lnu.sePublications
Change search
Refine search result
1 - 8 of 8
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 1.
    Pivnenko, Kostyantyn
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Eriksen, Marie Kampmann
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Martín-Fernández, J. A.
    University of Girona, Spain.
    Eriksson, Eva
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Recycling of plastic waste: Presence of phthalates in plastics from households and industry2016In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 54, p. 44-52Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Plastics recycling has the potential to substitute virgin plastics partially as a source of raw materials in plastic product manufacturing. Plastic as a material may contain a variety of chemicals, some potentially hazardous. Phthalates, for instance, are a group of chemicals produced in large volumes and are commonly used as plasticisers in plastics manufacturing. Potential impacts on human health require restricted use in selected applications and a need for the closer monitoring of potential sources of human exposure. Although the presence of phthalates in a variety of plastics has been recognised, the influence of plastic recycling on phthalate content has been hypothesised but not well documented. In the present work we analysed selected phthalates (DMP, DEP, DPP, DiBP, DBP, BBzP, DEHP, DCHP and DnOP) in samples of waste plastics as well as recycled and virgin plastics. DBP, DiBP and DEHP had the highest frequency of detection in the samples analysed, with 360 μg/g, 460 μg/g and 2700 μg/g as the maximum measured concentrations, respectively. Among other, statistical analysis of the analytical results suggested that phthalates were potentially added in the later stages of plastic product manufacturing (labelling, gluing, etc.) and were not removed following recycling of household waste plastics. Furthermore, DEHP was identified as a potential indicator for phthalate contamination of plastics. Close monitoring of plastics intended for phthalates-sensitive applications is recommended if recycled plastics are to be used as raw material in production.

  • 2.
    Pivnenko, Kostyantyn
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Eriksson, Eva
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Chemicals in material cycles2015In: Proceedings Sardinia 2015: Fifteenth International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium / [ed] S. Margherita di Pula, CISA Publisher , 2015, p. 1-8Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Material recycling has been found beneficial in terms of resource and energy performance and is greatly promoted throughout the world. A variety of chemicals is used inmaterials as additives and data on their presence is sparse. The present work dealt with paper as recyclable material and diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP) as chemical in focus. The results showed variations, between 0.83 and 32 μg/g, in the presence of DiBP in Danish waste paper and board and potential accumulation due to recycling.

  • 3.
    Pivnenko, Kostyantyn
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Eriksson, Eva
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in waste paper from danish household waste2014In: Presented at the 5th International Conference on Engineering for Waste and Biomass Valorisation, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, August 25-28, 2014, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Between 1930 and 1993 Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) were extensively used in a variety of applications throughout the world. The applications were generally divided between closed (e.g. electrical transformers) and open. One of the most important open applications was as a solvent in carbonless copy paper. Although production and use of PCBs is heavily restricted in most of the countries, prolonged use of products containing PCBs as well as their physical-chemical characteristics and persistent nature allowed them to remain in the environment. The aim of the present paper was to provide an estimation of PCB concentrations in the waste paper samples from Danish household waste. Additionally, the goal was to estimate total amount of PCBs present in European paper and discuss implications it may have on paper recycling. Paper samples coming from Danish household waste were sorted into more detailed fractions to provide the composition of the waste flow. PCBs were quantified by means of gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in all of the samples collected. Total concentrations of PCBs in paper and board ranged from 18 to 31 μg/kg. Results extrapolated to the total of European paper show that PCBs in paper represent relatively small amount when compared to other open type applications. Contamination of food with PCBs could potentially be of concern and should be assessed in more details.

  • 4.
    Pivnenko, Kostyantyn
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Eriksson, Eva
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Presence of potentially critical substances in waste paper2013In: Proceedings Sardinia 2013: fourteenth international waste management and landfill symposium, Cagliari, Italy: CISA Publisher , 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper industry accounts for a significant share of the chemicals consumed by the industrial sector. Most of the chemicals used are additives, i.e. chemical substances added during pulp and paper preparation and final product manufacturing (conversion and printing) in order to facilitate the process itself as well as the quality or functionality of the final product. Such additives may be re-introduced to the paper production process once waste paper is recycled, leading to their accumulation and spreading in newly manufactured paper and board products. This study aimed at identification of the critical additives potentially present in paper products and quantification of a selected group of additives (Mineral Oil Hydrocarbons) in waste paper and board source segregated from Danish municipal solid waste.

  • 5.
    Pivnenko, Kostyantyn
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Eriksson, Eva
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Waste paper for recycling: Overview and identification of potentially critical substances2015In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 45, p. 134-142Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Paper product manufacturing involves a variety of chemicals used either directly in paper and pulp production or in the conversion processes (i.e. printing, gluing) that follow. Due to economic and environmental initiatives, paper recycling rates continue to rise. In Europe, recycling has increased by nearly 20% within the last decade or so, reaching a level of almost 72% in 2012. With increasing recycling rates, lower quality paper fractions may be included. This may potentially lead to accumulation or un-intended spreading of chemical substances contained in paper, e.g. by introducing chemicals contained in waste paper into the recycling loop. This study provides an overview of chemicals potentially present in paper and applies a sequential hazard screening procedure based on the intrinsic hazard, physical-chemical and biodegradability characteristics of the substances. Based on the results, 51 substances were identified as potentially critical (selected mineral oils, phthalates, phenols, parabens, as well as other groups of chemicals) in relation to paper recycling. It is recommended that these substances receive more attention in waste paper.

  • 6.
    Pivnenko, Kostyantyn
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Granby, Kit
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Eriksson, Eva
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Recycling of plastic waste: screening for brominated flame retardants (BFRs)2017In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 69, no November, p. 101-109Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Flame retardants are chemicals vital for reducing risks of fire and preventing human casualties and property losses. Due to the abundance, low cost and high performance of bromine, brominated flame retardants (BFRs) have had a significant share of the market for years. Physical stability on the other hand, has resulted in dispersion and accumulation of selected BFRs in the environment and receiving biota. A wide range of plastic products may contain BFRs. This affects the quality of waste plastics as secondary resource: material recycling may potentially reintroduce the BFRs into new plastic product cycles and lead to increased exposure levels, e.g. through use of plastic packaging materials. To provide quantitative and qualitative data on presence of BFRs in plastics, we analysed bromophenols (tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), dibromophenols (2,4- and 2,6-DBP) and 2,4,6-tribromophenol (2,4,6-TBP)), hexabromocyclododecane stereoisomers (α-, β-, and γ-HBCD), as well as selected polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in samples of household waste plastics, virgin and recycled plastics. A considerable number of samples contained BFRs, with highest concentrations associated with acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS, up to 26,000,000 ng TBBPA/g) and polystyrene (PS, up to 330,000 ng ∑HBCD/g). Abundancy in low concentrations of some BFRs in plastic samples suggested either unintended addition in plastic products or degradation of higher molecular weight BFRs. The presence of currently restricted flame retardants (PBDEs and HBCD) identified in the plastic samples illustrates that circular material flows may be contaminated for extended periods. The screening clearly showed a need for improved documentation and monitoring of the presence of BFRs in plastic waste routed to recycling.

  • 7.
    Pivnenko, Kostyantyn
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Olsson, Mikael Emil
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Götze, Ramona
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Eriksson, Eva
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Quantification of chemical contaminants in the paper and board fractions of municipal solid waste2016In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 51, p. 43-54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chemicals are used in materials as additives in order to improve the performance of the material or the production process itself. The presence of these chemicals in recyclable waste materials may potentially affect the recyclability of the materials. The addition of chemicals may vary depending on the production technology or the potential end-use of the material. Paper has been previously shown to potentially contain a large variety of chemicals. Quantitative data on the presence of chemicals in paper are necessary for appropriate waste paper management, including the recycling and re-processing of paper. However, a lack of quantitative data on the presence of chemicals in paper is evident in the literature. The aim of the present work is to quantify the presence of selected chemicals in waste paper derived from households. Samples of paper and board were collected from Danish households, including both residual and source-segregated materials, which were disposed of (e.g., through incineration) and recycled, respectively. The concentration of selected chemicals was quantified for all of the samples. The quantified chemicals included mineral oil hydrocarbons, phthalates, phenols, polychlorinated biphenyls, and selected toxic metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Pb). The results suggest large variations in the concentration of chemicals depending on the waste paper fraction analysed. Research on the fate of chemicals in waste recycling and potential problem mitigation measures should be focused on in further studies.

  • 8.
    Pivnenko, Kostyantyn
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Pedersen, Gitte Alsing
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Eriksson, Eva
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Bisphenol A and its structural analogues in household waste paper2015In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 44, p. 39-47Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an industrial chemical produced in large volumes. Its main use is associated with polycarbonate plastic, epoxy resins and thermal paper. In contrast to other applications, thermal paper contains BPA in its un-reacted form as an additive, which is subjected to migration. Receiving a significant amount of attention from the scientific community and beyond, due to its controversial endocrine-disrupting effects, the industry is attempting to substitute BPA in variety of applications. Alternative phenolic compounds have been proposed for use in thermal paper; however, information to what extent BPA alternatives have been used in paper is sparse. The aim of the present work was to quantify BPA and its alternatives (bisphenol S (BPS), bisphenol E (BPE), bisphenol B (BPB), 4-cumylphenol (HPP) and bisphenol F (BPF)) in waste paper and board from Danish households, thermal paper receipts, non-carbon copy paper and conventional printer paper. BPA was found in all waste paper samples analysed, while BPS was identified in 73% of them. Only BPB was not identified in any of the samples. BPA and BPS were found in the majority of the receipts, which contained no measurable concentrations of the remaining alternatives. Although receipts showed the highest concentrations of BPA and BPS, office paper, flyers and corrugated boxes, together with receipts, represented the major flux of the two compounds in waste paper streams.

1 - 8 of 8
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf