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  • 1.
    Andersen, Henrik Rasmus
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Lundsbye, Mette
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Wedel, Heidi. V.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Eriksson, Eva
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Ledin, Anna
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Estrogenic personal care products in a greywater reuse system2007In: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732, Vol. 56, no 12, p. 45-49Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The occurrence and fate of parabens in a greywater system was assessed. The potential for removal of residual paraben concentrations in effluent greywater with chlorine dioxide was also investigated. The influent to the greywater plant was characterised by considerable variation, with concentrations from below the detection limit to 40 μg/L and the five commonly used parabens in consumer products were frequently detected. After the biological treatment only two paraben were detected with concentration from 65–120 ng/L. Chlorine dioxide treatment of the biologically treated effluent with dosages down to 0.75 mg/L resulted in more than 97% reduction of all parabens. Formation of the by-product chloroform was insignificant from the chlorine dioxide treatment.

  • 2.
    Eriksson, Eva
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Andersen, Henrik Rasmus
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Ledin, Anna
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Substance flow analysis and source mapping of chemical UV-filters2008In: Water, Air & Soil Pollution: Focus, ISSN 1567-7230, Vol. 8, no 5-6, p. 473-484Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chemical ultraviolet (UV)-filters are used in sunscreens to protect the skin from harmful UV radiation which may otherwise cause sunburns and skin cancer. Commonly used chemical UV-filters are known to cause endocrine disrupting effects in both aquatic and terrestrial animals as well as in human skin cells. Here, source mapping and substance flow analysis were applied to find the sources of six UV-filters (oxybenzone, avobenzone, 4-methylbenzylidene camphor, octyl methoxycinnamate, octyl dimethyl PABA and homosalate) and to identify the most dominant flows of these substances in Denmark. Urban water, composed of wastewater and surface waters, was found to be the primary recipient of UV-filters, whereby wastewater received an estimated 8.5–65 tonnes and surface waters received 7.1–51 tonnes in 2005. In wastewater treatment plants, their sorption onto sludge is perceived to be an important process and presence in effluents can be expected due to a lack of biodegradability. In addition, the use of UV-filters is expected to continue to increase significantly. Not all filters (e.g., octyl dimethyl PABA and homosalate) are used in Denmark. For example, 4-MBC is mainly associated with self-tanning liquids and private import of sunscreens.

  • 3.
    Eriksson, Eva
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Andersen, Henrik Rasmus
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Ledin, Anna
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Substance flow analysis of parabens in Denmark complemented with a survey of presence and frequency in various commodities2008In: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 156, no 1-3, p. 240-259Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Parabens are commonly used as preservatives due to anti-bactericidal and anti-fungicidal properties and they are ubiquitously present in personal care products, pharmaceuticals, food, industrial and domestic commodities. They are suspected of causing endocrine disrupting effects to aquatic organisms and adverse effects in humans and, thus, it is highly relevant to identify and quantify their sources and transportation pathways in the urban environment. Here a substance flow analysis (SFA) was performed in order to map and comprehend the substances’ flow on a national basis. Many household commodities were found to contain parabens; cleaning detergents, slimy toys, and water-based paint. The presence and concentration of parabens are regulated in cosmetics and food. Use of parabens in pharmaceuticals as excipients is documented in Denmark. The import of parabens is increasing; although the number of industrial parabens containing commodities is decreasing and manufacturer reports phase-out of parabens. The vast majority of the paraben containing commodities has a durability of 18–30 months, thus the average lifetime of the paraben stock is perceived to be limited. The inflow was ca. 154 tonnes via pure chemicals and 7.2–73 tonnes via commodities in 2004. This corresponds to an average wastewater concentration of 640–900 μg/L, when excluding discharge to solid waste, soil, biodegradation and metabolism. This is in the same order of magnitudes as can be found in industrial wastewater but higher than that seen in domestic wastewater. The data needed for the SFA is sparse, dispersed, and difficult to access and associated with a great deal of uncertainty.

  • 4.
    Eriksson, Eva
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Andersen, Henrik Rasmus
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Madsen, Toke Sloth
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Ledin, Anna
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Greywater pollution variability and loadings2009In: Ecological Engineering: The Journal of Ecotechnology, ISSN 0925-8574, E-ISSN 1872-6992, Vol. 35, no 5, p. 661-669Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Small on-site greywater treatment and reuse plants are susceptible to high short-term variation in flow and pollutant concentrations. As demonstrated in this study of a bathroom greywater plant in Copenhagen, Denmark, the flow ranges from no-flow periods to high-flow periods reaching 34 l min−1. Concentrations of both macro- and micro-pollutants (organic matter and parabens) were found to range by several orders of magnitude in the influent, based on sampling every 20 min. Paraben degradation was proven to occur in the rotating biological contactor (RBC), while the remnant organic matter in the effluent was proved not to be readily degradable. Ammonium content, presumably from urine contamination, was found to undergo nitrification in the RBC. Mass flow (daily loads) for individual substances was calculated for several pollutants. Macropollutants were found to be generated in low numbers of grams per person per day, whereas the paraben loadings were below 1 mg per person per day. These data are highly relevant for comparing decentralised treatment options with existing end-of-pipe treatments, for feeding into risk assessments and for design purposes.

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