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  • 1.
    Donner, Erica
    et al.
    Middlesex University, UK.
    Eriksson, Eva
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Revitt, Mike
    Middlesex University, UK.
    Scholes (Lundy), Lian
    Middlesex University, UK.
    Lützhøft, Hans-Christian Holten
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Ledin, Anna
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Presence and fate of priority substances in domestic greywater treatment and reuse systems2010In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 408, no 12, p. 2444-2451Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A wide range of household sources may potentially contribute to contaminant loads in domestic greywater. The ability of greywater treatment systems to act as emission control barriers for household micropollutants, thereby providing environmental benefits in addition to potable water savings, have not been fully explored. This paper investigates the sources, presence and potential fate of a selection of xenobiotic micropollutants in on-site greywater treatment systems. All of the investigated compounds are listed under the European Water Framework Directive as either "Priority Substances" (PS) or "Priority Hazardous Substances" (PHS). Significant knowledge gaps are identified. A wide range of potential treatment trains are available for greywater treatment and reuse but treatment efficiency data for priority substances and other micropollutants is very limited. Geochemical modelling indicates that PS/PHS removal during treatment is likely to be predominantly due to sludge/solid phase adsorption, with only minor contributions to the water phase. Many PS/PHS are resistant to biodegradation and as the majority of automated greywater treatment plants periodically discharge sludge to the municipal sewerage system, greywater treatment is unlikely to act as a comprehensive PS/PHS emission barrier. Hence, it is important to ensure that other source control options (e.g. eco-labeling, substance substitution, and regulatory controls) for household items continue to be pursued, in order that PS/PHS emissions from these sources are effectively reduced and/or phased out as required under the demands of the European Water Framework Directive.

  • 2.
    Eriksson, Eva
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Revitt, D. Mike
    Middlesex University, UK.
    Ledin, Anna
    Lund University.
    Lundy, Lian
    Middlesex University, UK.
    Lützhøft, Hans-Christian Holten
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Wickman, Tonie
    City of Stockholm.
    Mikkelsen, Peter Steen
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Water management in cities of the future using emission control strategies for priority hazardous substances2011In: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732, Vol. 64, no 10, p. 2109-2118Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cities of the future face challenges with respect to the quantity and quality of water resources, and multiple managerial options need to be considered in order to safeguard urban surface water quality. In a recently completed project on “Source Control Options for Reducing Emissions of Priority Pollutants” (ScorePP), seven emission control strategies (ECS) have been developed and tested on a semi-hypothetical case city (SHCCA) for selected European priority pollutants (PPs). The SHCCA approach was chosen to facilitate transparency, to mitigate data gaps and to decrease the level of uncertainty in the results. The selected PPs differ in their uses and environmental fate and therefore accumulate in different urban environmental compartment. To achieve the required reduction in PP levels in urban waters the full implementation of existing EU regulation is essential and appropriate combinations of managerial and technological options (source control and treatment) can be highly relevant.

  • 3.
    Eriksson, Eva
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Revitt, Mike
    Middlesex University, UK.
    Lützhøft, Hans-Christian Holten
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Viavattene, Christophe
    Middlesex University, UK.
    Scholes, Lian
    Middlesex University, UK.
    Mikkelsen, Peter Steen
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Emission control strategies for short-chain chloroparaffins in two semi-hypothetical case cities2012In: Urban environment: proceedings of the 10th Urban Environment Symposium / [ed] Sébastien Rauch & Gregory M. Morrison, Springer, 2012, Vol. 19, p. 11p. 213-223Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The short-chain chloroparaffins (SCCP), (C10-13 chloroalkanes) are identified in the European Water Framework Directive, as priority hazardous substances. Within the ScorePP project, the aim is to develop emission control strategies that can be employed to reduce emissions from urban areas into receiving waters. Six different scenarios for mitigating SCCP emissions in two different semi-hypothetical case cities representing eastern inland and northern coastal conditions have been evaluated. The analysis, associated with scenario uncertainty, indicates that the EU legislation, Best Available Technologies (BAT) and stormwater/CSO management were the most favorable in reducing emissions into the environment.

  • 4.
    Lützhøft, Hans-Christian Holten
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Birch, Heidi
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Eriksson, Eva
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Mikkelsen, Peter Steen
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Comparing chemical analysis with literature studies to identify micropollutants to be treated or upstream source controlled in a catchment of Copenhagen (DK)2012In: 6th SETAC World Congress/SETAC Europe 22nd Annual Meeting: abstract book, Berlin: Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry , 2012, p. 287-288Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Lützhøft, Hans-Christian Holten
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Donner, Erica
    Middlesex University, UK ; University of South Australia, Australia.
    Wickman, Tonie
    City of Stockholm.
    Eriksson, Eva
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Banovec, Primož
    University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Mikkelsen, Peter Steen
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Ledin, Anna
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    A source classification framework supporting pollutant source mapping, pollutant release prediction, transport and load forecasting, and source control planning for urban environments2012In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 1119-1130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    Implementation of current European environmental legislation such as the Water Framework Directive requires access to comprehensive, well-structured pollutant source and release inventories. The aim of this work was to develop a Source Classification Framework (SCF) ideally suited for this purpose.

    Methods

    Existing source classification systems were examined by a multidisciplinary research team, and an optimised SCF was developed. The performance and usability of the SCF were tested using a selection of 25 chemicals listed as priority pollutants in Europe.

    Results

    The SCF is structured in the form of a relational database and incorporates both qualitative and quantitative source classification and release data. The system supports a wide range of pollution monitoring and management applications. The SCF functioned well in the performance test, which also revealed important gaps in priority pollutant release data.

    Conclusions

    The SCF provides a well-structured approach for European pollutant source and release classification and management. With further optimisation and demonstration testing, the SCF has the potential to be fully implemented throughout Europe.

  • 6.
    Mikkelsen, Peter Steen
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Lützhøft, Hans-Christian Holten
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Eriksson, Eva
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Ledin, Anna
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Donner, Erica
    Middlesex University, UK.
    Scholes (Lundy), Lian
    Middlesex University, UK.
    Revitt, Mike
    Middlesex University, UK.
    Seriki, Kemi
    Veolia Research and Innovation, France.
    Castillo, Luis
    Veolia Research and Innovation, France.
    Pettersson, Maria
    Stockholms Stad.
    Wickman, Tonie
    Stockholms Stad.
    Lecloux, André
    Envicat Consulting, Belgium.
    Atanasova, Natasha
    University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Kompare, Boris
    University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Banovec, Primos
    University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Options de contrôle à la source pour la réduction d'émissions de substances prioritaires en zone urbaine: [ Source control options for reducing emissions of priority pollutants ]2009In: Techniques Sciences Methodes, Genie Urbain Genie Rural, ISSN 0299-7258, Vol. 104, no 4, p. 77-87Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of the ScorePP project is to develop comprehensive and appropriate source control strategies that authorities, cities, water utilities and the chemical industry can employ to reduce emissions of priority pollutants (PPs) into the receiving water environment in urban areas. Focus is on the 33 priority and priority hazardous substances and substance groups identified in the European Water Framework Directive. However, this list may be expanded to include emerging pollutants or reduced if appropriate model compounds can be identified. The initial work focuses on 67 substances, including substances identified in the proposed European environmental quality standard (EQS) directive as well as the defined example compounds and several organometallic derivatives. Information on inherent properties, environmental presence and fate, and legislative issues is made available in open database format, and a data management system combining chemical identification (CAS#), economic activity classifications (NACE) and NOSE-P emission source classifications has been developed as a basis for spatial characterisation of PP sources using GIS. Further work will focus on dynamic urban scale source-flux models, identifying emission patterns and optimising monitoring programmes in case studies and multi-criteria comparison of source control versus end-of-pipe mitigation options in relation to their economic, social and environmental impacts. Part of the project consists in acquiring data on PPs in case cities and to redistribute them within the project. This will allow to identify possible PPs sources in case cities, to map sources using GIS, understand the flow of some PPs and propose emission control strategies specific to each case city.

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