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  • 1.
    Baun, Anders
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Eriksson, Eva
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Ledin, Anna
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Mikkelsen, Peter Steen
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    A methodology for ranking and hazard identification of xenobiotic organic compounds in urban stormwater2006In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 370, no 1, p. 29-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presents a novel methodology (RICH, Ranking and Identification of Chemical Hazards) for ranking and identification ofxenobiotic organic compounds of environmental concern in stormwater discharged to surface water. The RICHmethod is illustrated as afunnel fitted with different filters that sort out problematic and hazardous compounds based on inherent physico-chemical and biologicalproperties. The outcomes of the RICH procedure are separate lists for both water phase and solid phase associated compounds. Theselists comprise: a justified list of compounds which can be disregarded in hazard/risk assessments, a justified list of stormwater prioritypollutants which must be included in hazard/risk assessments, and a list of compounds which may be present in discharged stormwater,but cannot be evaluated due to lack of data. The procedure was applied to 233 xenobiotic organic chemicals (XOCs) of relevance forstormwater. Of these 233 compounds, 121 compounds were found to be priority pollutants with regard to solids phases (i.e. suspendedsolids, soil, or sediments) when stormwater is discharged to surface water and 56 compounds were found to be priority pollutants withregard to the water phase. For 11% of the potential stormwater priority pollutants the screening procedure could not be carried out due tolack of data on basic physico-chemical properties and/or data on bioaccumulation, resistance to biodegradation, and ecotoxicity. Thetiered approach applied in the RICH procedure and the focus on the phases relevant for monitoring or risk assessment in the aquaticenvironment refines the list of “compounds of concern” when compared to the outcome of existing classification schemes. In this paperthe RICH procedure is focused on effects in the aquatic environment exemplified with xenobiotic organic compounds (XOCs) found inurban stormwater, but it may be transferred to other environmental compartments and problems. Thus, the RICH procedure can be usedas a stand-alone tool for selection of potential priority pollutants or it can be integrated in larger priority setting frameworks.

  • 2.
    Eriksson, Eva
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Baun, Anders
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Henze, Mogens
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Ledin, Anna
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Phytotoxicity of grey wastewater evaluated by toxicity tests2006In: Urban Water Journal, ISSN 1573-062X, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 13-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An algal growth inhibition test and a short-term acute assay for willows were used in order to evaluate the phytotoxicity of grey wastewater from different sources. Bathroom grey wastewaters were toxic towards algae (EC10 = 36 – 375 mL/L), whereas kitchen and laundry wastewaters were found to be toxic to both organisms (EC10 = 55 – 198 mL/L). The investigation showed that untreated grey wastewater could pose an environmental hazard if discharged into small-size receiving waters. Discharge to willow evaporation beds is problematic and toxic effects may be encountered, but, compared to direct discharge to surface water, the risks of toxic effects are much less pronounced.

  • 3.
    Eriksson, Eva
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Baun, Anders
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Mikkelsen, Peter Steen
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Ledin, Anna
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Chemical hazard identification and assessment tool for evaluation of stormwater priority pollutants2005In: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732, Vol. 51, no 2, p. 47-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Assessment of chemical hazards is a critical issue, which have to be dealt with when evaluating different strategies for sustainable handling of stormwater. In the present study, a methodology for identifying the most critical and representative chemical pollutants was developed. A list of selected stormwater priority pollutants (SSPP-list) is the out-put from the procedure. Two different strategies for handling of stormwater were considered; discharge into a surface water recipient and infiltration. However, the same methodology can be used for other types of wastewater and other strategies for handling and treatment. A literature survey revealed that at least 656 xenobiotic organic compounds (XOCs) could be present in stormwater. In the next step, 233 XOCs were evaluated with respect to the potential for being hazardous towards either aquatic living organisms or humans, or causing technical or aesthetical problems. 121 XOCs were found have at least one of these negative effects, while 26 XOCs could not be assessed due to the lack of data. The hazard assessment showed that 40 XOCs had a PEC/PNEC ratio above one., e.g. they should be considered as priority pollutants. The final step is the expert judgement, which resulted in a final SSPP-list containing 16 selected priority pollutants.

  • 4.
    Eriksson, Eva
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Baun, Anders
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Mikkelsen, Peter Steen
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Ledin, Anna
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Risk assessment of Xenobiotics in stormwater discharged to Harrestrup Å, Denmark2007In: Desalination, ISSN 0011-9164, E-ISSN 1873-4464, Vol. 215, no 1-3, p. 187-197Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Surface waters are highly manipulated in many cities in Europe, and the flow is largely impacted by discharges of stormwater and combined sewer overflow. Toxicity tests shown adverse effects in some of these recipients due to the presence of xenobiotic organic carbons (XOCs). Harrestrup Å, situated in the City of Copenhagen, is one of these recipients, where biotest using algae showed measurable toxicity in eight samples taken in 2003. Twenty-five different XOCs were quantified in the same samples. The present study aimed at identifying the most relevant XOCs out of these 25 to be selected for further analysis with respect to potential source control options.

    Fourteen XOCs (56%) were identified to constitute a potential hazard based on the RICH evaluation (Ranking and Identification of Chemical Hazards), while 9 XOCs (36%) were found to constitute a hazard towards the aquatic ecosystem based on an environmental-concentration/predicted-no-effect-concentration-quotient. The quantified levels did, however, fulfil the Danish and European surface water quality criteria (QC) and environmental quality standards (ESQ). Thus, although the QC and ESQ are met there is an actual risk due to stormwater-related pollutants. This clearly illustrates that there is a need for monitoring the stormwater quality in order to protect the ecosystems. It also shows that actions are needed to implement source control options and emission barriers.

    Twelve XOCs were selected for further evaluation of possible source control option to be implemented in order to improve the water quality. These are five pesticides (diuron, glyphosate, isoproturon, MCPA, terbutylazine), 4 PAHs (acenaphthene, fluoranthene, fluorene, pyrene), 3 others (LAS, nonylphenol and dinitro-o-cresol).

  • 5.
    Eriksson, Eva
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Baun, Anders
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Scholes, Lian
    Middlesex University, UK.
    Ledin, Anna
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Ahlman, Stefan
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Revitt, Mike
    Middlesex University, UK.
    Noutsopoulos, Constantinos
    National Technical University of Athens, Greece.
    Mikkelsen, Peter Steen
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Selected stormwater priority pollutants: a European perspective2007In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 383, no 1-3, p. 41-51Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The chemical characteristics of stormwater are dependent on the nature of surfaces (roads, roofs etc.) with which it comes into contact during the runoff process as well as natural processes and anthropogenic activities in the catchments. The different types of pollutants may cause problems during utilisation, detention or discharge of stormwater to the environment and may pose specific demands to decentralised treatment. This paper proposes a scientifically justifiable list of selected stormwater priority pollutants (SSPP) to be used, e.g., for evaluation of the chemical risks occurring in different handling strategies. The SSPP-list consists of 25 pollutant parameters including eight of the priority pollutants currently identified in the European Water Framework Directive. It contains general water quality parameters (organic and suspended matter, nutrients and pH); metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Pt and Zn); PAH (naphthalene, pyrene and benzo[a]pyrene); herbicides (pendimethalin, phenmedipham, glyphosate and terbutylazine); and other representative industrially derived compounds (nonylphenol ethoxylates, pentachlorophenol, di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, PCB-28 and methyl tert-butyl ether). Tools for flux modelling, enabling calculation of predicted environmental concentrations (PECs), and for ranking the susceptibility of a pollutant to removal within a range of structural stormwater treatment systems or best management practices (BMPs) have been developed, but further work is required to allow all SSPPs to be addressed in the development of future stormwater pollution control measures. In addition, the identified SSPPs should be considered for inclusion in stormwater related monitoring campaigns.

  • 6.
    Grieger, Khara Deanne
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Fjordbøge, Annika Sidelmann
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Hartmann, Nanna Isabella Bloch
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Eriksson, Eva
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Baun, Anders
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Environmental benefits and risks of zero-valent iron nanoparticles (nZVI) for in situ remediation: risk mitigation or trade-off?2010In: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, ISSN 0169-7722, E-ISSN 1873-6009, Vol. 118, no 3-4, p. 165-183Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of nanoscaled zero-valent iron particles (nZVI) to remediate contaminated soil and groundwater has received increasing amounts of attention within the last decade, primarily due to its potential for broader application, higher reactivity, and cost-effectiveness compared to conventional zero-valent iron applications and other in situ methods. However, the potential environmental risks of nZVI in in situ field scale applications are largely unknown at the present and traditional environmental risk assessment approaches are not yet able to be completed. Therefore, it may not yet be fully clear how to consider the environmental benefits and risks of nZVI for in situapplications. This analysis therefore addresses the challenges of comprehensively considering and weighing the expected environmental benefits and potential risks of this emerging environmentally-beneficial nanotechnology, particularly relevant for environmental engineers, scientists, and decision makers. We find that most of the benefits of using nZVI are based on near-term considerations, and large data gaps currently exist within almost all aspects of environmental exposure and effect assessments. We also find that while a wide range of decision support tools and frameworks alternative to risk assessment are currently available, a thorough evaluation of these should be undertaken in the near future to assess their full relevancy for nZVI at specific sites. Due to the absence of data in environmental risk evaluations, we apply a ‘best’ and ‘worst’ case scenario evaluation as a first step to qualitatively evaluate the current state-of-knowledge regarding the potential environmental risks of nZVI. The result of this preliminary qualitative evaluation indicates that at present, there are no significant grounds on which to form the basis that nZVI currently poses a significant, apparent risk to the environment, although the majority of the most serious criteria (i.e. potential for persistency, bioaccumulation, toxicity) are generally unknown. We recommend that in cases where nZVI may be chosen as the ‘best’ treatment option, short and long-term environmental monitoring is actively employed at these sites. We furthermore recommend the continued development of responsible nZVI innovation and better facilitated information exchange between nZVI developers, nano-risk researchers, remediation industry, and decision makers.

  • 7.
    Maya Altamira, Larisa
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Eriksson, Eva
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Baun, Anders
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Source Analysis and Hazard Screening of Xenobiotic Organic Compounds in Wastewater from Food-Processing Industries2008In: Water, Air & Soil Pollution: Focus, ISSN 1567-7230, Vol. 8, no 5-6, p. 505-517Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we present and apply a methodology for identifying environmentally hazardous compounds in food industry wastewaters (FIW). The methodology comprises a source analysis and a hazard screening of xenobiotic organic compounds based on environmental distribution, persistence, bioaccumulation, and toxicity in aqueous and solid phases. This approach was applied to four selected FIW representing fish, pork meat, and vegetable production. Included in this approach was an analytical–chemical screening of 137 xenobiotic organic compounds showing that 13 compounds and groups of compounds could be detected in the FIW composite samples. The combined source analysis revealed that 161 xenobiotic organic compounds could potentially be present in these four FIW. The main sources were raw materials and their processing, but also packaging and cleaning of the production facility contributed to the total number of compounds potentially present. Using the hazard screening procedure it was found that 29 and 102 compounds should be considered for further hazard assessment in the aqueous and solid phases, respectively. It is important to note that 12% of the 161 compounds could not be evaluated for environmental hazards due to lack of inherent data on degradability, toxicity, and bioaccumulation. Furthermore, for 91% of the compounds no information was found on anaerobic biodegradability. The presented procedure contributes with a systematic source analysis and a ranking of the xenobiotic organic compounds that could cause environmental concern. In this way the procedure can provide guidance to operators and decision makers on handling options for wastewater streams in food processing industries.

  • 8.
    Mikkelsen, Peter Steen
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Eriksson, Eva
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics. Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Baun, Anders
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Ledin, Anna
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Kemiske forureningsstoffer i regnafstrømning fra befæstede overflader2006In: Vand & Jord, ISSN 0908-7761, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 108-112Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [da]

    Regnafstrømning fra befæstede overflader kan indeholde hundredvis af miljøfremmede stoffer. Institut for Miljøteknologi på DTU har derfor udviklet en problemorienteret metode til på en struktureret og gennemskuelig måde at udarbejde fokuserede lister over problematiske stoffer. Metoden kan lette arbejdet med at implementere Vandrammedirektivet.

  • 9.
    Nielsen, Katrine
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Kalmykova, Yuliya
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Strömvall, Ann-Margret
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Baun, Anders
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Eriksson, Eva
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Particle phase distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in stormwater: Using humic acid and iron nano-sized colloids as test particles2015In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 532, p. 103-111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in different particulate fractions in stormwater: Total, Particulate, Filtrated, Colloidal and Dissolved fractions, were examined and compared to synthetic suspensions of humic acid colloids and iron nano-sized particles. The distribution of low-molecular weight PAHs (LMW PAHs), middle-molecular weight PAHs (MMWPAHs) and high-molecularweight PAHs (HMWPAHs) among the fractions was also evaluated. The results from the synthetic suspensions showed that the highest concentrations of the PAHs were found in the Filtrated fractions and, surprisingly, high loads were found in the Dissolved fractions. The PAHs identified in stormwater in the Particulate fractions and Dissolved fractions follow their hydrophobic properties. In most samples N50% of the HMW PAHs were found in the Particulate fractions, while the LMW and MMW PAHs were found to a higher extent in the Filtrated fractions. The highest concentrations of PAHs were present in the stormwater with the highest total suspended solids (TSS); the relative amount of the HMWPAHs was highest in the Particulate fractions (particles N 0.7 μm). The highest concentration of PAHs in the Colloidal fraction was found in the sample with occurrence of small nano-sized particles (b10 nm). The results show the importance of developing technologies that both can manage particulate matter and effectively remove PAHs present in the Colloidal and Dissolved fractions in stormwater.

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