sports2014In: International Journal of Sport Nutrition & Exercise Metabolism, ISSN 1526-484X, E-ISSN 1543-2742, Vol. 24, no 4, p. 450-459Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Disordered eating behavior (DE) and eating disorders (EDs) are of great concern because of their associations with physical and mental health risks and, in the case of athletes, impaired performance. The syndrome originally known as the Female Athlete Triad, which focused on the interaction of energy availability, reproductive function, and bone health in female athletes, has recently been expanded to recognize that Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S) has a broader range of negative effects on body systems with functional impairments in both male and female athletes. Athletes in leanness-demanding sports have an increased risk for RED-S and for developing EDs/DE. Special risk factors in aquatic sports related to weight and body composition management include the wearing of skimpy and tight-fitting bathing suits, and in the case of diving and synchronized swimming, the involvement of subjective judgments of performance. The reported prevalence of DE and EDs in athletic populations, including athletes from aquatic sports, ranges from 18 to 45% in female athletes and from 0 to 28% in male athletes. To prevent EDs, aquatic athletes should practice healthy eating behavior at all periods of development pathway, and coaches and members of the athletes' health care team should be able to recognize early symptoms indicating risk for energy deficiency, DE, and EDs. Coaches and leaders must accept that DE/EDs can be a problem in aquatic disciplines and that openness regarding this challenge is important.

  • 3.
    Mountjoy, Margo
    et al.
    McMaster Univ, Canada.
    Sundgot-Borgen, Jorunn
    Norwegian Sch Sport Sci, Norway.
    Burke, Louise
    Australian Inst Sport, Australia;Mary MacKillop Inst Hlth Res, Australia.
    Ackerman, Kathryn E.
    Harvard Med Sch, USA;Boston Childrens Hosp, USA;Massachusetts Gen Hosp, USA.
    Blauwet, Cheri
    Harvard Med Sch, USA;Brigham & Womens Hosp, USA;Spaulding Rehabil Hosp, USA.
    Constantini, Naama
    Hebrew Univ Jerusalem, Israel.
    Lebrun, Constance
    Univ Alberta, Canada.
    Lundy, Bronwen
    Australian Inst Sport, Australia.
    Melin, Anna K.
    Univ Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Meyer, Nanna
    Univ Colorado, USA.
    Sherman, Roberta
    Independent researcher, USA.
    Tenforde, Adam S.
    Harvard Med Sch, USA.
    Torstveit, Monica Klungland
    Univ Agder, Norway.
    Budgett, Richard
    IOC Med & Sci Dept, Switzerland.
    International Olympic Committee (IOC) Consensus Statement on Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S): 2018 Update2018In: International Journal of Sport Nutrition & Exercise Metabolism, ISSN 1526-484X, E-ISSN 1543-2742, Vol. 28, no 4, p. 316-331Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Mountjoy, Margo
    et al.
    McMaster Univ, Canada.
    Sundgot-Borgen, Jorunn Kaiander
    Norwegian Sch Sport Sci, Norway.
    Burke, Louise M.
    Australian Inst Sport, Australia;Mary MacKillop Inst Hlth Res, Australia.
    Ackerman, Kathryn E.
    Boston Childrens Hosp, USA;Harvard Med Sch, USA.
    Blauwet, Cheri
    Harvard Med Sch, USA.
    Constantini, Naama
    Hebrew Univ Jerusalem, Israel.
    Lebrun, Constance
    Univ Alberta, Canada.
    Lundy, Bronwen
    Australian Inst Sport, Australia.
    Melin, Anna K.
    Univ Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Meyer, Nanna L.
    Univ Colorado, USA.
    Sherman, Roberta T.
    Independent researcher, USA.
    Tenforde, Adam S.
    Harvard Med Sch, USA.
    Torstveit, Monica Klungland
    Univ Agder, Norway.
    Budgett, Richard
    IOC Med & Sci Dept, Switzerland.
    IOC consensus statement on relative energy deficiency in sport (RED-S): 2018 update2018In: British Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0306-3674, E-ISSN 1473-0480, Vol. 52, no 11, p. 687-697Article in journal (Refereed)
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